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Legendary History Prior to 1st Century BC
Beli Mawr and Llyr Llediath in Welsh Pedigrees
The Bartrum "Welsh Genealogies"
Bartrum's "Pedigrees of the Welsh Tribal Patriarchs"
A study in charting medieval citations
The Evolution of the "Padriarc Brenin" Pedigree
Generational Gaps and the Welsh Laws
Minimum Age for Welsh Kingship in the Eleventh Century
The Lands of the Silures
Catel Durnluc aka Cadell Ddyrnllwg
Ancient Powys
The Royal Family of Powys
The Royal Family of Gwynedd
The 5 Plebian Tribes of Wales
Maxen Wledig of Welsh Legend
Maxen Wledig and the Welsh Genealogies
Anwn Dynod ap Maxen Wledig
Constans I and his 343 Visit to Britain
Glast and the Glastening
Composite Lives of St Beuno
Rethinking the Gwent Pedigrees
The Father of Tewdrig of Gwent
Another Look at Teithfallt of Gwent
Ynyr Gwent and Caradog Freich Fras
Llowarch ap Bran, Lord of Menai
Rulers of Brycheiniog - The Unanswered Questions
Lluan ferch Brychan
The Herbert Family Pedigree
Edwin of Tegeingl and his Family
Angharad, Heiress of Mostyn
Ithel of Bryn in Powys
Idnerth Benfras of Maesbrook
Henry, the Forgotten Son of Cadwgan ap Bleddyn
The Muddled Pedigree of Sir John Wynn of Gwydir
The Mysterious Peverel Family
The Clan of Tudor Trevor
The Other "Sir Roger of Powys"
Ancestry of Ieuaf ap Adda ap Awr of Trevor
The Retaking of Northeast Wales
Hedd Molwynog or Hedd ap Alunog of Llanfair Talhearn
"Meuter Fawr" son of Hedd ap Alunog
The Medieval "redating" of Braint Hir
Aaron Paen ap Y Paen Hen
Welsh Claims to Ceri after 1179
The Battle of Mynydd Carn
Trahaearn ap Caradog of Arwystli
Cadafael Ynfyd of Cydewain
Maredudd ap Robert, Lord of Cedewain
Cadwgan of Nannau
Maredudd ap Owain, King of Deheubarth
What Really Happened in Deheubarth in 1022?
Two Families headed by a Rhydderch ap Iestyn
The Era of Llewelyn ap Seisyll
Cynfyn ap Gwerystan, the Interim King
The Consorts and Children of Gruffudd ap Llewelyn
The 1039 Battle at Rhyd y Groes
The First Wife of Bleddyn ap Cynfyn
Hywel ap Gronwy of Deheubarth
The Brief Life of Gruffudd ap Maredudd
The Other Gwenwynwyn
Eunydd son of Gwenllian
Sandde Hardd of Mortyn
The Floruit of Einion ap Seisyllt
The Enigmatic Elystan Glodrydd
Cowryd ap Cadfan of Dyffryn Clwyd
Owain ap Cadwgan and Nest ferch Rhys - An Historic Fiction?
The "sons" of Owain ap Cadwgan ap Bleddyn
The Betrayal by Meirion Goch Revisited
Gwyn Ddistain, seneschal for Llewelyn Fawr
The Men of Lleyn - How They Got There
Trahaearn Goch of Lleyn
Einion vs Iestyn ap Gwrgan - The Conquest of Glamorgan
Dafydd Goch ap Dafydd - His Real Ancestry
Thomas ap Rhodri - Father of Owain "Lawgoch"
The "Malpas" Family in Cheshire
Einion ap Celynin of Llwydiarth
Marchweithian, Lord of Is Aled, Rhufoniog
Osbwrn Wyddel of Cors Gedol
Bradwen of Llys Bradwen in Meirionydd
Ednowain ap Bradwen
Sorting out the Gwaithfoeds
Three Men called Iorwerth Goch "ap Maredudd"
The Caradog of Gwynedd With 3 Fathers
Who Was Sir Robert Pounderling?
Eidio Wyllt - What Was His Birthname?
The Legendary Kingdom of Seisyllwg
The Royal Family of Ceredigion
Llewelyn ap Hoedliw, Lord of Is Cerdin
The Ancestry of Owain Glyndwr
Gruffudd ap Rhys, the Homeless Prince
The Children of Lord Rhys
Maredudd Gethin ap Lord Rhys
The 'Next Heir' of Morgan of Caerleon
Pedigree of the ancient Lords of Ial
The Shropshire Walcot Family
Pedigree of "Ednowain Bendew II"
Pedigree of Cynddelw Gam
                              CADAFAEL YNFYD OF CYDEWAIN
                                         By Darrell Wolcott
 
         This 12th century man of Powys appears to occur nowhere except in pedigrees given by the Meyrick family.  Two branches of this family gave pedigrees[1] to Lewis Dwnn the Welsh deputy herald, near the year 1600.  In those charts, Dwnn refers to him as "Lord of Cydewain".  The 1846 editor of Dwnn's manuscripts added a note saying he was "judge of the Court of Powys then held at Castell Dinas Bran".  Neither man adds any descriptive nickname after Cadafael, but the editor's note indicates he believed him to be "y ynad", or "the judge".
 
         J.Y.W. Lloyd does call him Cadfael yr ynad both times he mentioned the man[2], and repeats the claims that he was both Lord of Cydewain and Judge of the Court of Powys.  But the earliest Meyrick family pedigree, that of Edmond Meuric of Ucheldref in Corwen in Ederynion, was penned by Gruffudd Hiraethog in the mid-1500's.[3] He rendered his name as Cadafael Ynfyd or "fool" The word also denotes "mad" as in "insane".  Apparently the later writers misread that as "ynad" and assumed he was a judge.
 
          The only source to attempt to give the ancestry of Cadafael was Llyfr Silin, a manuscript written c. 1645-1728.[4]  That source confused him with Cadfael ap Lludd, the c. 945 ancestor of Marchweithian and Collwyn ap Tangno.  But the marriage matches which the earlier sources cite for him and his descendants point to a birthdate near 1160 for Cadafael, and place him in Montgomeryshire, Powys not in Gwynedd. This late manuscript does, however, give his nickname as Ynfyd, not Ynad.
 
           Cadafael is said to have married Arianwen ferch Iorwerth ap Trahaearn ap Iorwerth ap Cadwgan ap Elystan Glodrydd[5], called an heiress of Cydewain.  But her family held no land there and Cadafael could not have obtained either a manor nor a Lordship in Cydewain from that marriage.  It was among the holdings of Trahaearn ap Caradog of Arwystli who served as king of Powys 1075-1081.  According to the same source, Arianwen's mother was Sian ferch Maredudd ap Bleddyn ap Cynfyn.  Such a lady would occur much too early, so Bartrum excludes this marriage from his charts, together with her alleged mother.  But we suggest that Sian was the daughter of Maredudd ap Bleddyn[6] ap Madog ap Cadwgan of Rhos, with her father being a brother of Cadwgan of Nannau, a family consistently but wrongly attributed to Bleddyn ap Cynfyn.  Such an identification easily fits this marriage into the timeline for a Cadafael Yfnyd born c. 1160:
 
 
             1015  Cadwgan      Elystan Glodrydd  990
                           l                      l
              1045  Madog              Cadwgan  1020
                           l                      l
             1080  Bleddyn             Iorwerth  1060
                           l                      l
             1105  Maredudd         Trahaearn  1090
                           l                      l
                1140  Sian========Iorwerth  1125
                                     l
                       1165  Arianwen===========Cadafael  1160
            
 
          Trahaearn ap Caradog left the Lordship of Arwystli to his eldest son, Owain, and the Lordship of Cydewain to another son, Llywarch. At the death of Llywarch, the Lordship passed to Robert even though he was not the eldest son[7].  That Robert ap Llywarch was succeeded by his eldest son, Maredudd ap Robert, who had no legitimate sons.  The Lordship of Cydewain was confirmed to his nephew, Maredudd ap Robert ap Robert.  The mother of that Maredudd ap Robert ap Robert is cited as "Sioned ferch Samuel ap Cadafael"[8].  However, Robert ap Robert was born c. 1145 and requires a wife born c. 1155/60.  She thus appears to be a sister of the Cadafael at the top of the Meyrick pedigrees, not a granddaughter.  Thus:
 
                                  1100  Cadafael Ynfyd
                                                 l
                                    1130  Samuel
                           ______________l___________
                           l                                        l
              1160  Sioned                        1160  Cadafael==Arianwen
                          =                                        l
            1145  Robert ap Robert             1190  Samuel
                     ap Llywarch
 
          Although the extant Meyrick pedigrees begin with the c. 1160 Cadafael, the misplacement of Sioned which lead us to the above construction also provides an explanation for why Robert ap Llywarch was made Lord of Cydewain when he apparently was not the eldest son.  We suspect the chart of that family looks like this:
 
                             1035  Trahaearn ap Caradog
                                             l
                               1070  Llywarch
                    ________________l______________
                    l                                                l
        1100  First son                             1115  Robert
                                      ___________________l
                                      l                              l
                       1143  Maredudd           1145  Robert==Sioned  1160
                                                                    l
                                                      1175  Maredudd  obit 1244
              
 
           If that "first son" was Cadafael, and he is the one who was called "the fool", we suspect that when Llywarch died c. 1145, King Madog ap Maredudd of Powys would not confirm the Lordship of Cydewain to him (due to his mental disorder) but settled it instead on his younger brother, Robert ap Llywarch.  Thus, we think Cadafael held his lands in Cydewain by inheritance but was never its Lord.  Nor was he a judge at the Court of Powys.  While it is possible that his same-named grandson was a judge, we think this notion only came from those who distorted "ynfyd" into "ynad".
 
         The c. 1190 Samuel ap Cadafael married a lady distantly related to his mother: Eigr ferch Madog ap Maelgwn ap Cadwallon ap Madog ap Idnerth ap Elystan Glodrydd.  From the Ceri branch of that family, Eigr was born c. 1205.  Their son Madog was born c. 1220 and he married Efa ferch Maredudd Fychan ap Rhys ap Maredudd Hen ap Hywel....that Hywel being a base son of King Maredudd ap Bleddyn of Powys.[9]
 
          Lewys Dwnn, ignoring the family timelines, claims that Madog ap Samuel ap Cadafael "sold" the Lordship of Cydewain to Maredudd ap Robert "his nephew".  But not only did Madog not ever hold the Lordship, he could not have been past his mid-20's when Maredudd ap Robert died.  Even his father was younger than Maredudd.  It was Madog who was a great-nephew of Maredudd...his father's aunt Sioned was the mother of Maredudd.  Apparently, Dwnn was conjecturing a reason why the Lordship of Cydewain was historically known to have been held by Maredudd, not someone descended from Cadafael. 
 
          When we look at the pedigree of this Maredudd, a careless genealogist might assume his wife's brother was the father of Madog's wife; both ladies were called "Efa ferch Maredudd Fychan": 
 
                                     1065  Maredudd ap Bleddyn
                                                   l
                                       1100  Hywel
                                                   l
                                   1130  Maredudd Hen
                           _______________l____________
                           l                                           l
       1160  Maredudd Fychan                     1170  Rhys
                           l                                           l
                 1190  Efa                        1205  Maredudd Fychan
                          =                                           l
   1175  Maredudd ap Robert ap Robert         1235  Efa
                                                                      =
                                                     1220  Madog ap Samuel
 
           The actual text of the pedigree which Dwnn cites for the wife of Madog ap Samuel reads "Efa ferch Maredudd Fychan ap Maredudd  ap Rhys ap Maredudd Hen"; if Dwnn thought her father was a sister of Maredudd ap Robert's wife, then he should have said Madog was the nephew of Maredudd ap Robert, not the reverse.  In fact, the men did nothing more than marry ladies who were first-cousins once-removed.  There are several reasons why we delete Maredudd as the father of Maredudd Fychan ap Rhys, all shown by the timeline:
 
          Maredudd Fychan (the father-in-law of Madog ap Samuel) married Lleuci ferch Hywel ap Iorwerth ap Ieuaf ap Ninniaw of Hafod y Wern[10], a lady born c. 1220.  The son of Maredudd Fychan, Hywel, married Mali ferch Gronwy ap Iorwerth ap Hywel ap Moreiddig ap Sandde Hardd[11], a lady born c. 1250.  Lleuci, daughter of Hywel ap Maredudd Fychan, married Madog Goch ap Ieuaf ap Cuhelyn ap Rhun ap Einion Efell[12], a man born c. 1270.  These marriages date Maredudd Fychan c. 1205, Hywel c. 1240 and Lleuci c. 1270 and confirm there was no generation between him and Rhys ap Maredudd Hen.  Rather than weigh in on the dispute, Peter Bartrum simply says Dwnn added "fictitious material" to Cadafael's pedigree, and wholly ignores Rhys ap Maredudd Hen and his descendants from his charts.
 
          To confirm our timeline for the family of Cadafael, we shall continue for several generations after Madog ap Samuel.  His son was Tudor born c. 1250, who married Nest ferch Tudor ap Llewelyn ap Caswallon ap Hywel ap Owain Gwynedd[13], a lady born c. 1265.  Their son, Iorwerth, was born c. 1285 and his son Dafydd c. 1315.  The son of Dafydd was Iorwerth born c. 1345 and he married Annes ferch Robin Fychan.  His family is unknown, but Annes' mother was Lleuci ferch Gruffudd ap Madog ap Iorwerth Goch descended from Cilmin Droed Ddu[14], a lady born c. 1335 and her daughter Anne would follow c. 1355.
 
        The son of this Dafydd ap Iorwerth, born c. 1375, was Einion Sais of Bodorgan, born c. 1405.  Early writers claim he was "usher of the palace of Sheen in the early part of the reign of Henry VI".[15]  This king's first reign was 1422-1461, so an Einion Sais in his 20's is consistent with that claim.  And his nickname is consistent with a Welshman who served an English king.
 
        Heilyn ap Einion Sais, born c. 1435, was the father of Llewelyn, a man born c. 1465 who is said to have fought at Bosworth for Henry Tudor in 1485, and whose son Meurig was captain of the bodyguard of Henry VIII[16].  That king ruled from 1509 to 1547, so a Meurig born c. 1495/1500 would fit that role. 
 
        Accordingly, we date Cadafael Ynfyd to c. 1100, his grandson Cadafael to c. 1160 and his male descendants follow in normal sequence down to 1500.  Our only deviation from the Meyrick pedigrees comes in the 14th century where the cited marriage data identifies two omitted generations.  The usual pedigree of Einion Sais omits one pair of 'Dafydd ap Iorwerth' in his correct ancestry of Einion Sais ap Dafydd ap Iorwerth ap Dafydd ap Iorwerth ap Tudor ap Madog ap Samuel ap Cadafael. 
                             

NOTES:
[1] Dwnn i, 136; Dwnn ii, 126
[2] Powys Fadog vol I, pp 82-83; Powys Fadog vol VI, p 8
[3] Pen. 132, 141
[4] Arch Cam 1891, p 89
[5] see note 1 above
[6] This man also had a son, Iorwerth Goch, ancestor of the Kynaston family.  See "Three Men Called Iorwerth Goch ap Maredudd" elsewhere on this site
[7] Robert was probably the 5th son of Llywarch ap Trahaearn; older brothers included Maredudd. Madog and Iorwerth killed during the lifetime of their father. (ByT 1129 and 1130)
[8] Dwnn i, 136 but attaches her to the c. 1190 Samuel.  She probably was born c. 1160 and was the aunt of that Samuel.
[9] Dwnn i, 136 cites these marriages, but makes Eigr the daughter of Madog ap Cadwallon; that Cadwallon had no son Madog, and we'd insert Maelgwn into her pedigree.  Dwnn's error in the pedigree of Efa is discussed in the text of this paper. Bartrum simply ignores both the marriages and the ladies in his charts and indexes
[10] Harl. 2299 quoted in Powys Fadog vol IV, p 199
[11] ibid
[12] ibid  This marriage is also mentioned in Arch Cam 1881, p 229 which errs in the identity of Madog Goch ap Ieuaf, and in Arch Cam 1885, p 100 which correctly identifies Madog Goch but omits 3 generations in Lleuci's ancestry
[13] Dwnn ii, 127  This is the earliest marriage in the family acknowledged by Bartrum, but he cites this same source where the earlier marriages are found
[14] Both Annes ferch Robin Fychan and her mother, Lleuci ferch Gruffudd, are cited in Dwnn i, 136
[15] Dwnn ii, 138, note
[16] Dictionary of Welsh Biography Down to 1940, p 629