Guest-written Papers
Reference Abbreviations
Guidance Articles for Researchers
Single Family Analysis
Families of Mixed Origin
Family Pedigrees
Mis-identified Same-Named People in Wales
Battles and Historical Events
Ancient Welsh Territories
Welshmen in Llydaw, Brittany
The Men of the North
Legendary History Prior to 1st Century BC
Beli Mawr and Llyr Llediath in Welsh Pedigrees
Papers Related to Maxen Wledig
Bartrum's "Pedigrees of the Welsh Tribal Patriarchs"
Britain's Royal Roman Family
The Royal Family of Powys
2nd Powys Royal Dynasty
The Royal Family of Gwynedd
Men Descended from Tudwal Gloff
Royal Family of Gwent/ Glamorgan
Royal Family of Brycheiniog
The 5 Plebian Tribes of Wales
Glast and the Glastening
Papers about Rhiryd Flaidd and Penllyn
The Men of Collwyn ap Tangno of Lleyn
Edwin of Tegeingl and his Family
Ednowain Bendew in Welsh pedigrees
Maelog Crwm of Arllechwedd Isaf and Crueddyn
Nefydd Hardd of Nant Conwy
Ithel of Bryn in Powys
Idnerth Benfras of Maesbrook
Tudor Trefor and his Family
Trahaearn ap Caradog of Arwystli
The Family of Trahaearn ap Caradog
Cadafael Ynfyd of Cydewain
Maredudd ap Owain, King of Deheubarth
Eunydd son of Gwenllian
Sandde Hardd of Mortyn
The Floruit of Einion ap Seisyllt
The 5 Dafydd Llwyds of Llanwrin Parish
Cowryd ap Cadfan of Dyffryn Clwyd
Marchweithian, Lord of Is Aled, Rhufoniog
Osbwrn Wyddel of Cors Gedol
Bradwen of Llys Bradwen in Meirionydd
Ednowain ap Bradwen
Who Was Sir Robert Pounderling?
Sir Aaron ap Rhys
Eidio Wyllt - What Was His Birthname?
Ancestors and Children of the Lord Rhys

                THE 1st GWYNEDD ROYAL FAMILY

The Gwynedd Royal dynasty which descended from Cunedda

Meibion Kunedda Wledig

Provides a translation and analysis of the section of Bonedd yr Arwyr headed "Meibion Kunedda Wledig" where Hengwrt Ms 33 lists the sons and daughters of Cunedda, together with the acts ascribed to 3 sons of "Gwron" and their cousin, Cadwallon Llawhir.  The manuscript, now lost, was copied by 6 men in the 16th century but those copies vary widely from each other in content.  Those differences are examined here, so far as they relate to daughters of Cunedda and the acts of the sons of Gwron.

Meirion Meirionydd "grandson" of Cunedda

Argues why the chronology and the text of Harleian Ms 3859 identify Meirion as the youngest son of Cunedda, not a son of Tybion ap Cunedda as most claim

Gwron, son of Cunedda

Seeks to explain why no son of Cunedda of this name appears in the earliest lists and suggests Gwron is actually a corrupt form of "y wyrion"

Maelgwn Gwynedd, the Dragon of Anglesey

A brief biography of this 6th century king built around the accounts of Gildas, in which we seek to identify the men and ladies mentioned but not named by this contemporary writer.  Included is a suggested scenerio of his early life, together with reasons why we believe he was merely an interim king of Gwynedd.

Bridei and Domlech, "Children" of Maelgwn Gwynedd

Debunks these "siblings" as wholly imaginary people, conjured up in response to a modern book best described as "misinformation" about Welsh history, but embraced by several modern "internet genealogists". 

Discusses an oral tradition which claims that Rhun ap Maelgwn was an illegitimate child, and that the husband of a legitimate daughter laid claim to Gwynedd after King Maelgwn died.

Elidyr Contests Rhun - The Unanswered Questions

A follow-up of the above paper, positing that the men of Arfon joined the Battle of Catraeth in c. 565 and THAT was the reason they were gone from home for an extended time and given 14 legal privileges

Governance of Gwynedd, 754-825

Gives examples of how the early historians expanded the terse events recorded in the Brut y Tywysygion with pure conjecture, resulting in a muddled picture of the manner in which the new Gwynedd dynasty of Merfyn Frych supplanted that descended from Cunedda 

Interim Kings of Gwynedd's First Dynasty

Discusses 3 occasions where is was necessary to appoint an interim king because the current king died, leaving an eldest son who was too young to be a Welsh king.  Only in one of those 3 cases did the interim king actually step aside when the true heir attained kingship age.

Ancestry of Cynan Dindaethwy

Points to the chronological improbability that Cynan was a direct descendant of Maelgwn Gwynedd and suggests his actual descent from Cunedda was through Owain Ddantgwyn, the uncle of Maelgwn

Cynan Dindaethwy - Further Notes

Revises some previous birth date estimates, and posits that there was a second Cynan in the Gwynedd king list, being the father of Cynan Dindaethwy.  Also posits that Caradog ap Meirion, of a cousin line, served as an interim king immediately prior to the reign of Cynan Dindaethwy

In Search of Gwgan Gleddyfrudd

Posits that the man of this name found in pedigree material was the son of the 9th century Caradog Freich Fras of Rhos, not a shadowy 6th century figure whom some call a son of Caradog Freich Fras of Ewias and Gwent and others place at the 613 Battle of Chester

Pasgen ap "Urien Rheged" Lord of Gower

Shows why this Pasgen was born c. 850 and was NOT a son of the 6th century Urien ap Cynfarch Oer of the Men of the North, suggests the reasons for that false attribution, and offers a better guess as to his identification. 

Ancient Lordship of Gower

Describes the ancient Gower as the same kingdom in Ystrad Tywy some wrongfully call "Rheged" and attempts to answer the question "why would a man of Rhos in Gwynedd be not only welcomed into south Wales, but be granted a Lordship?"

Einion ap Llywarch of Carmarthenshire

Argues that the descendants of Pasgen ap Urien in south Wales included multiple men named Einion ap Llywarch, one of which was the ancester of Sir Rhys ap Thomas

                THE 2nd GWYNEDD ROYAL FAMILY

The Gwynedd Royal dynasty which descended from Merfyn Frych

Wikipedia's Lame Biography of Rhodri Mawr

A brief critique meant to debunk much of what is commonly claimed about Rhodri ap Merfyn Frych, the 9th century King of Gwynedd.  The referenced biography repeats the myths and conjecture of medieval authors whose Gwynedd bias virtually deified Rhodri.

The Children of Rhodri Mawr

Provides an alphabetical listing and brief description of children cited in ancient manuscripts as being fathered by Rhodri Mawr.  Only 4 sons and 1 daughter are believed to have survived the 878 death of Rhodri. 

History of Gruffudd ap Cynan - A New Perspective

Applies chronological analysis to the ancient manuscript "Historia hen
Gruffud vab Kenan vab Yago" to ask a new question:  "Was the subject of the work a single man born c. 1055 and died in 1137, or two entirely different but related men with the patronymic names Gruffudd ap Cynan?"

The Unofficial History of Gruffudd nephew of Iago

A follow-up to the above paper which outlines a speculative series of events which may have concerned an earlier Gruffudd ap Cynan, the nephew of Iago ap Idwal, if he were an historic figure separate from the better-known Gruffudd ap Cynan, grandson of Iago ap Idwal. 

The Children of Gruffudd, Nephew of Iago

Discusses each of the children attributed to Gruffudd ap Cynan and attempts to assign each to the correct man of that name.  Both men of this name had sons called Cadwaladr and Cadwallon and a daughter named Gwenllian, born a generation apart.

Who was Maredudd ap Cynan?

Dispells the notion this man was the son of the mid-12th century Cynan ap Owain Gwenydd by securely dating him at least 80 years earlier, and suggests he was actually a brother of Gruffudd ap Cynan nephew of Iago.

The Children of Owain Gwynedd

Lists the children cited for Owain Gwynedd in 4 groups: (1) base sons born before he married; (2) born of his first wife; (3) born of his second wife; and (4) all other base children 

Iorwerth Drwyndwn

Outlines the few things known about this eldest in-wedlock son of King Owain Gwynedd, the father of Llewelyn ap Iorwerth later called Llewelyn the Great

Kingship of Gwynedd - 1170 to 1175

Seeks to clarify the events which took place after King Owain Gwynedd died, as his sons battled over kingship succession.

Llewelyn ap Iorwerth and Ednyfed Fychan

Discusses the close relationship between King Llewelyn the Great and his seneschal, Ednyfed Fychan, who was also his first-cousin-once-removed.  This closeness included the men sharing the same mistress.