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Legendary History Prior to 1st Century BC
Beli Mawr and Llyr Llediath in Welsh Pedigrees
The Bartrum "Welsh Genealogies"
Bartrum's "Pedigrees of the Welsh Tribal Patriarchs"
A study in charting medieval citations
The Evolution of the "Padriarc Brenin" Pedigree
Generational Gaps and the Welsh Laws
Minimum Age for Welsh Kingship in the Eleventh Century
The Lands of the Silures
Catel Durnluc aka Cadell Ddyrnllwg
Ancient Powys
The Royal Family of Powys
The Royal Family of Gwynedd
The 5 Plebian Tribes of Wales
Maxen Wledig of Welsh Legend
Maxen Wledig and the Welsh Genealogies
Anwn Dynod ap Maxen Wledig
Constans I and his 343 Visit to Britain
Glast and the Glastening
Composite Lives of St Beuno
Rethinking the Gwent Pedigrees
The Father of Tewdrig of Gwent
Another Look at Teithfallt of Gwent
Ynyr Gwent and Caradog Freich Fras
Llowarch ap Bran, Lord of Menai
Rulers of Brycheiniog - The Unanswered Questions
Lluan ferch Brychan
The Herbert Family Pedigree
Edwin of Tegeingl and his Family
Angharad, Heiress of Mostyn
Ithel of Bryn in Powys
Idnerth Benfras of Maesbrook
Henry, the Forgotten Son of Cadwgan ap Bleddyn
The Muddled Pedigree of Sir John Wynn of Gwydir
The Mysterious Peverel Family
The Clan of Tudor Trevor
The Other "Sir Roger of Powys"
Ancestry of Ieuaf ap Adda ap Awr of Trevor
The Retaking of Northeast Wales
Hedd Molwynog or Hedd ap Alunog of Llanfair Talhearn
"Meuter Fawr" son of Hedd ap Alunog
The Medieval "redating" of Braint Hir
Aaron Paen ap Y Paen Hen
Welsh Claims to Ceri after 1179
The Battle of Mynydd Carn
Trahaearn ap Caradog of Arwystli
Cadafael Ynfyd of Cydewain
Maredudd ap Robert, Lord of Cedewain
Cadwgan of Nannau
Maredudd ap Owain, King of Deheubarth
What Really Happened in Deheubarth in 1022?
Two Families headed by a Rhydderch ap Iestyn
The Era of Llewelyn ap Seisyll
Cynfyn ap Gwerystan, the Interim King
The Consorts and Children of Gruffudd ap Llewelyn
The 1039 Battle at Rhyd y Groes
The First Wife of Bleddyn ap Cynfyn
Hywel ap Gronwy of Deheubarth
The Brief Life of Gruffudd ap Maredudd
The Other Gwenwynwyn
Eunydd son of Gwenllian
Sandde Hardd of Mortyn
The Floruit of Einion ap Seisyllt
The Enigmatic Elystan Glodrydd
Cowryd ap Cadfan of Dyffryn Clwyd
Owain ap Cadwgan and Nest ferch Rhys - An Historic Fiction?
The "sons" of Owain ap Cadwgan ap Bleddyn
The Betrayal by Meirion Goch Revisited
Gwyn Ddistain, seneschal for Llewelyn Fawr
The Men of Lleyn - How They Got There
Trahaearn Goch of Lleyn
Einion vs Iestyn ap Gwrgan - The Conquest of Glamorgan
Dafydd Goch ap Dafydd - His Real Ancestry
Thomas ap Rhodri - Father of Owain "Lawgoch"
The "Malpas" Family in Cheshire
Einion ap Celynin of Llwydiarth
Marchweithian, Lord of Is Aled, Rhufoniog
Osbwrn Wyddel of Cors Gedol
Bradwen of Llys Bradwen in Meirionydd
Ednowain ap Bradwen
Sorting out the Gwaithfoeds
Three Men called Iorwerth Goch "ap Maredudd"
The Caradog of Gwynedd With 3 Fathers
Who Was Sir Robert Pounderling?
Eidio Wyllt - What Was His Birthname?
The Legendary Kingdom of Seisyllwg
The Royal Family of Ceredigion
Llewelyn ap Hoedliw, Lord of Is Cerdin
The Ancestry of Owain Glyndwr
Gruffudd ap Rhys, the Homeless Prince
The Children of Lord Rhys
Maredudd Gethin ap Lord Rhys
The 'Next Heir' of Morgan of Caerleon
Pedigree of the ancient Lords of Ial
The Shropshire Walcot Family
Pedigree of "Ednowain Bendew II"
Pedigree of Cynddelw Gam

                          "MEUTER FAWR", SON OF HEDD AP ALUNOG
                                           By Darrell Wolcott
 
          The earliest extant manuscripts which mention the children of Hedd[1] cite "Meudy" as the first of three sons and say his children were the men of Llanfair Talhearn.  This territory in Rhufoniog had been granted to Hedd's ancestor, Tudwal Gloff, after being wounded in the 881 battle to avenge the death of Rhodri Mawr.
 
          Later copies of these pedigrees by 15th and 16th century men have added an "r" to this name, and we find it rendered variously at "Meudyr", "Meuder", "Meutur", "Mettyr", "Muttur" and even "Neutur".  In his modern work[2], Peter Bartrum standardizes his choice to "Meuter" and adds the nickname "Fawr".  Most of the same genealogists who added an "r" to the end of the name also attached either "Vwr" or "Vawr" as a descriptive byname.
 
          Nowhere else in the entire body of early Welsh pedigrees does such a male name occur.  Bartrum dates his birth near 1100, but the earliest descendant which is capable of dating occurs (according to Bartrum) c. 1230.  His chart, which simply accepts the late 15th/early 16th century pedigrees as they read, is chronologically impossible and looks like this:
 
                         1070  Hedd ab Alunog
                                         l
                          1100  Meuter Fawr
                                         l
                            1100  Llewelyn
                                         l
                             1130  Iarddur
                                         l
                            1170  Perfarch                   Iorwerth  1100
                                         l                              l
                             1200  Cowryd                    Dolffyn  1130
                                         l                              l
                    1200  Cynwrig Ddweis Herod*       Llewelyn  1170
                                         l                              l
                            1230  Iorwerth[3]=======Tangwystl  1200
 
            *the nickname means "to select heraldic arms" and may designate this Cynwrig as one involved in the assignment of coats of arms to earlier Welshmen
               
           All the dates shown in this chart are the estimates of Bartrum and even those dates (1) show there are two extra names in the list of Iorwerth's ancestors, and (2) assume Iorwerth married a lady a generation older than himself.  In our own work, which extends the family down to 1400, we place the birth of Iorwerth c. 1215 and that of his wife Tangwystl at c. 1220.  So while we consider the cited marriage to be correct and between spouses near the same age, we still have too many generations forming the link from "Meuter Fawr" to Iorwerth.
 
           When we examine the oldest versions of the name (Meudy), we think it may have been a slightly corrupted rendering of the word "meudwy", with no ending "r".  Thus, a recluse or hermit.  We would suggest it was Llewelyn who earned this epithet, and an original "Llewelyn Meudwy" was recast as two men by the insertion of a superfluous "ap" by copyists.  This emendation would delete one of the extra generations in the pedigree, but a second is required.
 
           There is also no other male name "Perfarch" to be found in the body of early Welsh pedigrees, and we suspect it too was a nickname.  With standard soft mutations common in Welsh, "per" becomes "ber" and means "short" or "brief".  Likewise "farch" becomes "march", a horse.  We suggest that Cowryd was first cited as "Cowryd Perfarch" which epithet denoted he either owned a horse for a very short time, or perhaps acted like a horse briefly.  Thus, when we remove the "ap" between the words, our revised chart of the ancestry of Iorwerth ap Cynwrig looks like this:
 
                         1050  Hedd ap Alunog            Llewelyn[4] 1065
                                         l                              l
                        1085  Llewelyn Meudwy*           Madog  1095
                                         l                              l
                            1115  Iarddur                     Iorwerth  1125
                                         l                              l
                        1150  Cowryd Perfarch             Dolffyn  1155
                                         l                              l
                   1185  Cynwrig Ddewis Herod         Llewelyn  1185
                                         l                              l
                           1215  Iorwerth==========Tangwystl  1220
 
          *the late addition of Fawr, making him the great recluse, is optional; we elect to omit it
 
              All the above birthdate estimates are ours and are both chronologically stable and follow our timeline for later generations of the family.
 
NOTES:
[1]  HLG 10a.  These pedigrees, originally compiled c. 1225, were from manuscripts now lost but copied by various men and later the copies were lost, but not until after later men had made copies of all or parts of them.  Deciphering another's handwriting is not an exact science and parts of the material being copied was likely faded or torn away; for all these reasons, the extant manuscripts are not identical even apart from the tendency of each copyist to substitute his own spelling orthography for proper names
[2] Welsh Genealogies, AD 300-1400 on the chart "Hedd 1" in vol 3
[3] Pen. 127, 63/64 and Pen. 128, 272a cite this marriage
[4] The citations in Note 3 make Tangwystl a daughter of "Llewelyn ap Dolffyn ap Iorwerth ap Llewelyn Aurdorchog" which is about 3 generations deficient.  Dwnn ii, 300 cites a "Llewelyn ap Dolffyn ap Iorwerth ap Madog ap Llewelyn ap Ithel Hen"; we think Ithel Hen was a son of Llewelyn Aurdorchog.