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Beli Mawr and Llyr Llediath in Welsh Pedigrees
The Bartrum "Welsh Genealogies"
Bartrum's "Pedigrees of the Welsh Tribal Patriarchs"
A study in charting medieval citations
The Evolution of the "Padriarc Brenin" Pedigree
Generational Gaps and the Welsh Laws
Minimum Age for Welsh Kingship in the Eleventh Century
The Lands of the Silures
Catel Durnluc aka Cadell Ddyrnllwg
Ancient Powys
The Royal Family of Powys
The Royal Family of Gwynedd
The 5 Plebian Tribes of Wales
Maxen Wledig of Welsh Legend
Maxen Wledig and the Welsh Genealogies
Anwn Dynod ap Maxen Wledig
Constans I and his 343 Visit to Britain
Glast and the Glastening
Composite Lives of St Beuno
Rethinking the Gwent Pedigrees
The Father of Tewdrig of Gwent
Another Look at Teithfallt of Gwent
Ynyr Gwent and Caradog Freich Fras
Llowarch ap Bran, Lord of Menai
Rulers of Brycheiniog - The Unanswered Questions
Lluan ferch Brychan
The Herbert Family Pedigree
Edwin of Tegeingl and his Family
Angharad, Heiress of Mostyn
Ithel of Bryn in Powys
Idnerth Benfras of Maesbrook
Henry, the Forgotten Son of Cadwgan ap Bleddyn
The Muddled Pedigree of Sir John Wynn of Gwydir
The Mysterious Peverel Family
The Clan of Tudor Trevor
The Other "Sir Roger of Powys"
Ancestry of Ieuaf ap Adda ap Awr of Trevor
The Retaking of Northeast Wales
Hedd Molwynog or Hedd ap Alunog of Llanfair Talhearn
"Meuter Fawr" son of Hedd ap Alunog
The Medieval "redating" of Braint Hir
Aaron Paen ap Y Paen Hen
Welsh Claims to Ceri after 1179
The Battle of Mynydd Carn
Trahaearn ap Caradog of Arwystli
Cadafael Ynfyd of Cydewain
Maredudd ap Robert, Lord of Cedewain
Cadwgan of Nannau
Maredudd ap Owain, King of Deheubarth
What Really Happened in Deheubarth in 1022?
Two Families headed by a Rhydderch ap Iestyn
The Era of Llewelyn ap Seisyll
Cynfyn ap Gwerystan, the Interim King
The Consorts and Children of Gruffudd ap Llewelyn
The 1039 Battle at Rhyd y Groes
The First Wife of Bleddyn ap Cynfyn
Hywel ap Gronwy of Deheubarth
The Brief Life of Gruffudd ap Maredudd
The Other Gwenwynwyn
Eunydd son of Gwenllian
Sandde Hardd of Mortyn
The Floruit of Einion ap Seisyllt
The Enigmatic Elystan Glodrydd
Cowryd ap Cadfan of Dyffryn Clwyd
Owain ap Cadwgan and Nest ferch Rhys - An Historic Fiction?
The "sons" of Owain ap Cadwgan ap Bleddyn
The Betrayal by Meirion Goch Revisited
Gwyn Ddistain, seneschal for Llewelyn Fawr
The Men of Lleyn - How They Got There
Trahaearn Goch of Lleyn
Einion vs Iestyn ap Gwrgan - The Conquest of Glamorgan
Dafydd Goch ap Dafydd - His Real Ancestry
Thomas ap Rhodri - Father of Owain "Lawgoch"
The "Malpas" Family in Cheshire
Einion ap Celynin of Llwydiarth
Marchweithian, Lord of Is Aled, Rhufoniog
Osbwrn Wyddel of Cors Gedol
Bradwen of Llys Bradwen in Meirionydd
Ednowain ap Bradwen
Sorting out the Gwaithfoeds
Three Men called Iorwerth Goch "ap Maredudd"
The Caradog of Gwynedd With 3 Fathers
Who Was Sir Robert Pounderling?
Eidio Wyllt - What Was His Birthname?
The Legendary Kingdom of Seisyllwg
The Royal Family of Ceredigion
Llewelyn ap Hoedliw, Lord of Is Cerdin
The Ancestry of Owain Glyndwr
Gruffudd ap Rhys, the Homeless Prince
The Children of Lord Rhys
Maredudd Gethin ap Lord Rhys
The 'Next Heir' of Morgan of Caerleon
Pedigree of the ancient Lords of Ial
The Shropshire Walcot Family
Pedigree of "Ednowain Bendew II"
Pedigree of Cynddelw Gam
             THE UNOFFICIAL "HISTORY" OF GRUFFUDD, NEPHEW OF IAGO
                                          By Darrell Wolcott
 
         We initially posited the existence of a Gruffudd ap Cynan who was the nephew of Iago and lived a generation earlier than the more familiar Gruffudd ap Cynan ap Iago[1].  Next we discussed the brother of the earlier Gruffudd who was known as Maredudd ap Cynan[2].  Additional research now permits us to offer a speculative scenerio which connects other events to the first Gruffudd.  We begin with a brief summary to set the stage.
 
         In 1033, Iago ap Idwal of the royal dynasty of Gwynedd had become of full age and was ready to assume his birthright.  His father, Idwal ap Elisedd ap Meurig, had ruled Gwynedd from 1003 until he was deposed by the usurper, Aeddan ap Blegoryd, about the year 1017[3]. Iago was not yet a teenager when the King of Powys, Llewelyn ap Seisyllt, used this pretext to annex Gwynedd to his own kingdom by killing Aeddan and his sons.  Then Llewelyn himself was slain in 1023, probably by the men of Deheubarth[4].  Iago had to wait another 10 years to become eligible for kingship[5] and had to endure life under an interim Powysian king, Cynfyn ap Gwerystan.  So Iago's first act in 1033 to stake his rightful claim to Gwynedd was to attack and kill Cynfyn, usurping rule over Powys as well.[6]
 
         The progeny of the Powys royal family, including it's designated heir Gruffudd ap Llewelyn...then in his early 20's...went into hiding lest Iago eliminate them as well.  But when Gruffudd attained his full age in 1039, he gathered the men of Powys and attacked Iago in Anglesey.  With Iago dead, Gruffudd retook Gwynedd and went looking for the remnant of its royal family, intent on wiping them out.  Iago's own son, Cynan, was but a toddler and Gruffudd was no child-killer.  But Iago's brother, also named Cynan and second son of Idwal ap Elisedd, was a man of 25 and the natural target of Gruffudd.  The ambition of the latter was not only to rule Powys and Gwynedd, but the whole of Wales.
 
          A man from Cynan's "cousin" line, Meurig ap Iddon[7], arranged shelter for the young man with Sitric Silkbeard in Dublin, Ireland, and sent his own son, Llychwy, to accompany Cynan.  Within a year or so, Sitric offered a grandaughter, Rhanillt ferch Olaf, to be Cynan's wife.  Their first child was born about 1041 and was named Gruffudd.  When Cynan attained sufficient age to contend for his Welsh kingdom in 1042, he recruited a few friends in Dublin to assist his venture.  All this was without sanction of Sitric who did not favor attacking the king of Powys.  Not only was he now an elderly man, but he had sent another of his granddaughters to be the wife of Gruffudd ap Llewelyn in 1039[8].  Sitric's own daughter had been the first wife of Cynfyn[9] and mother of three of his daughters, but died in childbirth when having the one called Iwerydd.
 
         Acting in stealth, both at home and in Wales, Cynan and his friends sailed to Wales and began tracking the movements of Gruffudd ap Llewelyn and his vaunted warband.  At last they found him alone with his wife, his household and warband not close enough to intervene.  When they burst into the room, Gruffudd's wife clung tightly to him and swore if they meant to kill him then they'd have to kill her too.  Since the lady was sister to his own wife, Cynan compromised by taking the couple captive and sailing back to Ireland[10].  There he was sure he would now be allowed to raise an army to sail triumphantly for Anglesey.  But the aging king Sitric was not amused when he learned what had occurred.  He ordered Cynan to provision a ship and release the couple to sail back to Rhuddlan.  Thus ended Cynan's ambition to reclaim his rightful kingdom of Gwynedd.  Sitric died a few short months later, but permission to assemble men for an attack on Gwynedd was still denied.
 
          By his inaction, the legal right to claim Gwynedd for its royal family had shifted to his young nephew Cynan ap Iago, still a child living in Anglesey.  Over the next few years, the elder Cynan remained in Ireland and produced another son, Maredudd.  In 1063, his nephew in Anglesey attained his full years and looked for his opportunity to retake Gwynedd from the seemingly invincible Gruffudd ap Llewelyn.  The latter had gained strength since the kidnapping incident; with a powerful ally in Mercia, he had subdued every kingdom in Wales and was even striking at England.  Harold Godwinson, acting on orders from King Edward the Confessor, advanced an army to Rhuddlan but Gruffudd slipped from his grasp by sea.  Withdrawing temporarily, Harold next arranged for the English fleet to block the mouth of the Clwyd on the Irish Sea and then brought his army back to Wales.  Gruffudd's leading men were having their lands and manors laid waste by the English, and resolved to save what they could by any means possible.  A volunteer stepped forward and offered to kill Gruffudd if his men agreed to let him approach the king.  The deed was done by Cynan ap Iago[11], who thereby evened the score against the man who'd killed his father.  But alas, when he sought Harold's permission to claim his birthright of Gwynedd, it was not to be.  The sons of Cynfyn had won his favor by standing down their warbands to allow Harold's army to cross their lands and approach Rhuddlan.  And those men, Rhiwallon and Bleddyn, also asked for the local kingships of both Powys and Gwynedd and their requests were granted.  Cynan returned home to Anglesey empty-handed, thwarted by the now superior power of the English.  As he dared not attack their sub-king Bleddyn, he abdicated his claims to the next Gwynedd heir.  This was his younger first-cousin in Ireland, Gruffudd ap Cynan ap Idwal, a man now just reaching his 21st year.  Within the next few years, Cynan in Gwynedd would have his own son whom he named Gruffudd.  The child's namesake in Ireland finally attained full age in 1069 and appealed to the king of Dublin for an army to invade Anglesey.  Sitric son of Olaf was now ruling there and he was brother to Rhanallt, thus the uncle of Gruffudd.  He had married the sister of the man who would soon rule Deheubarth, Nest ferch Tewdwr[12], and counseled Gruffudd not to plan a campaign that would rile the new English king, William I, and was not supported by powerful Welshmen.  It happened that his younger brother, Maredudd, had just turned 14 and wished to train for priesthood, so Gruffudd volunteered to escort the boy to Meifod where he could train under Sulien the Wise.
 
       He used this visit to Powys to meet with Ithel and Maredudd, sons of former king Gruffudd ap Llewelyn.  Ithel had also just come of full age and was preparing to challenge Rhiwallon ap Cynfyn for rule in Powys.  Gruffudd was assured that the brothers had no interest in Gwynedd and once their lands of Powys had been taken back from the usurpers, he would receive their support to unseat Bleddyn and claim his own birthright.  Having no army with which to assist, Gruffudd returned to Ireland with high hopes for the future.  When news arrived of the battle at Mechain, he was dismayed to learn his promised allies were dead and Bleddyn ap Cynfyn was in full control of all north Wales.  And contacts with his cousin in Anglesey found little support from the uchelwrs there for a war with Bleddyn. 
 
       The following year, Gruffudd married the daughter of his boyhood friend and longtime companion in Ireland, Llychwy ap Meurig.  Soon the new couple had two new daughters, Gwenllian and Malli[13]. He refused to relinquish his determination to take back Anglesey, constantly asking his uncle Sitric for an army to help him overthrow Bleddyn.  No sooner had news of Bleddyn's death in 1075 reached Gruffudd, he was raising troops for his attack.  Still his uncle Sitric withheld all-out support, but did allow him to take a small warband and make a landing on Anglesey.  If the local men rebel against the new leaders which have been installed over them, they will join you and you will have a large army, Sitric told him. And if they don't, your ambitions will be crushed by the might of England.  His cousin Cynan ap Iago, whose own hopes for restoration in Gwynedd had been dashed in 1063, introduced Gruffudd to a few of the uchelwrs who agreed to assist.  The Arwystli cousins, Trahaearn ap Caradog and Cynwrig ap Rhiwallon has received England's sanction to exercise local rule over Gwynedd under the oversight of Earl Hugh of Chester and his nephew, Robert of Rhuddlan.  Trahaearn was presently visiting with his power base in Arwystli, but Cynwrig was found enjoying his favorite sport of hunting in the woods of Lleyn[14].  A small band of men loyal to Gruffudd fell upon the party by surprise and quickly killed Cynwrig, but one of his companions was able to flee the scene and report the incident to Trahaearn.  Within the space of a few days, Trahaearn was in Gwynedd at the head of an army which included both men from Powys and Norman calvery dispatched from Rhuddlan by Robert. The uprising was quelled, the locals who had ambushed Cynwrig were rounded up and put to the sword and new hostages taken from the uchelwrs who had quickly renounced any revolt.  Gruffudd and his Irishmen were routed at Bron-yr-erw and fled to their ships and sailed home to Ireland.
 
         Back home, Gruffudd sought the counsel of his brother-in-law as to his next move.  He was told it had not been wise to attack Trahaerarn on his home turf where assistance from Powys and the Normans were near at hand.  Surely an opportunity would come when Trahaearn was campaiging far away from home and when that day came, Gruffudd would be provided with a large army to accompany him back to Wales.
 
         A few years later, in 1079, the brother of Sitric's wife was installed as king of Deheubarth.  Rhys ap Tewdwr represented the southern branch of Gruffudd's family, both claiming Rhodri Mawr as a paternal ancestor.  Rhys had enjoyed a good relationship with the Welsh kingdoms to his north and even married a daughter of Rhiwallon ap Cynfyn.  But the kingdom of Gwent to his east was seeking to expand its control to Gower and Ystrad Tywy, the latter being the heart of Rhys' kingdom.  Caradog ap Gruffudd of Caerleon brought his army west in 1081 to test the new Deheubarth king and met with quick successes.  Married to a daughter of Bleddyn ap Cynan, Caradog sent word to Trahaearn in Gwynedd that all of Deheubarth was ripe for the taking; if he brought his warband south to join the campaign, he could have Ceredigion as his share of the spoils.  With no unrest occurring in his own lands, Trahaearn rode south with his warband accompanied by his cousin Meilyr ap Rhiwallon, younger brother of the slain Cynwrig[15]. 
 
          When Rhys ap Tewdwr and his forces found themselves facing the combined warbands of Gwent and Gwynedd, he declined to fight a pitched battle but retreated slowly westward.  His men fell back to conduct a stalling guerella campaign, hiding in the woods only to emerge when enemy squads were out foraging for food.  A messinger was sent to Ireland where Sitric was informed of the situation and his aid sought.  The latter sent for Gruffudd and told him his opportunity had finally presented itself; his foe was far from its home territory and accompanied by fewer than 300 men.  An army of 1000 Irish mercenaries was quickly assembled and set sail with Gruffudd...not to invade Gwynedd, but to land in Dyfed and join Rhys.
 
          Contrary to the tale spun by the early biographer, his arrival at Menevia was expected by Rhys who, being a legitimate Welsh king, took command of the entire force.  While Gruffudd was anxious to face his hated rival, Rhys planned the campaign carefully and only when his 3 to 1 advantage in men had encircled the high ground called Mynydd Cairn where the enemy had made camp did he sound the call to battle.  The kings of Gwent and Gwynedd were badly outnumbered and their escape path blocked, yet their battle for survival lasted over a week before the last of them was slain[16].  As Rhys took his men to reclaim his court at Dinefwr, Gruffudd allowed his mercenaries to claim their pay by looting the countryside.  When they had their fill, all but his most loyal Irish entourage were sent back to their boats to return home.  Gruffudd made his way to his cousin's manor in Anglesey with the news that he had killed Trahaearn and was ready to assume the kingship which had long been denied to his family.  Yet the leading men were reluctant to annoint a king who had not as yet been sanctioned by their Norman overseers.  Word was sent to Robert at Rhuddlan to seek his approval, who seemed agreeable to accepting Gruffudd as the rightful lord.  But when the self-proclaimed "king" met with Robert, he'd been tricked; he and his entourage were bound in chains and delivered to the keep in Chester where they would live out the remainder of their lives[17].  Robert then established Owain ap Edwin of Tegeingl as his local ruler over Gwynedd.  Thus ends the saga of Gruffudd nephew of Iago, of whom history hears no more.
 
         But his young namesake, Gruffudd ap Cynan ap Iago, now became the legitimate claimant of his family birthright.  Not yet a teen, he had several years of maturing to do before he could present a formal claim to kingship.  As he waited, the sons of Bleddyn had attained their full ages and were anxious for a return to the glory days of their father, free of Norman control.  Cadwgan, Madog and Rhiryd ap Bleddyn began their revolt far away from the Norman power bases at Rhuddlan and Chester...they invaded Deheubarth in 1088 where Rhys ap Tewdwr had, following his victory at Mynydd Cairn, pledged fealty to William I of England and paid the crown a fee for his lordship over south Wales.  Initially successful, the brothers forced Rhys to flee to Ireland but he returned with a fleet of Irish mercenaries and battled them at Llech-y-crau.  Madog and Rhiryd were killed, but Cadwgan next surfaces in Anglesey where he found powerful friends whose fathers had served his father.  Robert of Rhuddlan had died about 1093 and Cadwgan quickly filled the vacuum of leadership in that part of Gwynedd farthest from the Tegeingl seat of local king Owain ap Edwin.
 
         In 1094,  Earl Hugh of Chester sent an army of Normans to reestablish control over Anglesey, but Cadwgan's men defeated them and forced them off the island.  A second foray a year later by the army of William II also failed, as Cadwgan declined to meet it head-on, preferring to fight isolated battles then retreat into the woods and wilderness, emerging only when he had a numerical advantage.  These two Norman failures in 1094 and 1095 may have secured Cadwgan a lasting respite from Norman aggression, but he was bound by the Welsh laws of succession.  In 1098, Gruffudd ap Cynan ap Iago attained full age and claimed his right to rule over Anglesey.  He had been living at Cadwgan's manor where he was designated the edling.  Although she was now dead, Cadwgan had in 1083 married Gwenllian, a daughter of the first Gruffudd ap Cynan and second cousin to the young prince-in-waiting.  Although the ancient biographer[18] knew that Cadwgan was the son-in-law of a Gruffudd ap Cynan, the latter was not the man of that name who emerged into history in 1098.  The actual relationships, we think, were:
 
                                975  Idwal                    Olaf
                        ___________l__________           l
                        l                                 l           l
             1005  Iago  ob 1039      1014  Cynan==Ranallt  Llychwy 
                        l                                       l                 l
            1035  Cynan                       1041 Gruffudd=====Dau
                        l                                                 l
          1070  Gruffudd  ob 1137  1055  Cadwgan===Gwenllian  1070
 
          Immediately upon the "coronation" of Gruffudd in Anglesey, the Normans reacted by resolving to bring Cadwgan and his new "king" to heel once and for all.  The combined armies of Earl Hugh of Chester and Earl Hugh of Shrewsbury were dispatched to Anglesey.  Outnumbered, but mostly fearing treachery by the men of Gwynedd, Cadwgan and Gruffudd fled to Ireland.  Acknowledging they were no match for the power of England, the men opened negotiations with King William II seeking the kind of treatment befitting of men of their royal births yet pledging loyalty to the crown.  Since Gruffudd ap Cynan was yet unmarried and Cadwgan was widowed, it was proposed the men take wives from subjects loyal to the King.  Owain ap Edwin was ruling in mainland Gwynedd and it was hoped that if Gruffudd took one of his daughters to wife[19], the two men would not attempt to expand their lordships by battling each other.  With this agreement, Gruffudd was taken into the king's favor and granted the lordship of Anglesey.  Cadwgan, who had taken a series of mistresses since his wife's death, was given a daughter of Picot de Say[20] and the lordship of Ceredigion. Both men were allowed to return to Wales in 1099 and claim their new wives and lands, together with an audience with King William Rufus where they pledged their fealty to the crown of England.
 
       Although the foregoing scenerio is not "history", neither was the work of Dr David Powell[21] which gave us much conjecture and few real facts...basically a fleshing out of the ancient chronicles with his best guess of what really happened.  In our case, we make it clear that our enhancement of the bare facts is only a reasonable guess. And not the only possible scenerio, but one which we believe to be more likely than those offered to date by other scholars.
    
NOTES:
[1] Refer to the paper "History of Gruffudd ap Cynan - A New Prospective" elsewhere on this site, consisting of arguments based mainly on chronological analysis
[2] See "Who was Maredudd ap Cynan" elsewhere on this site
[3] We offer no guesses to the identity of this man; the assumption he usurped Gwynedd was made by earlier writers and may be incorrect.  It is entirely possible Llewelyn ap Seisyllt took Gwynedd in 1003 or soon afterwards and that his killing of Aeddan in 1018 had nothing to do with Gwynedd
[4] His obit in the Brut merely says Llewelyn died, not that anyone killed him.  A year earlier, he had quashed the attempt of a man called Rhain to rule over Deheubarth.  Claiming to be a son of Maredudd ap Owain, Rhain was accepted by the leading men of Deheubarth.  We suspect he was Maredudd's base son and the act of Llewelyn in denying them their "rightful" king may have led them to seek Llewelyn's death.
[5] See the paper "Minimum Age for Welsh Kingship in the 11th Century" elsewhere on this site, where it is argued an heir was required to attain an age near 28 before making his claim to be king.
[6] The belief that Cynfyn ruled Powys after the death of Llewelyn ap Seisyllt is simply our guess based on the kingship claims later made by his sons; his obit is not recorded and our suggestion that Iago killed him is mere conjecture.
[7] In our speculative scenerio, we think friends of Cynan arranged to slip him away to safety in Ireland.  Our choice of a man of Anglesey, whom we make a descendant of Cadrod the brother of Merfyn Frych, is wholly based upon the later marriage cited between a Gruffudd ap Cynan and a daughter of Llychwy.  In fact, no one knows who Llychwy was but we doubt his daughter would have been deemed a suitable wife or mistress for Gruffudd unless he was descended from a noble Gwynedd family. While ABT 5 makes the lady mother of Iago and Yslani (wife of Hwfa ap Ithel Felyn of Ial) our portrayal of her is inconsistent with that.  Hwfa was born c. 1095 so Yslani was clearly not a daughter of the first Gruffudd ap Cynan.
[8] The medieval sources (Peniarth Ms 127, 129 & 131) say an Irish lady named Rhanullt, daughter of Ragnald, married a Gruffudd ap Llewelyn whom they identify as the son of Llewelyn Fawr.  Such a lady would date from c. 1210 and would be a generation too young to fit with the brother and sister given her by those sources. Others say it was Gruffudd ap Llewelyn ap Seisyllt whose first wife and mother of his sons was an Irish lady, a sister to the Rhanillt who married the first Gruffudd ap Cynan while he was in Ireland.  We think the earlier Gruffudd ap Llewelyn did take a wife before his marriage to the Saxon lady Editha; most date his latter marriage to c. 1058 while we would date his sons to c. 1041.  While wholly speculative, his marriage to a daughter of Olaf Sitricson could explain otherwise inexplicable events such as the abortive kidnapping of Gruffudd in 1042.
[9] While the first wife of Cynfyn is nowhere disclosed, we think she may have been an Irish lady who died while giving birth to the daughter known as Iwerydd.  That, we suspect, was simply a nickname denoting her Irish roots.  Since several other Welsh nobles are cited as marrying ladies descended from Olaf Cuaran and his son Sitric Silkbeard who ruled in Dublin, this would be the most likely family in Ireland to provide a wife for Cynfyn.
[10] We know from the Brut that "men of Dublin" captured Gruffudd ap Llewelyn in 1042, but that he was also still the king and expanding his territory two years later. Our connecting the incident with Cynan ap Idwal is mostly based on our timeline for that family which makes the event coincide with the year in which Cynan would have first became old enough to stake a kingship claim.  Our suggestion that the incident was resolved with the intervention of Sitric Silkbeard seems a logical guess since the men involved were his subjects.
[11] Welsh sources only report Gruffudd was slain by the treachery of his own men,  but Irish sources claim his killer was "Channan mac Iacco".  In the pedigrees found in Historia Gruffudd vab Cynan, he is called King Cynan but his opportunity to have held that office is brief; Bleddyn ap Cynfyn was made king of Gwynedd shortly after the death of Gruffudd ap Llewelyn.
[12] Dwnn i, 244 cites this marriage and calls her the mother of Eidio Wyllt
[13] Malli or Mary ferch Gruffudd ap Cynan is cited as the wife of Ieuaf ap Cadwgan ap Elystan Glodrydd in Dwnn i, 288  That man was born c. 1055 and should be expected to take a wife born c. 1070.  Again, chronology favors the identification of her father as a man born in the 1040's or earlier, not the more familiar Gruffudd who died in 1137.  The same applies to Gwenllian, also born c. 1070 who married Cadwgan ap Bleddyn, he born c. 1055.  The traditional dating of a single Gruffudd ap Cynan to 1055 requires that he had daughters at age 15 else we must believe that both Ieuaf and Cadwgan married ladies who were 35 years younger than themselves. Our identification of these ladies as daughters of an earlier Gruffudd ap Cynan requires no such unreasonable assumption. While Gwenllian and Malli were the eldest, at least one other daughter and four sons probably should be attributed to him.  See the forthcoming paper "The Children of Gruffudd, Nephew of Iago" to be published elsewhere on this site.
[14] The usual identification of Cynwrig as a son of Rhiwallon ap Bleddyn or a son of Rhiwallon ap Dyngad of Maelor fails chronologically.  In 1075, the former would be about 20 years old and the latter past 70; neither would have been made a ruler at those ages.  And nothing but the tale told in Historia Gruffudd vab Cynan connects Gruffudd's 1075 landing on Anglesey with the killing of Cynwrig, but it seems reasonable to assume it may have been the beginning of a local uprising by the men of Gwynedd which was soon supppressed.
[15] The standard identification of Meilyr is as a son of Rhiwallon ap Cynfyn. No such man occurs in the pedigree material and we have noted that none of the other men of Powys were present at Mynydd Cairn. His identification as the surviving cousin of Trahaearn seems more logical.
[16] The account in Historia Gruffudd vab Cynan seeks to magnify the battlefield prowess of Gruffudd by his dispatching the entire enemy force in a few hours late in the afternoon.  But the "Ode to Trahaearn and Meilyr" ,supposedly written by a contemporary bard, proclaims this about Meilyr: "On Thursday, at the end of three weeks, toward night, were thou slain".  We suggest a compromise in which there was not continuous fighting, but clashes and withdrawals in which the ultimate losers held their ground for several days.  They did have the high ground which forced their attackers to fight uphill.  It likely was a battle of attrition until the one side no longer had sufficient men to stave off the much larger force they faced, even with the terrain advantage.
[17] We have only the word of Historia that Gruffudd was ever taken prisoner. But since no more is ever heard from him, we have gone along with that story rather than assume he was summarily executed.
[18] The reference is to the anonymous writer of Historia Gruffudd vab Cynan who may have known Cadwgan married a daughter of Gruffudd ap Cynan and simply assumed it was the much younger Gruffudd who appears with Cadwgan in 1098. Our belief is that it was only mentioned to portray Gruffudd as the man of importance and Cadwgan merely an in-law.  Any reasonable analysis of the positions of the two men in 1098 would reverse those roles with Cadwgan the leader and Gruffudd merely a young wanna-be king.
[19] Gruffudd's first wife and mother of Owain Gwynedd was Angharad ferch Owain ap Edwin, a lady born near 1085.  We think the marriage was required of him by the English before granting him the lordship of Anglesey.
[20] Picot was a retainer of Earl Roger of Montgomery and possibly one of his sub-commanders at the Battle of Hastings. In the various versions of the Roll of Battle Abby, he is called "Pigod" and "Bigot of Boown" and is called Baron of Boorne in Normandy by the noted family researcher John Burke.
[21] The 16th century author of "History of Wales" whose speculations masquerading as history are the source of the traditional beliefs about many key events in early Wales, most of which have been dismissed as myths by modern scholars.