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Legendary History Prior to 1st Century BC
Beli Mawr and Llyr Llediath in Welsh Pedigrees
The Bartrum "Welsh Genealogies"
Bartrum's "Pedigrees of the Welsh Tribal Patriarchs"
A study in charting medieval citations
The Evolution of the "Padriarc Brenin" Pedigree
Generational Gaps and the Welsh Laws
Minimum Age for Welsh Kingship in the Eleventh Century
The Lands of the Silures
Catel Durnluc aka Cadell Ddyrnllwg
Ancient Powys
The Royal Family of Powys
The Royal Family of Gwynedd
The 5 Plebian Tribes of Wales
Maxen Wledig of Welsh Legend
Maxen Wledig and the Welsh Genealogies
Anwn Dynod ap Maxen Wledig
Constans I and his 343 Visit to Britain
Glast and the Glastening
Composite Lives of St Beuno
Rethinking the Gwent Pedigrees
The Father of Tewdrig of Gwent
Another Look at Teithfallt of Gwent
Ynyr Gwent and Caradog Freich Fras
Llowarch ap Bran, Lord of Menai
Rulers of Brycheiniog - The Unanswered Questions
Lluan ferch Brychan
The Herbert Family Pedigree
Edwin of Tegeingl and his Family
Angharad, Heiress of Mostyn
Ithel of Bryn in Powys
Idnerth Benfras of Maesbrook
Henry, the Forgotten Son of Cadwgan ap Bleddyn
The Muddled Pedigree of Sir John Wynn of Gwydir
The Mysterious Peverel Family
The Clan of Tudor Trevor
The Other "Sir Roger of Powys"
Ancestry of Ieuaf ap Adda ap Awr of Trevor
The Retaking of Northeast Wales
Hedd Molwynog or Hedd ap Alunog of Llanfair Talhearn
"Meuter Fawr" son of Hedd ap Alunog
The Medieval "redating" of Braint Hir
Aaron Paen ap Y Paen Hen
Welsh Claims to Ceri after 1179
The Battle of Mynydd Carn
Trahaearn ap Caradog of Arwystli
Cadafael Ynfyd of Cydewain
Maredudd ap Robert, Lord of Cedewain
Cadwgan of Nannau
Maredudd ap Owain, King of Deheubarth
Two Families headed by a Rhydderch ap Iestyn
The Era of Llewelyn ap Seisyll
Cynfyn ap Gwerystan, the Interim King
The Consorts and Children of Gruffudd ap Llewelyn
The 1039 Battle at Rhyd y Groes
The First Wife of Bleddyn ap Cynfyn
Hywel ap Gronwy of Deheubarth
The Brief Life of Gruffudd ap Maredudd
The Other Gwenwynwyn
Eunydd son of Gwenllian
Sandde Hardd of Mortyn
The Floruit of Einion ap Seisyllt
The Enigmatic Elystan Glodrydd
Cowryd ap Cadfan of Dyffryn Clwyd
Owain ap Cadwgan and Nest ferch Rhys - An Historic Fiction?
The "sons" of Owain ap Cadwgan ap Bleddyn
The Betrayal by Meirion Goch Revisited
Gwyn Ddistain, seneschal for Llewelyn Fawr
The Men of Lleyn - How They Got There
Trahaearn Goch of Lleyn
Einion vs Iestyn ap Gwrgan - The Conquest of Glamorgan
Dafydd Goch ap Dafydd - His Real Ancestry
Thomas ap Rhodri - Father of Owain "Lawgoch"
The "Malpas" Family in Cheshire
Einion ap Celynin of Llwydiarth
Marchweithian, Lord of Is Aled, Rhufoniog
Osbwrn Wyddel of Cors Gedol
Bradwen of Llys Bradwen in Meirionydd
Ednowain ap Bradwen
Sorting out the Gwaithfoeds
Three Men called Iorwerth Goch "ap Maredudd"
The Caradog of Gwynedd With 3 Fathers
Who Was Sir Robert Pounderling?
Eidio Wyllt - What Was His Birthname?
The Legendary Kingdom of Seisyllwg
The Royal Family of Ceredigion
Llewelyn ap Hoedliw, Lord of Is Cerdin
The Ancestry of Owain Glyndwr
Gruffudd ap Rhys, the Homeless Prince
The Children of Lord Rhys
Maredudd Gethin ap Lord Rhys
The 'Next Heir' of Morgan of Caerleon
Pedigree of the ancient Lords of Ial
The Shropshire Walcot Family
Pedigree of "Ednowain Bendew II"
Pedigree of Cynddelw Gam
                     THE "EDNOWAIN BENDEW II" OF MEDIEVAL PEDIGREES
                                           By Darrell Wolcott
 
         In his Pedigrees of the Welsh Tribal Patriarchs[1], Peter Bartrum comments as follows: "Ednywain Bendew of Tegeingl was ancestor of one Pymtheg Llwyth Gwynedd (one of the 15 Noble Tribes of Gwynedd).  His descendants through his sons Madog, Maredudd, Gruffudd and Gwyn point to a date of birth of about 1100 for Ednywain.  He must therefore be distinguished from an earlier Ednywain Bendew, born c. 1020, who had two sons Bledrus and Rhotbert, and two daughters Morwyl and Ceinfryd (ABT 2d, 8h; HL 1b, 2i)"
 
        Some 11 years later, when Bartrum published his charts in Welsh Genealogies AD 300-1400, he estimated that Gruffudd ap Ednowain was probably born c. 1070 and must have been a younger son of the first Ednowain Bendew[2].  But he continued to date Madog, Maredudd and Gwyn to c. 1130 thus requiring a second Ednowain Bendew as their father.
 
        When we abandon his "generational" dating scheme and replace it with more precise estimates, we actually find Maredudd and Gwyn were born nearer 1170 but Madog ap Ednowain occurs c. 1080.  And Bartrum's charts for Madog's family omit the first two generations after Ednowain, skipping directly to the Madog of c. 1145 (whom he dates to c. 1130)  This omission can best be seen in the family which held Bodidris in Ial in 1315[3]:
 
                Bartrum's Chart                      Our Construction
 
                                                      1050  Ednowain Bendew
                                                                      l
                                                         1080  Madog
                                                                      l
        1100  Ednywain Bendew II              1110  Iorwerth
                         l                                             l
             1130  Madog                             1140  Rhiryd
                         l                                             l
            1170  Iorwerth                            1175  Einion
                         l                                             l
             1200  Rhiryd                             1205  Madog
                         l                                             l
             1230  Einion                            1235  Maredudd
                         l                                             l
             1270  Madog                            1265  Llewelyn
                         l                                             l
           1270  Maredudd                          1295  Llewelyn
                         l
            1300  Llewelyn
                         l
            1330  Llewelyn
 
         In the 1315 Extent of Bromfield and Yale the holders of Bodidris in Ial included "Llewelyn ap Llewelyn ap Maredudd"[4].  The co-holder was Gruffudd Lloyd (ap Maredudd ap Llewelyn ap Ynyr) who had married the first-cousin of Llewelyn ap Llewelyn, Tangwystl the daughter and heiress of Ieuaf ap Maredudd ap Madog.  Both of these land holders were young men in 1315 as both the father and uncle of Gruffudd Lloyd are named as holders of Gelligynan, Ial in the same survey[5] and were still alive on that date.  In our chart, we make Llewelyn ap Llewelyn a man in his early 20's (our date estimates are + or - 5 years) while the Bartrum chart depicts a man not yet born in 1315.  That he was proceeding uncertainly with his dating is also evident when he places both Maredudd and his father Madog in the same generation.  We think it is clear that his chart is missing two early generations, that in fact the Madog he dates c. 1130 was a brother of the Rhiryd ap Iorwerth in our chart.  What led him astray is the fact that this Rhiryd did have a brother Madog (born c. 1145) who named a son Iorwerth, that Iorwerth had a son Rhiryd and that Rhiryd had a son named Einion.  This Einion ap Rhiryd was born c. 1240 and had a son named Madog who was father to Madog Wyddel, Cwnws, Hywel and Gruffudd....but not to any Maredudd.  In family after family, Bartrum's charts ignore a common tendency to repeat long strings of male names; we see it very often in the 10th to 14th centuries.  And this is certainly not the only example to be found in the families who descended from the c. 1045 (not c. 1100) Ednowain Bendew. 
 
         To make his early generations "work" chronologically, Bartrum has accepted one error repeatedly made in pedigrees of this family but "emended" another citation to fit.  Most medieval charts show the following at the top[6]:
 
                    Ednowain Bendew
                             l
                        Madog=====Arddun ferch Bradwen, sister of
                             l              Ednowain ap Bradwen
                      Iorwerth=====Arddun ferch Llewelyn ap Owain
                                            ap Edwin
 
         Since the first Arddun depicted was born c. 1155, Bartrum decided the next Arddun must be incorrect...a granddaughter of Owain ap Edwin would occur c. 1115/1120.  By "emending" the citation to read "Llewelyn ap Owain ap Aldud ap Owain ap Edwin", we produce an Arddun of c. 1185 to fit with the Iorwerth who was a son of the first Arddun.  However, the only construction which fits all the later branches of this family is this:
 
                1050  Ednowain Bendew
                                    l
                       1080  Madog (unknown wife)
                                    l
                       1110  Iorwerth===Arddun ferch Llewelyn 1120
                                    l
                        1145  Madog===Arddun ferch Bradwen 1155
                                    l
                      1180  Iorwerth (unknown wife)
          
         We find the Iorwerth ap Madog of c. 1110 had, besides the son Madog, a son Rhiryd as shown in our first chart and a son Llewelyn who was father to the Tangwystl who married Maredudd ap Cadwaladr[7].  Rhiryd ap Iorwerth of c. 1140 had, in addition to the son Einion, a daughter Tibod who married Ithel Gam ap Maredudd[8].
 
        Madog ap Iorwerth of c. 1145 had, beside the son Iorwerth shown immediately above and in the Bartrum chart, a son Rhiryd who married Nest ferch Gronwy ap Einion ap Seisyllt[9] (a lady wholly omitted from Bartrum's index probably because she didn't fit anywhere on his charts).  That Rhiryd ap Madog had sons Einion and Iorwerth. Since the early family used so few male names, only by following a rigid timeline can one distinguish one Rhiryd ap Iorwerth, for example, from another.
 
         Returning to our opening paragraph now, we find those 4 "sons" of a "second" Ednowain Bendew were most likely born as follows:
 
                           Madog c. 1080
                           Gruffudd c. 1070 ?
                           Maredudd c. 1175
                           Gwyn c. 1170
 
         That these men did not share a common father should be evident; only Gwyn and Maredudd might be brothers.  There are no marriages shown for descendants of Gruffudd until near 1400 and those tend to date him a generation earlier than Bartrum's guess of 1070, perhaps nearer 1050[10].  Perhaps he was a son of the first Ednowain Bendew and not mentioned in the old pedigrees since no early daughter's marriage was known as was the case with Bledrus and Rhotbert.  Although the early 15th century marriages that are known for the family descended from Gruffudd appear to be mostly with Gwynedd ladies, nothing connects that family with Tegeingl. 
 
        The family descended from Gwyn seems to be found in Maelor and intermarried with the Tudor Trevor clan, while that descended from Maredudd held manors in Whitford...lands within the old lordship held by the first Ednowain Bendew.  We suspect his pedigree is deficient, that he belongs somewhere in the descendants of the c. 1020 Ednowain Bendew.  We are left with the large family which descended from Madog of c. 1080 as possibly having descended from a "second" Ednowain Bendew , a man born c. 1050.
 
        Not only did the family hold lands in Tegeingl, but in those areas formerly owned by Edwin ap Gronwy of the eleventh century.  That the man called "Ednowain Bendew" at the top of Madog's pedigree was part of Edwin's clan is almost certain and he occurs in the same generation as the known sons of Edwin.  So who exactly was he? 
 
        Rather than suggest an answer immediately, we would point you to two other men born about the same time as Madog and whose descendants also held lands in the heart of Edwin's old lordship[11]:
 
        1.  Madog ap "Ednowain Bendew", born c. 1080
        2.  Aldud ap "Owain ap Edwin", born c. 1085
        3.  Uchdryd ap "Edwin", born c. 1085
 
       This Uchdryd was father to Maredudd who named a son Ithel Gam and the subsequent families became fixated on that male name, churning out other Ithels nicknamed "Gam", "Fychan", "Lloyd" and "Anwyl" by the handfuls.  Our work is yet incomplete on that family, but the Uchdryd at the top of the pedigree cannot be the Uchdryd ap Edwin who was brother to Owain; this one occurs in the generation of Edwin's grandsons. 
 
        It has occurred to us that the three men, Uchdryd, Aldud and Madog, might be brothers or at least first-cousins; in the pedigrees the "father" is respectively called Edwin, Owain and Ednowain...the latter perhaps no more than a joining of the first two names.  We have papers now in progress which will suggest the father of Uchdryd was actually Uchdryd ap Edwin; that Aldud was an adopted child of Owain ap Edwin; and that Madog was a son of Owain ap Edwin whose later family was ashamed to claim him as their ancestor since certain medieval historians labeled Owain a traitor for ruling Gwynedd as the Norman's sub-king (to the exclusion of their hero, Gruffudd ap Cynan).  Madog's family called their ancestor Ednowain Bendew...replacing Owain with his father-in-law[12]. 
 
        Our instant purpose is to set the stage for our later papers by elminating Gruffudd, Gwyn and Maredudd as brothers of Madog; we believe they descended from the c. 1020 Ednowain Bendew.  If there even was such a man as Ednowain Bendew II, his only known son was Madog.  But we doubt that was the true name of his father; however one might call him Edwin's Owain!
   

NOTES:
[1] See the National Library of Wales Journal, vol xiii, no. 2 (winter, 1963); our quote comes from the notes on pp 138
[2] published in 8 volumes in 1974, the reference is to the chart Ednywain Bendew 1 in volume 2.
[3] This family is also charted and discussed in Appendix A to our paper "Sandde Hardd of Mortyn" elsewhere on this site
[4] T.P. Ellis "The First Extent of Bromfield and Yale AD 1315", 1924, London, pp 89
[5] ibid pp 81
[6] one example can be see in the pedigree of Jones of Chilton printed in Montgomeryshire Collections, vol xiii, pp 389; citations in Dwnn ii, 304 and 325 are quite flawed and both depict the Madog who married Arddun ferch Bradwen as occurring earlier than the Iorwerth who married the granddaughter of Owain ap Edwin, but neither make the latter descended from Aldud.
[7] Harleian Ms 1969, 110 cites the marriage of Tangwystl ferch Llewelyn ap Iorwerth to Maredudd ap Cadwaladr ap Gruffudd ap Cynan.  We have previously identified that Cadwaladr as "ap Cadwgan ap Cadwaladr ap Gruffudd ap Cynan ap Idwal", the father of a Cadfan ap Cadwaladr who married Lleuci ferch Ithel ap Rhys, and the grandfather of the Tangwystl who married Moreiddig ap Sandde of c. 1195.
[8] Harleian Ms 1971, 163 cites this marriage
[9] Dwnn ii, 325 cites the marriage of Nest to Rhiryd ap Madog but like Bartrum, omits 2 generations above Madog.
[10] Bartrum's chart dates two of his lineal male descendants in the same generation to reach the c. 1400 marriages without having to push Gruffudd back to a c. 1030 estimate
[11] in addition to other parcels, descendants from each of the 3 men held land in Northop where Edwin of Tegeingl was buried and where stood his home of Llys Edwin.
[12] ABT 2d says the mother of Gronwy ap Owain (ap Edwin per ABT 2e) was "Morwyl verch Ydnywain bendew ap Neiniad ap Gawithuoed ap Gwrydr."  Thus, Ednowain Bendew was the father-in-law of Owain ap Edwin, and Morwyl (Morfydd) was Owain's wife.