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Legendary History Prior to 1st Century BC
Beli Mawr and Llyr Llediath in Welsh Pedigrees
The Bartrum "Welsh Genealogies"
Bartrum's "Pedigrees of the Welsh Tribal Patriarchs"
A study in charting medieval citations
The Evolution of the "Padriarc Brenin" Pedigree
Generational Gaps and the Welsh Laws
Minimum Age for Welsh Kingship in the Eleventh Century
The Lands of the Silures
Catel Durnluc aka Cadell Ddyrnllwg
Ancient Powys
The Royal Family of Powys
The Royal Family of Gwynedd
The 5 Plebian Tribes of Wales
Maxen Wledig of Welsh Legend
Maxen Wledig and the Welsh Genealogies
Anwn Dynod ap Maxen Wledig
Constans I and his 343 Visit to Britain
Glast and the Glastening
Composite Lives of St Beuno
Rethinking the Gwent Pedigrees
The Father of Tewdrig of Gwent
Another Look at Teithfallt of Gwent
Ynyr Gwent and Caradog Freich Fras
Llowarch ap Bran, Lord of Menai
Rulers of Brycheiniog - The Unanswered Questions
Lluan ferch Brychan
The Herbert Family Pedigree
Edwin of Tegeingl and his Family
Angharad, Heiress of Mostyn
Ithel of Bryn in Powys
Idnerth Benfras of Maesbrook
Henry, the Forgotten Son of Cadwgan ap Bleddyn
The Muddled Pedigree of Sir John Wynn of Gwydir
The Mysterious Peverel Family
The Clan of Tudor Trevor
The Other "Sir Roger of Powys"
Ancestry of Ieuaf ap Adda ap Awr of Trevor
The Retaking of Northeast Wales
Hedd Molwynog or Hedd ap Alunog of Llanfair Talhearn
"Meuter Fawr" son of Hedd ap Alunog
The Medieval "redating" of Braint Hir
Aaron Paen ap Y Paen Hen
Welsh Claims to Ceri after 1179
The Battle of Mynydd Carn
Trahaearn ap Caradog of Arwystli
Cadafael Ynfyd of Cydewain
Maredudd ap Robert, Lord of Cedewain
Cadwgan of Nannau
Maredudd ap Owain, King of Deheubarth
What Really Happened in Deheubarth in 1022?
Two Families headed by a Rhydderch ap Iestyn
The Era of Llewelyn ap Seisyll
Cynfyn ap Gwerystan, the Interim King
The Consorts and Children of Gruffudd ap Llewelyn
The 1039 Battle at Rhyd y Groes
The First Wife of Bleddyn ap Cynfyn
Hywel ap Gronwy of Deheubarth
The Brief Life of Gruffudd ap Maredudd
The Other Gwenwynwyn
Eunydd son of Gwenllian
Sandde Hardd of Mortyn
The Floruit of Einion ap Seisyllt
The Enigmatic Elystan Glodrydd
Cowryd ap Cadfan of Dyffryn Clwyd
Owain ap Cadwgan and Nest ferch Rhys - An Historic Fiction?
The "sons" of Owain ap Cadwgan ap Bleddyn
The Betrayal by Meirion Goch Revisited
Gwyn Ddistain, seneschal for Llewelyn Fawr
The Men of Lleyn - How They Got There
Trahaearn Goch of Lleyn
Einion vs Iestyn ap Gwrgan - The Conquest of Glamorgan
Dafydd Goch ap Dafydd - His Real Ancestry
Thomas ap Rhodri - Father of Owain "Lawgoch"
The "Malpas" Family in Cheshire
Einion ap Celynin of Llwydiarth
Marchweithian, Lord of Is Aled, Rhufoniog
Osbwrn Wyddel of Cors Gedol
Bradwen of Llys Bradwen in Meirionydd
Ednowain ap Bradwen
Sorting out the Gwaithfoeds
Three Men called Iorwerth Goch "ap Maredudd"
The Caradog of Gwynedd With 3 Fathers
Who Was Sir Robert Pounderling?
Eidio Wyllt - What Was His Birthname?
The Legendary Kingdom of Seisyllwg
The Royal Family of Ceredigion
Llewelyn ap Hoedliw, Lord of Is Cerdin
The Ancestry of Owain Glyndwr
Gruffudd ap Rhys, the Homeless Prince
The Children of Lord Rhys
Maredudd Gethin ap Lord Rhys
The 'Next Heir' of Morgan of Caerleon
Pedigree of the ancient Lords of Ial
The Shropshire Walcot Family
Pedigree of "Ednowain Bendew II"
Pedigree of Cynddelw Gam

                                                TRAHAEARN GOCH OF LLEYN
                                              By Darrell Wolcott
 
        The traditional pedigrees of this man make him the son of Madog ap Rhys Gloff descended from Rhys ap Tewdwr.  But the earliest version of that pedigree[1] does not call him "Goch" nor say he was "of Lleyn".  Instead, it speaks of a Trahaearn ap Madog ap Rhys Gloff ap Rhys Fychan ap Gruffudd ap Rhys ap Tewdwr as a junior branch of the ruling family in Deheubarth.  Since the families which descended from Trahaearn Goch of Lleyn suggest he was born c. 1235, that pedigree fails chronologically by one generation.  Amended medieval pedigrees[2] were circulated to "cure" that shortcoming, these making Rhys Gloff a son of Gruffudd[3] ap Lord Rhys and calling this Rhys Gloff "Lord of Cymydmaen in Lleyn".  Since the Deheubarth royal family held lands nowhere near Lleyn in Gwynedd, the medieval historians[4] asserted that the father of Rhys Gloff had married Margaret, the daughter and heiress of one Gruffudd, Lord of Cymydmaen (the southernmost commote in Lleyn). No further identification of her family was offered. 
 
         Whether the father of Rhys Gloff was Rhys Fychan, as claimed by the older pedigree, or a son of Lord Rhys as cited by the emended version, no manuscript sources cite such a marriage for either man.  In fact, such a lady and her supposed father are wholly absent from the body of early pedigree material.  That "Lord of Cymydmaen" was, we believe, a fabrication seeking to explain the presence of Trahaearn Goch in Lleyn. Our research led to a completely different conclusion: that two men named Trahaearn ap Madog were confused by the 16th century genealogists, men who lived a generation apart and in very different parts of Wales.
 
         Peniarth Ms 131, pp 104 written by Gutun Owain c. 1475 cites "Ieuan Goch ap Dafydd Goch ap Trahaearn Goch of Lleyn"[5], and  Peniarth Ms 127, pp 56 written by Sir Thomas ap Ieuan ap Deicws c. 1510 cites "Trahaearn ap Madog ap Rhys Gloff ap Rhys Fychan ap Gruffudd ap Rhys ap Tewdwr".  These two independent citations were incorrectly linked in Dwnn ii, 280 and Harleian Ms 1972, 127r where Trahaearn ap Madog was equated to Trahaearn Goch of Lleyn.  Should we reject such a linkage, it is not necessary to emend either family to fit the chronology nor to explain finding a Deheubarth family in Lleyn:
 
               1045  Rhys ap Tewdwr, ob 1093
                             l
                1085  Gruffudd, ob 1137
                             l
              1120  Rhys Fychan*   
                             l
               1150  Rhys Gloff  
                             l
                 1180  Madog
                             l
               1215  Trahaearn                 1205  Madog
                                                                  l
              (Deheubarth family)          1235  Trahaearn Goch
                                                                  l
                                                    1270  Dafydd Goch
                                                                  l
                                                    1305  Ieuan Goch, lv 1352
 
                                                        (Lleyn family)    
 
           *a younger brother of Lord Rhys  
 
          The 1352 Record of Caernarfon confirms that the family of Trahaearn Goch was prominent in the commote of Cymydmaen in Lleyn.  The jury which assessed lands there contained at least six men who were grandsons of Trahaearn Goch, and its foreman was probably another[6].  Land owned by Ieuan Goch in Cymydmaen is described in that manuscript as being "in the wele Rhys ap Seisyllt" and it is a fair assumption the owners named in 1352 were lineal descendants of a man of that name. Accordingly, we consider that Rhys[7] a better choice as the grandfather of Trahaearn Goch than the Rhys Gloff of Deheubarth.  Our timeline would appear thusly:
 
                                   1140  Seisyllt
                                              l
                                   1175  Rhys
                                              l
                                  1205  Madog
                                              l
                           1235  Trahaearn Goch
 
        In a search for the probable father of the Seisyllt at the top of our pedigree, we turn to the descendants of Merwydd ap Collwyn ap Tangno known to have held Lleyn in the 11th century[8].  The 1352 Record of Caernarfon lists Llewelyn ap Dafydd ap Llewelyn as another Cymydmaen land owner, and pedigrees[9] say he was descended from Genillin ap Meirion Goch.  One also suspects the gene for red hair was dominant in this family, yielding several men nicknamed "Goch". Chronologically, Seisyllt would occur in the same generation as Cynwrig ap Genillin in the foregoing pedigree; accordingly we would see him as another son of Genillin:
 
                              1010  Collwyn ap Tangno
                                               l
                                1040  Merwydd Goch
                                               l
                                1070  Meirion Goch
                                               l
                              1105  Genillin Farchog
                     ________________l_____________
                     l                       l                      l
        1135  Cynwrig          other children       Seisyllt  1140
 
  (to Llewelyn ap Dafydd)                        (to Trahaearn Goch)
 
         The marriages usually assigned to Trahaearn Goch and to his "father and grandfather" actually belong to the similarly-named men in the Deheubarth family, as can be seen by the timeline:
 
      975  Cadell ap Einion    Cadwgan ap Elystan  1015
                      l                        l
         1010  Tewdwr               Idnerth  1045   Iestyn ap Gwrgan 1040
                      l                        l                        l
           1045  Rhys                Madog  1075        Caradog 1070
                      l                        l                        l
        1085  Gruffudd             Cadwallon  1105     Dafydd  1105
                      l                        l                        l
       1120  Rhys Fychan          Maelgwn  1135      Rhys  1135
                      l                        l                        l                        
       1150  Rhys Gloff[10]====Gwerfyl  1165     Gronwy  1165
                                   l                                   l
                       1180  Madog[11]===========Tangwystl  1195
                                                  l
                                   1215 Trahaearn====lady of Fferlys*
 
        *Cited in Dwnn ii, 175 as Gwerfyl ferch Madog ap Meurig ap Madog descended from Idnerth ap Elystan Glodrydd.  Her linkage to Inderth is incomplete and the only way to estimate her birthdate is by her husband (who is usually misidentified as Trahaearn Goch of Lleyn)
 
         The fact that all these wives are ladies from the southern part of Wales adds to the belief the men they married were from the Deheubarth family, not the Gwynedd men with similiar names.
 
         Trahaearn Goch of Lleyn is generally credited with a son called Ithel Talfrith, but solely based on citations which call the father of that man a Trahaearn Goch.  Not only was Ithel Dalfrith born a full generation earlier than the Trahaearn Goch of Lleyn, he was a Powys man with lands in Ystrad Alun[12].  However, the Ithel Felyn of Lleyn cited as the father of Ieuan[13] would occur c. 1265 and was probably the eldest son of Trahaearn Goch; we suspect he was also the father of Ithel Ddu, the foreman of the 1352 jury which assessed lands in Cymydmaen.
 
NOTES:
[1] Pen. 127, 56.  Later citations in Pen. 128, 156 and Pen. 176, 221 added the "Goch" nickname and "of Lleyn" for his residence.
[2] Dwnn ii, 175 & 280 and Harl. Ms 1972, 127
[3] The Dwnn citations in Note 2 say Gruffudd ap Lord Rhys, while the Harleian version says Rhys Fychan ap Lord Rhys
[4] J.Y.W. Lloyd "The History of Powys Fadog", vol v, pp 230, note 2 says "Rhys Fychan married Margaret, d. and heiress of Gruffudd, Lord of Cymytmaen.  Her arms were assumed by Trahaearn Goch, her great-grandson".  Neither Papworth's 'Ordinary of Arms', nor Siddons 'The Development of Welsh Heraldry' assign the arms to anyone earlier than Trahaearn Goch of Lleyn.  Thomas Glenn, "Welsh Founders of Pennsylvania", vol ii, pp 73 says, when speaking of Cymydmaen "that these lands had been part of the possessions of one Gruffudd, father of one of the wives of Rhys Fychan, seems certain".  Glenn's source was probably "Powys Fadog"; that the claim "seemed certain" to him is simply more evidence of his sloppy work.  He makes Trahaearn Goch 6th from Lord Rhys, which would date him to c. 1310/20 
[5] Pen. 128, 281a extends the pedigree to Trahaearn Goch ap Madog"
[6] The jury foreman is only identified as Ithel Ddu, whom we suspect was a son of Ithel Felyn ap Trahaearn Goch
[7] If the man for whom Wele Rhys ap Seisyllt was named was also called Rhys Gloff (the lame), the incorrect attachment of Trahaearn Goch to the Deheubarth family would be easier to understand
[8] See the paper "The Betrayal by Meirion Goch Revisited" elsewhere on this site
[9] Pen. 177, 118 & 126 & 141; and Pen. 134, 157 cite Llewelyn ap Dafydd ap Llewelyn ap Tudor ap Iorwerth ap Cynwrig ap Genillin Farchog
[10] This marriage is cited in Dwnn ii, 175
[11] This marriage is cited in Harl. 5835 and Dwnn ii, 175
[12] We believe Ithel Talfrith was a son of Trahaearn ap Iorwerth of Garthmyl, a man some called "Goch" although it was his grandson who bore that nickname.  Ystrad Alun was part of the paternal lands of this c. 1170 Trahaearn, who descended from Llewelyn Aurdorchog, Lord of Ial and Ystrad Alun.
[13] Pen. 176, 400 cites Ieuan ap Ithel Felyn of Lleyn