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Legendary History Prior to 1st Century BC
Beli Mawr and Llyr Llediath in Welsh Pedigrees
The Bartrum "Welsh Genealogies"
Bartrum's "Pedigrees of the Welsh Tribal Patriarchs"
A study in charting medieval citations
The Evolution of the "Padriarc Brenin" Pedigree
Generational Gaps and the Welsh Laws
Minimum Age for Welsh Kingship in the Eleventh Century
The Lands of the Silures
Catel Durnluc aka Cadell Ddyrnllwg
Ancient Powys
The Royal Family of Powys
The Royal Family of Gwynedd
The 5 Plebian Tribes of Wales
Maxen Wledig of Welsh Legend
Maxen Wledig and the Welsh Genealogies
Anwn Dynod ap Maxen Wledig
Constans I and his 343 Visit to Britain
Glast and the Glastening
Composite Lives of St Beuno
Rethinking the Gwent Pedigrees
The Father of Tewdrig of Gwent
Another Look at Teithfallt of Gwent
Ynyr Gwent and Caradog Freich Fras
Llowarch ap Bran, Lord of Menai
Rulers of Brycheiniog - The Unanswered Questions
Lluan ferch Brychan
The Herbert Family Pedigree
Edwin of Tegeingl and his Family
Angharad, Heiress of Mostyn
Ithel of Bryn in Powys
Idnerth Benfras of Maesbrook
Henry, the Forgotten Son of Cadwgan ap Bleddyn
The Muddled Pedigree of Sir John Wynn of Gwydir
The Mysterious Peverel Family
The Clan of Tudor Trevor
The Other "Sir Roger of Powys"
Ancestry of Ieuaf ap Adda ap Awr of Trevor
The Retaking of Northeast Wales
Hedd Molwynog or Hedd ap Alunog of Llanfair Talhearn
"Meuter Fawr" son of Hedd ap Alunog
The Medieval "redating" of Braint Hir
Aaron Paen ap Y Paen Hen
Welsh Claims to Ceri after 1179
The Battle of Mynydd Carn
Trahaearn ap Caradog of Arwystli
Cadafael Ynfyd of Cydewain
Maredudd ap Robert, Lord of Cedewain
Cadwgan of Nannau
Maredudd ap Owain, King of Deheubarth
What Really Happened in Deheubarth in 1022?
Two Families headed by a Rhydderch ap Iestyn
The Era of Llewelyn ap Seisyll
Cynfyn ap Gwerystan, the Interim King
The Consorts and Children of Gruffudd ap Llewelyn
The 1039 Battle at Rhyd y Groes
The First Wife of Bleddyn ap Cynfyn
Hywel ap Gronwy of Deheubarth
The Brief Life of Gruffudd ap Maredudd
The Other Gwenwynwyn
Eunydd son of Gwenllian
Sandde Hardd of Mortyn
The Floruit of Einion ap Seisyllt
The Enigmatic Elystan Glodrydd
Cowryd ap Cadfan of Dyffryn Clwyd
Owain ap Cadwgan and Nest ferch Rhys - An Historic Fiction?
The "sons" of Owain ap Cadwgan ap Bleddyn
The Betrayal by Meirion Goch Revisited
Gwyn Ddistain, seneschal for Llewelyn Fawr
The Men of Lleyn - How They Got There
Trahaearn Goch of Lleyn
Einion vs Iestyn ap Gwrgan - The Conquest of Glamorgan
Dafydd Goch ap Dafydd - His Real Ancestry
Thomas ap Rhodri - Father of Owain "Lawgoch"
The "Malpas" Family in Cheshire
Einion ap Celynin of Llwydiarth
Marchweithian, Lord of Is Aled, Rhufoniog
Osbwrn Wyddel of Cors Gedol
Bradwen of Llys Bradwen in Meirionydd
Ednowain ap Bradwen
Sorting out the Gwaithfoeds
Three Men called Iorwerth Goch "ap Maredudd"
The Caradog of Gwynedd With 3 Fathers
Who Was Sir Robert Pounderling?
Eidio Wyllt - What Was His Birthname?
The Legendary Kingdom of Seisyllwg
The Royal Family of Ceredigion
Llewelyn ap Hoedliw, Lord of Is Cerdin
The Ancestry of Owain Glyndwr
Gruffudd ap Rhys, the Homeless Prince
The Children of Lord Rhys
Maredudd Gethin ap Lord Rhys
The 'Next Heir' of Morgan of Caerleon
Pedigree of the ancient Lords of Ial
The Shropshire Walcot Family
Pedigree of "Ednowain Bendew II"
Pedigree of Cynddelw Gam

                                       SANDDE HARDD OF MORTYN
                                              By Darrell Wolcott
 
         
         In a seventeenth century family pedigree, we are told "Sandde Hardd was the eldest son of Caradog or Cadrod Hardd, lord of Tref Bodafon in Mon, by his second wife, Angharad, daughter of Gruffudd ap Carwed of Llwydiarth in Mon.  For his services in battle against the English, the Prince of Powys gave him the townships of Burton and Llai in the parish of Gresford."[1] Burton is the English name for Mortyn; these lands lie in the northwest of Maelor Cymraeg, a cantref of Powys Fadog later renamed Bromfield.  
 
         Clearly the drafter of this pedigree believed Caradog and Cadrod Hardd were alternate names for the same man.  The earliest extant manuscript which mentions either name[2] cites a Sandde ap Caradog Hardd ap Gwrydyr ap Maelog Dda but does not attach the nickname "Hardd" (handsome) to Sandde. The mother of this Sandde is cited as Angharad ferch Brochwel ap Moelyn, and Sandde is assigned brothers named Arthen and Iddon.  It was probably this lady whom the later pedigree assumed to be the first wife of its Caradog/Cadrod Hardd, but claims its Sandde Hardd was a son of a second wife. 
 
          When Lewys Dwnn collected family pedigrees in 1586-1613 for the College of Heralds, the confusion in the origins of this family can be seen in a citation which calls Cadrod Hardd the son of Gwrydr ap Maelog Dda and that he had sons Gwrydr, Ednyfed and Owain by a first wife who is not named, and sons Sandde Hardd, Iddon and Arthen by his second wife.  His second wife is identified as Angharad ferch Brochwel ap Moelwyn "and it is untrue that one was Griffri ap Carwed".[3] 
 
         If this citation had Caradog Hardd substituted for Cadrod Hardd, and the reference to the three sons by a first wife were removed, it would agree exactly with the Hen Lwythau Gwynedd manuscript we referenced in note 2.  The gratuitous comment added by Dwnn indicates that he was aware others were claiming the mother of Sandde Hardd was a different lady.[4]
 
         In his work on this early manuscript[5], the renowed Welsh genealogist, Peter Bartrum, suggests there was both a Caradog Hardd and a Cadrod Hardd who lived about 100 years apart and who both had a son named Sandde.  He accepts the portion of the manuscript which makes Caradog Hardd the son of Gwrydr ap Maelog Dda, and that he had a son named Sandde by Angharad ferch Brochwel ap Moelyn (whom he identifies as Bledrus y Moelyn..the bald..ap Aelan) but rejects the assignment of Arthen and Iddon as brothers of this Sandde.  Bartrum's conclusion is that Cadrod Hardd was probably the Cadrod ap Ieuaf ap Rhys ap Mor ap Dibyder ap Cillin ap Maelog Dda mentioned later in the same manuscript, and that Cadrod probably married a daughter of Gruffudd ap Carwed as his second wife who bore sons Sandde, Arthen and Iddon; and by a first unnamed wife, Cadrod has sons Gwrydr, Ednyfed and Owain.  He dates Sandde ap Caradog Hardd to c.1060 and Sandde ap Cadrod Hardd to c.1170  The result of our own work on this family does not differ in any important respect up to that point.  .
 
          It is Bartrum's view that only Sandde, son of Caradog Hardd, was called Hardd and that nickname should not be applied to Sandde ap Cadrod Hardd.  Although some exceptions are to be seen, the Dwnn pedigrees mostly follow that scheme.[6]  We would agree that only one of these men should be called Hardd; the one who owned the manor called Mortyn.[7]  The oldest of the manuscripts does not speak to that and we shall base our opinion on chronological grounds which appear to show all the pedigrees flawed in one respect or another.
 
          Our opening inquiry concerns when and how a man born in Anglesey acquired the lands in Maelor.  The only extant source which claims the land was a gift from the Prince of Powys is the pedigree written by Jacob Chaloner contained in a book of pedigrees now known as Harleian Ms 1972.  Primarily an heraldic painter, Chaloner also was an avid pedigree collector and lived from 1585 to 1631.  His claim has all the earmarks of a guess; by not naming the Prince of Powys, he doesn't limit himself to any particular date for the grant and since the land (at least when he wrote) was in Maelor, presumably only a Prince of Powys could have granted it.  The part about "services in battle against the English" is likewise little more than an assumption; isn't that what most royal grants to Welshmen were intended to reward?
 
        Careful analysis of the families which are said to descend from Sandde Hardd make it almost certain the acquisition came in the 12th century; thereafter marriages were contracted primarily with those families known to have been seated in Maelor. Only the marriages of Sandde and his son, Moreiddig, were with ladies with Gwynedd roots.  Our analysis also dates the birth of Sandde Hardd to c. 1095; perhaps the reason why Sandde ap Caradog Hardd was not called "Hardd" in the earliest manuscript is that Sandde Hardd was his son...the nickname being added to distinguish one Sandde from the other. 
 
         A close look at the lands called Mortyn and Llei shows they lie north of the Alun River adjacent to townships called Trefalun and Gresford; those neighboring lands were also the subject of a grant "for services in battle" to a man called Eunydd.[8] Virtually all the land immediately south of that river was held by the family of Tudor Trevor.  We suspect the river was the northern border of Maelor when the 12th century dawned, with everything above the Alun (and east of Yr Hob) a part of the Lordship of Chester, that city itself a scant 11 miles up the Dee River.  If so, it may well have been the Earl of Chester who made the gift of land to Sandde Hardd and Eunydd...not a Prince of Powys.  Is there a likely scenerio where this may have occurred?  In fact there is. 
 
         In 1135, Stephen had been coronated King of England in spite of widespread knowledge that Henry I had promised the crown to his daughter Matilda. By 1141, Stephen had created many enemies among his barons.  During the Christmas season of that year, Ranulf the Earl of Chester and his half-brother William the Earl of Lincoln seized the royal castle at Lincoln.  Within days, Stephen arrived with an army and laid seige to the castle now held by men who had claimed to be his friends.  Ranulf slipped away after dark and went in search of assistance.  A number of the adherents of Matilda joined him as well as men whom Stephen had disinherited.  According to the account by William of Malmsbury, he also enlisted "a dreadful and unendurable mass of Welsh".  Only two Welshmen are identified by name, the brothers Maredudd and Cadwaladr...probably the sons of Madog ap Idnerth from Ceri and Maelienydd.  But when the messengers appeared in Gwynedd seeking volunteers for Earl Ranulf's army, perhaps a forty-ish Sandde Hardd and his teenage son signed on.  He may have even agreed to recruit many of his acquaintences, young men seeking adventure and the spoils of war.  We think Eunydd ap Heilyn of the lower Clwyd valley also recruited his friends to join the Earl. 
 
          In any event, the Earl of Chester and his army of Welsh mercenaries and disinherited Englishmen returned to Lincoln and attacked Stephen's army as it continued to lay seige to the castle.  A number of Stephen's barons fled the field as the battle was joined and soon Stephen himself was captured.  We can't know if Sandde Hardd or Eunydd were present nor what role they may have played, but this could explain when and why both men received the lands on the north bank of the Alun River.  Indeed, those lands may have remained a part of England until some later time when it was brought under the lordship of Maelor. 
 
         A major problem with positing Sandde Hardd and his son, Moreiddig, as being of fighting age in 1141 are the medieval pedigrees which name their wives.  Several sources cite the wife of Sandde as Hunydd (or Angharad) ferch Gruffudd ap Cadwgan of Nannau[9].  Many of the same sources add that the mother of that lady was Angharad ferch Dafydd ap Owain Gwynedd.  When we chart those marriages, they point to a Sandde Hardd born c. 1165:
 
                1100  Owain Gwynedd
                                l
                   1130  Dafydd               Cadwgan*  1105 
                                l                        l
                 1160  Angharad========Gruffudd  1145
                                            l
                               1175  Hunydd========Sandde Hardd 1160  
 
       *While there were several men named Cadwgan in this family, we believe the one born c. 1105 was the first to be called "of Nannau" and was the son of Bleddyn ap Madog ap Cadwgan.  His son Madog inherited Nannau and Gruffudd may have been a younger brother of that Madog.
 
          Those sources which name the wife of Moreiddig ap Sandde call her Tangwystl ferch Cadfan ap Cadwaladr[10].  The well-known man of that name was a grandson of King Gruffudd ap Cynan and who occurs in the Brut in 1149 and 1151, probably born c. 1128/1130.  A daughter of his would date from c. 1160 and could not have married the son of either a c. 1065 or c. 1160 Sandde.  However, we think the reason why Cadfan was called "Cadwgan" in the 1149 Brut entry (although cited correctly as Cadfan in 1151) is that there was, in fact, a contemporary Cadwgan ap Cadwaladr in the same expanded family.  When we also notice that the wife named for Cadfan ap Cadwaladr was a lady born near 1200, we should realize that a later man of that name is meant.  All these dates flow naturally once we identify the man at the top as Gruffudd ap Cynan nephew of Iago, not Gruffudd ap Cynan ap Iago[11]:
            
        975  Idwal ap Elisedd           
              _____l_______   
              l                   l
  1005  Iago             Cynan  1014     
              l                   l
  1035  Cynan          Gruffudd  1041     
              l                   l                   
 1070 Gruffudd       Cadwaladr  1078
              l                   l
1101  Cadwaladr     Cadwgan(b)  1115    Rhys  1140
              l                   l                       l
 1127  Cadfan(a)      Cadwaladr  1150      Ithel  1170
                                  l                       l
                      1185 Cadfan(c)=====Lleuci(d) 1200     Sandde  1160
                                              l                                l
                              1210  Tangwystl(e)==========Moreiddig 1195
 
 (a) ABT 3a cites this pedigree while the Brut y Tywysogyon says Cadwaladr gave this son his lands in Ceredigion in 1149, probably because he was a base son and he intended to leave his Gwynedd lands to his legitimate sons.
 (b) The actual 1149 Brut entry calls Cadwaladr's son Cadwgan.  The same event recorded in Annales Cambriae says the son was "Catwan" = Cadfan.  We suggest there actually was a contemporary Cadwgan ap Cadwaladr, but who had nothing to do with Ceredigion, and this fact was the source of the Brut error
 (c) Peniarth Ms 128 cites the marriage of "Cadfan ap Cadwaladr" to this lady
 (d) Lleuci was a sister of Rhiwallon Lloyd ap Ithel who was born c. 1200; the Cadfan ap Cadwaladr she married could not be the same man in note (a) above
 (e) Contrary to those pedigrees who call the lady "ferch Cadfan ap Cadwaladr ap Gruffudd ap Cynan", we supply the probable generations omitted in those citations and date Tangwystl contemporary with a son of the c. 1160 Sandde
                   
          Although these citations indicate a man called Moreiddig ap Sandde was born near 1195, the large number of extant pedigrees of the family at Mortyn and Llei argue for an ancestor of that name born near 1125.  Both Ynyr ap Hywel ap Moreiddig and his brother Iorwerth occur c. 1185/1190 as we shall show presently.  We suggest the following chart as the actual early family:
 
                                  1030  Caradog Hardd
                                                l
                                   1060  Sandde
                                                l
                                     Sandde Hardd  1095
                                                l
                                         Moreiddig  1125
                          _____________ l______
                          l                               l
              1160  Sandde*                    Hywel  1155
                          l                               l                             
            1195  Moreiddig*       sons Ynyr and Iorwerth  1185/1190
        
 
     *The cited marriages are for these two men, not the earlier same-named men.  Although this Sandde could chronologically be the son of Cadrod, he may also have been the youngest son of Moreiddig who inherited his father's manor in Gwyneded while his brother remained in Maelor.  This could explain the marriages with ladies of Gwynedd.  We would attach this Sandde to the descendants of Caradog Hardd for that reason as well as for the recurring naming pattern.
 
          The marriage cited for Hywel ap Moreiddig points to a birthdate for him near 1155[12] although there is a problem in the cited identity of his wife's mother: 
 
 
        1025 Rhys Sais I     Iestyn  1040
                  l                   l                                                
      1060  Elidyr            Caradog  1070        
                  l                   l                                               
      1090  Meilyr            Meurig 1105     Sandde Hardd 1095       
                  l                   l                         l  
    1125  Gruffudd====Angharad(a) 1135   Moreiddig 1125        
                           l                                    l                     
              1160 Gwladys===============Hywel 1155 
 
     (a) Peniarth Ms 128 claims this lady was the daughter of Llewelyn ap Meurig and married a second husband, Iorwerth ap Ieuaf ap Ninniaw.  That man was born c. 1160 and an Angharad ap Llewelyn ap Meurig would fit as his wife.  The pedigree of Meredith of Stantsy[13] says the wife of Gruffudd ap Meilyr was Angharad ferch Meurig as shown in this chart.  It errs, however, in making Gwladys a wife of Ithel ap Eunydd; Peniarth Ms 128 calls that Gwladys "ferch Iorwerth ap Madog ap Elidyr" who was a second cousin to Gwladys ferch Gruffudd ap Meilyr ap Elidyr.  Under "Iestyn 2" of Bartrum's Welsh Genealogies, Angharad ferch Llewelyn ap Meurig is matched with both husbands; one (Iorwerth ap Ieuaf) is contemporary with her, while the other is dated two generations earlier. We think the two men were only 40 years apart but married two different ladies named Angharad, one being the aunt of the other.
          
                                               
               Thus, while we have no cited marriages for the men at the top of the family, those claimed for Hywel and later decendants fit our timeline.  Iorwerth ap Hywel ap Moreidddig was born c. 1185. He was the ancestor of those families seated at Mortyn and Llai in the 14th century, and can be dated by both his marriage and that of his son Gronwy:   
      
                      1025  Bleddyn ap Cynfyn
                                       l
                         1065  Mareddud
                          ________l______________
                          l                                   l
             1095  Gruffudd                 1110 Hywel (base)
                          l                  __________l_________
                          l                  l                              l
             1125  Meurig           Ieuan  1145           Maredudd Hen 1140
                          l                  l                              l
        1160  Rhiryd Foel(a)====Sian  1175              Dafydd  1170
                                     l                                     l
 1185  IORWERTH======Sian(b) 1200                    Rhys  1200
                             l                                             l
               1225  GRONWY===================Gwenllian(c) 1235
 
      (a) The citation in Harliean Ms 2299, which includes this marriage, incorrectly makes him a son of Gruffudd ap Maredudd; refer to the paper "The Brief Life of Gruffudd ap Maredudd" elsewhere on this site
       (b) See Harleian Ms 1977 for this marriage
       (c)  This marriage is cited in Peniarth Ms 287
 
       
          Perhaps the best known of the men cited as "ap Hywel ap Moreiddig ap Sandde Hardd" was Llewelyn ap Ynyr.  Although our charts of those families connected by marriage point to a birthdate for Llewelyn near 1225 and Ynyr to c.1190, perhaps the best way to validate those dates comes from other sources.  The family histories[14] recite the following story:
 
          Llewelyn greatly distinguished himself in battle, and his valor was rewarded by his prince Gruffudd Maelor with the Lordship of Gelligynan in Ial, together with a new coat of arms.  It is said that while Llewelyn was conversing with the prince after the fight, he accidently drew a hand smeared with blood across his sword, leaving four bloodstains on it.  Observing it, the prince conferred upon him new arms being "paly of eight, argent and gules".  This story of the arms should be taken as little more than fable when you consider the resemblance to Gruffudd Maelor's own arms: "paly of eight argent and gules, a lion rampant sable".  Early genealogists dated this battle to 1165 under Gruffudd Maelor ap Madog ap Maredudd, but the grant of land is dated in the year 1256 during the rule of Gruffudd Maelor II.  Some historians, apparently doubtful that Llewelyn could have been born as early as 1165, wrote that it was Ynyr who was the recipient of the honors and not his son[15].  But when we coordinate the event with the date of the grant, the 1165 date becomes immaterial; a battle fought in 1256[16] could easily have involved a Llewelyn ap Ynyr born c.1225, our estimate for him. 
 
           Further evidence of the actual floruit of Ynyr and his son can be deduced from the following:
 
                                             Ynyr
                                               l
                                         Llewelyn
                              __________l___________
                              l                                 l
                       Gruffudd                        Mareddud
                                               __________l___________
                                               l                                 l
                                     Gruffudd Lloyd            Llewelyn Fychan
 
           In the year 1315[17], we find the holders of the ville of Gelligynan in Ial were the brothers Gruffudd and Mareddud ap Llewelyn; Gruffudd Lloyd; and Llewelyn Fychan ap Maredudd ap Llewelyn.  The two latter men were young adults at the time, and their father and uncle were still living.  (Gruffudd ap Llewelyn also had a son, Maredudd of Yr Hob, who may have been yet a child in 1315).  Should we assign a birthdate near 1285/90 for Gruffudd Lloyd and Llewelyn Fychan and about 1255/1260 for the sons of Llewelyn ap Ynyr, those elders would have been about 55/60 years old in 1315.  To move these estimates a generation either forward or back would take us to dates at which it would be very unlikely that both father and son were alive in 1315.  In the present chart, Ynyr would occur c. 1190 and fit chronologically as a brother of Iorwerth ap Hywel ap Mareiddig.  (Appendix A shows the pedigree of the family seated in Bodidris in Ial, whose heiress married a descendant of Llewelyn ap Ynyr and brought that township to the latter family)
 
           A daughter, Marged, is also cited as "ferch Hywel ap Moreiddig ap Sandde Hardd". She married Cynwrig Fychan ap Cynwrig ap Hoedliw[18], which Hoedliw was a brother of Ninniaw ap Cynwrig ap Rhiwallon.  Also a prominent Maelor family, we place the birth of Hoedliw near 1115 and Cynwrig Fychan c. 1180.  We should expect his wife to date from 1190/1195 and believe that is where Marged should be dated.
                   

          An anomaly in the early family concerns a man identified as Ithel ap Hywel ap Moreiddig, and who is cited in a single manuscript[19].  The marriage cited for Ithel, and that claimed for his daughter Dyddgu, date him to c. 1230.  If his father's name was Moreiddig, it would be one born c. 1165 and could be neither the Moreiddig of c. 1125 nor the Moreiddig of c. 1195 previously discussed.  A chart of this citation appears as:
 
    1065  Ithel Felyn
                  l
       1095  Hwfa             Rhys Sais II  1115
                  l                       l
    1125  Y Gwion               Elidyr  1150
                  l                       l
  1160  Cadwgan Goch*      Meilyr  1180          MOREIDDIG  1165
                  l                       l                           l
       1190  Hwfa              Cadwgan  1210         HYWEL  1200
                  l                       l                           l
    1220  Y Gwion     1245 Clementia==========ITHEL  1230
                  l                                    l
 1250  Cadwgan Goch============Dyddgu  1265
 
       *Most authorities claim a single "Cadwgan Goch ap Y Gwion ap Hwfa" and assign him two wives; Dyddgu ferch Ithel of c. 1265 and Nest ferch Hywel ap Ithel ap Madog ap Rhiryd ap Bleddyn ap Cynfyn.  That Nest would date from c. 1175 and married this earlier Cadwgan, the great-grandfather of the later Cadwgan Goch who married Dyddgu.
 
          A second anomaly is seen in the ancestry cited for Ednyfed ap Hywel ap Llewelyn ap Moreiddig, who also would appear to require a Moreiddig born c. 1165:
                                                           Moreiddig  1125
                                                                 l
                                 Dolffyn  1155           Hywel  1155
                                     l                           l
      1165  Moreiddig     Llewelyn  1185        Iorwerth  1185  
                   l                 l                           l
      1200  Llewelyn====Sissely(a)  1215     Gronwy(b)  1215
                            l                                    l
                1230  Hywel                            Dafydd  1250
                            l                                    l                
              1265  Ednyfed==============Gwenllian(c)  1280
 
      (a) Harleian Mss 1972 & 1977 and Peniarth Ms 287 cite this marriage; the lady was sister to Efa who married Eunydd ap Gwrgeneu, for which see "Eunydd Son of Gwenllian" elsewhere on this site.
       (b)  Gronwy and his ancestors have been discussed and dated earlier in this paper.
       (c)  This marriage is cited in Peniarth Mss 128 & 134
 
        
         The Llewelyn ap Moreiddig in the above chart is not the man of that name who had a daughter, Sybil, that married Llewelyn ap Ithel ap Heilyn[20].  Sybil's father was born c. 1160 and was a brother of Hywel ap Moreiddig of c. 1155.  Llewelyn ap Ithel ap Heilyn occurs c. 1195 as the grandson of Heilyn ap Eunydd ap Heilyn ap Eunydd ap Morien.
 
         When we chart the early family to include a third Moreiddig, the timeline appears thus:
 
                            1065   Sandde
                                         l
                           1095  Sandde Hardd
                                         l
                           1125  Moreiddig
               ________________l__________                ?
              l                    l                     l                 l
    1160 Sandde   1155 Hywel     1160  Llewelyn    Moreiddig  1165
              l                    l                     l                 l
 1195 Moreiddig  1185 Iorwerth   1195  Sybil    sons Hywel & Llewelyn
                                                                                   1200
 (Gwynedd line)   (Mortyn line)                        (also of Mortyn)
 
         The family on the far right we have called an anomaly since it chronologically does not fit with either Moreiddig ap Sandde in the main chart.  Two possibilies might be offered:  the c. 1165 Moreiddig was a same-named son of the Moreiddig of c. 1125 and the citations (which say Moreiddig ap Sandde) have omitted one of the two men; or there was another Sandde born c. 1130 who was brother to the first Moreiddig.  The first suggestion seems to have more merit since the other would posit three consecutive generations of men called Sandde.
  
 

         Those writers, including Peter Bartrum, who identify Mortyn with the c. 1060 Sandde ap Caradog Hardd also suggest it was a battle in east Denbighshire around 1094 in which he earned this grant.  Although a record exists in the Brut of war between the Prince of Powys, Cadwgan ap Bleddyn, and "the French" in 1094, that battle occurred in Gwynedd and not Denbighshire.  We suspect those writers were simply searching for a likely engagement that occurred when their Sandde was of prime fighting age.  There is, however, evidence that Caradog Hardd was an ally of Bleddyn ap Cynfyn when the latter ruled Gwynedd from 1063 to 1069.  The following chart shows that relationship: 
 
                                          980  Bledrus y Moelyn
                                                          l
                                            1010  Brochwel
                                      ____________l_________
                                      l                                 l             1025
1030  Caradog Hardd==Angharad 1040       1040  daughter==Bleddyn
                             l                                                  l
                1060  Sandde*                               1060  Iorwerth*
 
          *Actual birthdates are not recorded, but our estimates only indicate the two sons were likely born within 5 years of 1060 and not necessarily both in the same year
 
         While the early pedigrees[21] attest that both Caradog Hardd and Bleddyn ap Cynfyn had sons by a daughter of Brochwel, it is not known if the ladies were sisters or if it were a single lady.  Sandde and Iorwerth were at least maternal first-cousins and might have been half-brothers.  It was not uncommon in that society for an unmarried daughter of a prominent nobleman to bear the children of other nobles without marrying them.[22]  The pedigrees merely identify the mother and father; the assumption those parents were married is mere speculation.  Although interesting, this connection between the two families does not associate Sandde ap Caradog Hardd with Powys or Mortyn; all those shown in the chart resided in Anglesey at the time.
 
      
 
NOTES:
[1] Pedigree of Plas yn Horslli from Archaeologia Cambrensis, 1876, pp 20
[2] Hen Lwythau Gwynedd a'r Mars, 1c and 1d from Peter Bartrum's "Early Welsh Genealogical Tracts", Cardiff, 1966
[3] Dwnn ii, 264 
[4] The comment reads "Ail wraig Cadrod oedd Angh'd v Brochwel ab Moelwyn yr hwn a elwyd Grifri ab Carwed"  Certainly "ail wraig" was intended to mean "second wife" but Bartrum's analysis (which contains no translation of the Welsh phrase which follows the word "Moelwyn") took it to be incorrectly saying that Brochwel ab Moelwyn was also called Grifri ab Carwed.  Our translation yields a much different statement.
[5] National Library of Wales Journal, vol xii, pp 201-235
[6] ibid Note 5 pp 224 lists several instances; only Dwnn ii, 76 and 264 add Hardd to Sandde ap Cadrod Hardd. But others of those Dwnn citations contain obvious omissions and cannot be considered of sufficient weight to settle the matter. The older manuscript, HLG 1, does not mention a Sandde ap Cadrod; it does mention Caradog Hardd, Sandee his son, and a later Cadrod but neither of the latter men are called "Hardd".
[7] Dwnn i, 325 and Dwnn ii, 318 include the connection to Mortyn, while several other citations call Moreiddig a son of Sandde Hardd without naming his lands
[8] Refer to the paper "Eunydd Son of Gwenllian" elsewhere on this site
[9] These include Harleian Ms 1977 and Peniarth Ms 287
[10] Harleian Mss 1972 and 1977; Peniarth Ms 287
[11] See the paper "Gruffudd ap Cynan - A New Perspective" elsewhere on this site
[12] Peniarth Ms 287; Harleian Ms 1977 
[13] The pedigree was partially reproduced in Archaeologia Cambrensis, 1932, pp 242
[14] Condensed from the accounts in Sir Bernard Burke's "General Armory", 1989 edition, pp 613 and Archaeologia Cambrensis, 1859, pp 202/203
[15] J.Y.W. Lloyd's "History of Powys Fadog", 1885, vol v, pp 130
[16] Brut y Tywysogyon records an action where Llewelyn the Last clashed in the Perfeddwlad with the retainers of young Edward I and drove them out
[17] T.P. Ellis' "The First Extent of Bromfield and Yale AD 1315", 1924, London, pp 81
[18] Peniarth Ms 128
[19] Peniarth Ms 128
[20] Harleian Ms 1972
[21] HLG 1d and ABT 8c
[22] Many instances in early tax rolls can be seen of a render due from a man "whenever their daughters are married or led astray by different men"; see the source in note 17
 
                              

APPENDIX A - Bodidris family in Ial
 
                             1045  Ednowain Bendew
                                              l
                                 1080  Madog
                                              l
                                 1110  Iorwerth
                                              l
                                  1140  Rhiryd
                                              l
                                  1175  Einion
                                              l
1195    Ynyr                  1205  Madog
            l                                 l
1225  Llewelyn              1235 Maredudd
            l                      _______l_________
            l                      l                         l
1255  Maredudd          Ieuaf  1270         Llewelyn 1265
            l                      l                         l
1285 Gruffudd=====Tangwystl 1300       Llewelyn  1295
         Lloyd      l                                      l
         1315 Llewelyn================Lleuci  1325 
 
       The Ednowain Bendew at the top of the family seated in Bodidris in 1315 is NOT the man of that name who was a son of Neiniad ap Gwaethfoed born c. 1020.  In fact, we suspect the ancestor of this family was deliberately mis-identified and was actually the son-in-law of that Ednowain: Owain ap Edwin. A future paper will explore this family in depth. 
 
       The pedigree of Tangwystl ferch Ieuaf is found in Arch. Cam. 1875, pp 41 but omits Madog ap Iorwerth. (It should be noted that most of the medieval pedigrees incorrectly assign her marriage to Gruffudd Lloyd ap Llewelyn ap Ynyr; we think only the son of Maredudd ap Llewelyn was called Gruffudd Lloyd...Gruffudd ap Llewelyn is named in the 1315 Extent of Yale and Bromfield without the "Lloyd" nickname attached.) The pedigree of Lleuci ferch Llewelyn is from Arch. Cam. 1889, pp 247/248 which stops with Maredudd ap Madog.  The dates assigned are consistent with marriages cited by various sources for men earlier than Madog ap Rhiryd.
 
       Gruffudd Lloyd and his father, Maredudd, are named among the holders of Gelligynan in Ial in 1315.  In that same year, Gruffudd Lloyd and Llewelyn ap Llewelyn ap Maredudd held Bodidris in Ial; presumably the former obtained his share from his wife.  According to the pedigrees cited above, a marriage between the children of those two men brought the whole of Bodidris to the family descended from Llewelyn ap Ynyr and thus from Sandde Hardd.
 
       Since the first 5 generations of the 1315 Bodidris family are known to have been seated in Tegeingl and not Ial, one might conjecture that Maredudd ap Madog of that line obtained Bodidris at the same time and in the same manner in which Llewelyn ap Ynyr obtained Gelligynan: through military service for Gruffudd Maelor II, Prince of Powys.