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Legendary History Prior to 1st Century BC
Beli Mawr and Llyr Llediath in Welsh Pedigrees
The Bartrum "Welsh Genealogies"
Bartrum's "Pedigrees of the Welsh Tribal Patriarchs"
A study in charting medieval citations
The Evolution of the "Padriarc Brenin" Pedigree
Generational Gaps and the Welsh Laws
Minimum Age for Welsh Kingship in the Eleventh Century
The Lands of the Silures
Catel Durnluc aka Cadell Ddyrnllwg
Ancient Powys
The Royal Family of Powys
The Royal Family of Gwynedd
The 5 Plebian Tribes of Wales
Maxen Wledig of Welsh Legend
Maxen Wledig and the Welsh Genealogies
Anwn Dynod ap Maxen Wledig
Constans I and his 343 Visit to Britain
Glast and the Glastening
Composite Lives of St Beuno
Rethinking the Gwent Pedigrees
The Father of Tewdrig of Gwent
Another Look at Teithfallt of Gwent
Ynyr Gwent and Caradog Freich Fras
Llowarch ap Bran, Lord of Menai
Rulers of Brycheiniog - The Unanswered Questions
Lluan ferch Brychan
The Herbert Family Pedigree
Edwin of Tegeingl and his Family
Angharad, Heiress of Mostyn
Ithel of Bryn in Powys
Idnerth Benfras of Maesbrook
Henry, the Forgotten Son of Cadwgan ap Bleddyn
The Muddled Pedigree of Sir John Wynn of Gwydir
The Mysterious Peverel Family
The Clan of Tudor Trevor
The Other "Sir Roger of Powys"
Ancestry of Ieuaf ap Adda ap Awr of Trevor
The Retaking of Northeast Wales
Hedd Molwynog or Hedd ap Alunog of Llanfair Talhearn
"Meuter Fawr" son of Hedd ap Alunog
The Medieval "redating" of Braint Hir
Aaron Paen ap Y Paen Hen
Welsh Claims to Ceri after 1179
The Battle of Mynydd Carn
Trahaearn ap Caradog of Arwystli
Cadafael Ynfyd of Cydewain
Maredudd ap Robert, Lord of Cedewain
Cadwgan of Nannau
Maredudd ap Owain, King of Deheubarth
What Really Happened in Deheubarth in 1022?
Two Families headed by a Rhydderch ap Iestyn
The Era of Llewelyn ap Seisyll
Cynfyn ap Gwerystan, the Interim King
The Consorts and Children of Gruffudd ap Llewelyn
The 1039 Battle at Rhyd y Groes
The First Wife of Bleddyn ap Cynfyn
Hywel ap Gronwy of Deheubarth
The Brief Life of Gruffudd ap Maredudd
The Other Gwenwynwyn
Eunydd son of Gwenllian
Sandde Hardd of Mortyn
The Floruit of Einion ap Seisyllt
The Enigmatic Elystan Glodrydd
Cowryd ap Cadfan of Dyffryn Clwyd
Owain ap Cadwgan and Nest ferch Rhys - An Historic Fiction?
The "sons" of Owain ap Cadwgan ap Bleddyn
The Betrayal by Meirion Goch Revisited
Gwyn Ddistain, seneschal for Llewelyn Fawr
The Men of Lleyn - How They Got There
Trahaearn Goch of Lleyn
Einion vs Iestyn ap Gwrgan - The Conquest of Glamorgan
Dafydd Goch ap Dafydd - His Real Ancestry
Thomas ap Rhodri - Father of Owain "Lawgoch"
The "Malpas" Family in Cheshire
Einion ap Celynin of Llwydiarth
Marchweithian, Lord of Is Aled, Rhufoniog
Osbwrn Wyddel of Cors Gedol
Bradwen of Llys Bradwen in Meirionydd
Ednowain ap Bradwen
Sorting out the Gwaithfoeds
Three Men called Iorwerth Goch "ap Maredudd"
The Caradog of Gwynedd With 3 Fathers
Who Was Sir Robert Pounderling?
Eidio Wyllt - What Was His Birthname?
The Legendary Kingdom of Seisyllwg
The Royal Family of Ceredigion
Llewelyn ap Hoedliw, Lord of Is Cerdin
The Ancestry of Owain Glyndwr
Welsh Ancestry of the Tudor Dynasty
Gruffudd ap Rhys, the Homeless Prince
The Children of Lord Rhys
Maredudd Gethin ap Lord Rhys
The 'Next Heir' of Morgan of Caerleon
Pedigree of the ancient Lords of Ial
The Shropshire Walcot Family
Pedigree of "Ednowain Bendew II"
Pedigree of Cynddelw Gam
                                THE GOVERNANCE OF GWYNEDD, 754 - 825
                                               By Darrell Wolcott
 
        When Rhodri Molwynog of the first Gwynedd dynasty was killed in 754, very little is known about who held rule there until the second decade of the following century.  Nor do the sources clearly describe the circumstances which surround the shift of rule from the descendants of Cunedda to Merfyn Frych.  A look at the actual sources, together with the tales woven from them by our historians, will preceed our analysis and conclusions:
 
Brut y Tywysogyon[1]
 
       754 -  ...died Rhodri, king of the Britons
       798 -  ...Saxons slew Caradog, king of Gwynedd
       813 -  ...there was war between Hywel and Cynan, and Hywel prevailed
       814 -  ...and then Hywel of the island of Anglesey obtained the victory, and Cynan was driven into flight...
       816 - ...Hywel was driven a second time from Anglesey. And King Cynan died
       825 - ...died Hywel
 
       COMMENTS: How or when Caradog became king of Gwynedd is not disclosed.  The parentage of neither Hywel nor Cynan is identified. The number of battles is unclear; the entries of 813 and 814 may refer to a single battle and there is no report of a first time when Hywel was the loser.  Possession of Anglesey seems to be the objective of both men.  The identification of the combatants with the same Cynan and Hywel whose obits appear here seems justified but is not certain.
 
Brut y Tywysogyon[2]
 
       754 - ...Rodri, king of the Britons...died
       798 - ...the Saxons slew Caradog, king of Gwynedd
       813 - ...there was a battle between Hywel and Cynan, and Hywel prevailed
       814 - ...and Hywel of Anglesey prevailed. And he drove Cynan, his brother, out of Anglesey...
       816 - ...and a second time Hywel was driven from Anglesey. And king Cynan died
       825 - ...and Hywel died
 
       COMMENTS:  This version is virtually identical to the first, except it makes Cynan and Hywel brothers.
 
British Museum Ms Cleopatra B v[3]
 
       754 - ...Rodri Maelwynauc, king of the Britons, died
       798 - ...Caradauc, king of Gwynedd, was slain by the Saxons
       813 - ...there was a battle between Hywel and Cynan, and Hywel prevailed
       814 - ...and Hywel of Mon prevailed against Cynan, his brother, and expelled him and his host
       816 - ...Hywel was expelled from Manaw. And King Cynan died
                  (Manaw is underlined in the text and Mon added in a later hand)
       825 - ...Hywel, king of Manaw, died
 
       COMMENTS:  It may have been the incorrect use of Manaw (the Isle of Man) for Mon (Anglesey) which led to the later claims that one of the expelled men fled there.  If we substitute Mon in this text, it reads essentially the same as the other two versions except the 816 loss is not called Hywel's second defeat.
 
Dr. Powell's version[4]
 
        "Roderic Molwynoc...demanded the government of this country as his right...but he did not long enjoy it; for he died in a short time, leaving behind him two sons, Conan Tindaethwy and Howel...his son, Conan Tindaethwy took upon him the government and principality of Wales in the year 755.
 
        "...a considerable battle was fought at Rhuddlan between the Saxons and the Welsh, wherein Caradoc king of North Wales was killed...these great losses which the Welsh sustained did not reconcile Prince Conan and his brother Hywel; for they quarreled with each other...Howel claimed the isle of Anglesey as part of his father's inheritance, which Conan would by no means accede to...Howel would not suffer himself to be cheated out of his paternal inheritance, and therefore he endeavoured to recover it by force of arms. Both armies being engaged, the victory fell to Howel, who immediately thereupon possessed himself of the island...but Conan would not rest satisfied with his brother's forcible possession of the Island of Anglesey...having drawn up all the forces he could raise together, he marched to Anglesey to seek his brother Howel, who being too weak to encounter and face such a considerable number, was compelled to make his escape to the Isle of Man...Conan, however, did not live long enough to reap the satisfaction of this victory, but died in a short time, leaving issue only a daughter called Esylht, married to a nobleman of Wales named Merfyn Frych.  He was son to Gwyriad or Uriet, the son of Elidur...his mother was Nest, the daughter of Cadelh King of Powys, the son of Brochwel Yscithroc...
 
        "Conan being dead, Merfyn Frych and his wife Esylht...took upon them the government and the principality of Wales.  Howel escaped to the Island of Man and was honourably and kindly received by Merfyn; in return...Howel had used such means...that Merfyn married Esylht, the daughter and heir of his brother Conan.  Howel...died about the year 825"
 
        COMMENTS:  This construction makes Cynan and Hywel sons of Rhodri Molwynog and fighting over their father's inheritance some 60 years after his death.  If Cynan was old enough to succeed his father in 755, he must have been past 80 years of age when he battled his alleged brother.  Dr. Powell describes only two battles, with Hywel winning the first and losing the second, when he fled to the Isle of Man.  Curiously, he has Hywel as the man who sought refuge with Merfyn Frych but somehow Hywel arranged to give the daughter of Cynan to Merfyn as a wife.  And clearly the Brochwel cited as grandfather to Nest ferch Cadell was not the one known as "Ysgithrog" who lived nearly 300 years earlier.
 
B.B. Woodward's version[5]
 
        "...the civil war between Hywel Vychan, a younger son of Rhodri Maelwynawg, and his brother Cynan Tindaethwy who was prince of Gwynedd.  It appears Hywel contended for the extension of the customary division of the patrimonial estate...and claimed Anglesey as his lawful share.  His first attempt was successful; he defeated his brother and took possession of the island...it is not clear with whom the next victory rested; but it is most likely that in the following year Hywel again defeated Cynan, and was afterwards completely routed and compelled to fly from Anglesey.  Two years later, either in 816 or 817...Hywel, repeating his efforts, was completely overthrown and driven to the Isle of Man...In the same year...the victor died and the King of Man, Mervyn Vrych (who had married Essyllt, Cynan's daughter)...succeeded; and thus the Isle of Man...was left under the rule of Hywel who died there eight years afterwards."
 
        COMMENTS:  Borrowing heavily from Dr. Powell, Woodward refers to four battles; his wording concerning the third is confused but he has Hywel losing the last and being driven to the Isle of Man.  He claims Hywel remained in Man, even became its king.  He follows Dr. Powell in marrying Merfyn Frych to a daughter of Cynan.
 
Jane Williams' version[6]
 
       "Rhodri Maelwynwg...left behind him at his death in the year 755, two sons; Cynan surnamed Tindaethwy his heir, and Howel... throughout the long reign of Cynan, Howel his brother insisted that Mona should be included in the portion of his father's lands to which...
he was entitled, and Cynan steadfastly refused to gratify his brother's wishes. He had no son and Howel probably believed the possession of a place so renowned would insure his own succession to the sovereignty of Cymru; for when both had become aged men, Howel... seized upon Mona by force of arms.  Twice, with long intervals between the periods, the royal brothers met in hostile array, and twice Howel worsted Cynan with much bloodshed.  In a third battle, Cynan put forth his strength, drove Howel out of Mona and forced him to take refuge in the Isle of Man, whence he never returned.  Within a year after this event, King Cynan died and...the chief branch of the race of Cunedda became extinct in the male line.
 
        "In or about the year 819, Essyllt, the daughter of Cynan Tindaethwy, inherited the throne of Gwynedd and shared it with her husband, Merfyn".
 
        COMMENTS:  Miss Williams recognizes the extreme age these men must have been if both were sons of Rhodri Molwynog, but plows ahead with a retelling of the story first put forth by Dr. Powell. She writes of only three battles with Hywel winning the first two before losing the final one and being forced to flee to the Isle of Man.  Following both earlier writers, she says Esyllt was the daughter of Cynan Tyndaethey and married Merfyn Frych.
 
John E. Lloyd's version[7]
 
         "The death of Rhodri Molwynog...is recorded under the year 754 and the family passes out of sight until the early part of the ninth century when two sons of Rhodri, Hywel and Cynan, are found battling each other for the lordship of Mon.  In 816, the death of Cynan...left the field clear for Hywel, who no doubt ruled over Anglesey until his death in 825.  When Hywel died, the male line of Maelgwn Gwynedd was at end end and its claims were transferred to another house by Ethyllt, the daughter of his brother Cynan.
 
        "Upon the death of Hywel ap Rhodri Molwynog in 825...a stranger possessed himself of the throne of Gwynedd...Merfyn Frych was descended from Llywarch Hen; his father, Gwriad, had married a daughter of Cynan ap Rhodri, so that he was not altogether without a hereditary claim to the crown, but it was a claim which would probably have been of little account had it not been backed by personal force and distinction...he established himself firmly in Gwynedd and allied himself to the royal house of Powys by marrying Nest, daughter of Cadell ap Brochwel".
 
         COMMENTS: Lloyd follows the earlier historians in calling Cynan and Hywel sons of Rhodri Molwynog.  However, he does not offer any conjecture as to why these men were battling; he merely says the family "passes out of sight" for the space of about two generations. He does not mention either man fleeing to the Isle of Man, and differs sharply with the others by stating that Esyllt ferch Cynan was the mother of Merfyn Frych, not his wife.  And says Nest was his wife, not his mother.
 
          The foregoing excerpts from original sources, and their use in the writing of secondary sources, reflects why our knowledge of this historic era is so muddled.  Dr. Powell, it would seem, has taken a button and sewed a vest on it. Perhaps he thought he was writing a novel and it was necessary to construct an elaborate scenerio to explain the terse account found in his sources. But it was not until the twentieth century that a scholarly work, that of Lloyd, rejected most of his conjecture. 
 
ANALYSIS:
 
         It defies chronology to make Cynan and Hywel sons of Rhodri Molwynog. That claim that two men, a least one surely past 80 years of age, battled over an inheritance some 60 years after the death of their father does little to inspire confidence. If we give the Brut version found in Peniarth Ms 20 it's acknowledged status as the most complete of the various extant manuscripts, Cynan and Hywel may not have been brothers at all.  The phrase "y vrawt" (his brother) is absent from that version, and may have been inserted by copyists of the other versions simply because Welsh tradition held that belief by the time the extant copies were made.
 
          The oldest Welsh pedigrees, those found in Harleian Ms 3859, agree with Lloyd that Esyllt ferch Cynan was the mother of Merfyn Frych, and do not name his wife at all.  A pedigree from the 12th century[8] reads "Rodri ap Ethil vz Cynan ap Idwal" but since it omits the name of Cynan's father, it may well contain other omissions such as the father of Rhodri. But like the earlier manuscript, it contains no mention of a Nest ferch Cadell.  By the 13th century, however, pedigrees[9] were circulated citing Esyllt as both wife and mother of Merfyn Frych and introduced Nest as the mother of Merfyn in some texts, but as the mother of Rhodri Mawr in others. 
 
          If Cynan Tyndaethwy followed his father as king, he should be dated from c. 730 or earlier.  His daughter Esyllt would then occur between 760/780 and would be far too old to be the mother of Rhodri Mawr and we believe the oldest citations are correct to make her Merfyn's mother; Professor Lloyd was right to contradict the others on this point.  We don't offer any opinion as to who might have been the mother of Rhodri Mawr; as for Nest ferch Cadell, we would refer the reader to our discussion of that lady in a separate paper.[10]
 
         Turning to the wars between Cynan and Hywel, the Brut entry for the year 814 probably refers to the same battle mentioned in the 813 entry.  The ending of the 813 entry "and Hywel prevailed" is exactly the phrase which begins the 814 entry.  If so, the 816 entry might be only the second battle.  The phrase "and a second time Hywel was driven from Anglesey" seems to be telling us there was a first time, but no prior Hywel defeat is recorded. We think the proper translation of the Welsh text "ac eilweith y gyrrwht Howel o Von"[11] should read "and in a second battle Hywel was driven from Anglesey". We are left, then, with an 813/814 battle won by Hywel and an 816 battle that Hywel lost.  Not 3 or 4 battles, only two.  And we note the name of the victor is missing from the final battle; perhaps it wasn't Cynan at all.
 
         The conjecture that Hywel fled to the Isle of Man seems wholly based on the text of the Cotton Ms Cleopatra B where Manaw rather than Mon is used in two of the three references to Hywel, one of which was later emended by an unknown hand.  Absent that citation, there is no evidence Hywel ever visited the Isle of Man, much less served as its king.
 
        The sources all refer to Rhodri Molwynog as King of the Britons, not king of Gwynedd.  For many generations, the branch of the family of Cunedda seated in Anglesey had not only ruled there, but had been considered the overking of all the Cymry in Britain.  The identification of Caradog as king of Gwynedd, we feel, denotes his lesser status as a local king.  His pedigree places him in the mainland Gwynedd territory of Rhos.[12]  Pedigrees of the principal family seated on the Isle of Man[13] show an ancestor of Merfyn Frych married into that family about the time it failed in the male line, so we believe that is where Merfyn resided before becoming king in Gwynedd. 
 
CONCLUSION:
 
         We offer the following scenerio which, we believe, better accords with the ancient sources than any of the conjecture yet offered by historians:
 
         When Rhodri Molwynog died in 754, he was followed by his son Cynan Tyndaethwy, born c. 730.  When Cynan grew too old to effectively lead men into battle in the 790's, the burden for the defense of north Wales fell to a distant relative, Caradog of Rhos. Both men were of the family of Cunedda.  We believe the Hywel who was the foe of Cynan was not his brother, but the son of Caradog.[14]  When his father was killed in 798, Hywel ap Caradog now became the primary defender of Gwynedd.  Knowing that the aging Cynan had no sons and that his own ancestry made him a logical successor, we believe Hywel became impatient when the old king kept living past his 80th year.  Thus, in 813/814 Hywel moved his army into Anglesey to claim the royal palace.  It soon became obvious to Cynan that his warband was no match for Hywel, so the old man fled to the Isle of Man.  It would have been a logical sanctuary for him.  Many years earlier, his only daughter had married a leading man of that island and her son, Merfyn Frych, had now reached manhood.  When Cynan finally died on Man a couple years later, Merfyn took his army to Anglesey and chased Hywel back to his own patrimony of Rhos.  Merfyn then claimed the kingship for himself through his mother.  Like Lloyd, however, we believe it was the military might of Merfyn and not his mother's princess status which cowed the men of Gwynedd into accepting him as their king.
 
          Hywel died some years later; given the fierce warrior reputation ascribed to Merfyn Frych and later to his son Rhodri Mawr, it should not be hard to see why no son of Hywel staked a claim to a kingdom which was never the patrimony of his family anyway.  Thus, excepting only the 11th century interruptions by Powys strongmen, the descendants of Merfyn Frych ruled over Gwynedd until Edward I defeated Llewelyn the Last in 1282. 
 
 
NOTES:
[1] Thomas Jones translation "Brut y Tywysygon: Peniarth Ms 20 version", 1952, Cardiff
[2] Thomas Jones translation "Brut y Tywysygon: Red Book of Hergest version", 1955, Cardiff
[3] Thomas Jones translation "Brenhinedd y Saesson: British Musuem Cotton Ms Cleopatra B v", 1971, Cardiff
[4] David Powell "The History of Wales", 1832 edition, Shrewsbury.  His first edition was published in 1584
[5] B.B. Woodard "The History of Wales", 1853, London
[6] Jane Williams "A History of Wales", 1869, London
[7] John E. Lloyd "A History of Wales", 1912, London
[8] Arthur Jones translation "The History of Gruffudd ap Cynan", 1910, Manchester
[9] These include Jesus College Ms 20, Bonedd yr Arwyr, and Achau Brenhinoedd a Thywysogion Cymru, all found in P.C. Bartrum's "Early Welsh Genealogical Tracts", 1966, Cardiff
[10] A marriage between the family of Merfyn Frych and a Powys heiress may have been invented to bolster the medieval claim that Rhodri Mawr ruled that kingdom as well as Gwynedd.  Refer to our paper on this site entitled "Nest ferch Cadell ap Brochwel"
[11] ibid note [1], pp 6
[12] Harleian Ms 3859, 3
[13] JC 20, 19 and ABT 6(L)
[14] Harleian Ms 3959 cites Hywel ap Caradog in the Rhos family