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Legendary History Prior to 1st Century BC
Beli Mawr and Llyr Llediath in Welsh Pedigrees
The Bartrum "Welsh Genealogies"
Bartrum's "Pedigrees of the Welsh Tribal Patriarchs"
A study in charting medieval citations
The Evolution of the "Padriarc Brenin" Pedigree
Generational Gaps and the Welsh Laws
Minimum Age for Welsh Kingship in the Eleventh Century
The Lands of the Silures
Catel Durnluc aka Cadell Ddyrnllwg
Ancient Powys
The Royal Family of Powys
The Royal Family of Gwynedd
The 5 Plebian Tribes of Wales
Maxen Wledig of Welsh Legend
Maxen Wledig and the Welsh Genealogies
Anwn Dynod ap Maxen Wledig
Constans I and his 343 Visit to Britain
Glast and the Glastening
Composite Lives of St Beuno
Rethinking the Gwent Pedigrees
The Father of Tewdrig of Gwent
Another Look at Teithfallt of Gwent
Ynyr Gwent and Caradog Freich Fras
Llowarch ap Bran, Lord of Menai
Rulers of Brycheiniog - The Unanswered Questions
Lluan ferch Brychan
The Herbert Family Pedigree
Edwin of Tegeingl and his Family
Angharad, Heiress of Mostyn
Ithel of Bryn in Powys
Idnerth Benfras of Maesbrook
Henry, the Forgotten Son of Cadwgan ap Bleddyn
The Muddled Pedigree of Sir John Wynn of Gwydir
The Mysterious Peverel Family
The Clan of Tudor Trevor
The Other "Sir Roger of Powys"
Ancestry of Ieuaf ap Adda ap Awr of Trevor
The Retaking of Northeast Wales
Hedd Molwynog or Hedd ap Alunog of Llanfair Talhearn
"Meuter Fawr" son of Hedd ap Alunog
The Medieval "redating" of Braint Hir
Aaron Paen ap Y Paen Hen
Welsh Claims to Ceri after 1179
The Battle of Mynydd Carn
Trahaearn ap Caradog of Arwystli
Cadafael Ynfyd of Cydewain
Maredudd ap Robert, Lord of Cedewain
Cadwgan of Nannau
Maredudd ap Owain, King of Deheubarth
Two Families headed by a Rhydderch ap Iestyn
The Era of Llewelyn ap Seisyll
Cynfyn ap Gwerystan, the Interim King
The Consorts and Children of Gruffudd ap Llewelyn
The 1039 Battle at Rhyd y Groes
The First Wife of Bleddyn ap Cynfyn
Hywel ap Gronwy of Deheubarth
The Brief Life of Gruffudd ap Maredudd
The Other Gwenwynwyn
Eunydd son of Gwenllian
Sandde Hardd of Mortyn
The Floruit of Einion ap Seisyllt
The Enigmatic Elystan Glodrydd
Cowryd ap Cadfan of Dyffryn Clwyd
Owain ap Cadwgan and Nest ferch Rhys - An Historic Fiction?
The "sons" of Owain ap Cadwgan ap Bleddyn
The Betrayal by Meirion Goch Revisited
Gwyn Ddistain, seneschal for Llewelyn Fawr
The Men of Lleyn - How They Got There
Trahaearn Goch of Lleyn
Einion vs Iestyn ap Gwrgan - The Conquest of Glamorgan
Dafydd Goch ap Dafydd - His Real Ancestry
Thomas ap Rhodri - Father of Owain "Lawgoch"
The "Malpas" Family in Cheshire
Einion ap Celynin of Llwydiarth
Marchweithian, Lord of Is Aled, Rhufoniog
Osbwrn Wyddel of Cors Gedol
Bradwen of Llys Bradwen in Meirionydd
Ednowain ap Bradwen
Sorting out the Gwaithfoeds
Three Men called Iorwerth Goch "ap Maredudd"
The Caradog of Gwynedd With 3 Fathers
Who Was Sir Robert Pounderling?
Eidio Wyllt - What Was His Birthname?
The Legendary Kingdom of Seisyllwg
The Royal Family of Ceredigion
Llewelyn ap Hoedliw, Lord of Is Cerdin
The Ancestry of Owain Glyndwr
Gruffudd ap Rhys, the Homeless Prince
The Children of Lord Rhys
Maredudd Gethin ap Lord Rhys
The 'Next Heir' of Morgan of Caerleon
Pedigree of the ancient Lords of Ial
The Shropshire Walcot Family
Pedigree of "Ednowain Bendew II"
Pedigree of Cynddelw Gam

                               THE LEGENDARY KINGDOM OF SEISYLLWG
                                               By Darrell Wolcott
 
         The noted Welsh historian, J.E. Lloyd, when speaking of Ceredigion, asserts "Seisyllt, who was king about 730, embarked on a career of conquest and added to Ceredigion the three cantrefs of Ystrad Tywy, the whole dominion being henceforth known from the name of its founder as Seisyllwg".[1]  Undoubtedly, Lloyd is referring to the Seisyllt ap Clydog descended from Ceredig ap Cunedda who is cited in Harleian Ms 3859 as an ancestor of Gwgan ap Meurig.
 
        A look at the sources Lloyd used to support his statement shows it to be more legendary than real.  First, he offers a line from the Mabinogion tale "Pwyll Lord of Dyfed" which reads "Pryderi (son of Pwyll) ruled the seven cantrefs of Dyfed prosperously, beloved by his country and by all around him; moreover he conquered the three cantrefs of Ystrad Tywy and the four cantrefs of Ceredigion, and these are now called the seven cantrefs of Seisyllwg."[2]  Never meant to be historical, that tale would date the creation of Seisyllwg to the late 6th century.  It claims Pryderi married a daughter of Gwyn ap Gloyw ap Casnar[3], an historical man born c. 540, so Pryderi is placed about c. 560.  No explanation is offered for naming the new kingdom "Seisyllwg".
 
        Next, Professor Lloyd cites the writing of two 19th century men: Basil Jones, author of "Vestages of the Gael in Gwynedd", and Egerton Phillimore, editor of the magazine "Y Cymmrodor".  The latter, in vol xi, was speaking of Cantref Mawr in Ystrad Tywy when he says "In the early times this cantref belonged to Demetia, or Dyfed, but it was conquered in the 8th century, with two other cantrefi south of the Towy by or before the time of Seissyll ap Clydog, king of Ceredigion, from whom the district of Ystrad Tywy, comprising the said three cantrefi, was called, together with Ceredigion, Seissyllwg or Seissyll's land".[4]  Phillimore cites the Pwyll tale in the Mabinogian as his authority for the statement.  So he would have it that a king of Ceredigion took Ystrad Tywy from Dyfed, while the Mabinogion story claims the opposite happened...and the two versions of the creation of Seisyllwg are separated by two centuries. 
 
          The next authority given by Professor Lloyd is Vol 2 of Aneurin Owens' "Ancient Laws and Institutes of Wales", pp 50.  This passage retells the mythical story of how Maelgwn used a chair composed of waxed wings to remain afloat while men representing the other kingdoms in Wales all sank when the tide came in, allowing Maelgwn to prove his entitlement to be supreme king.  Among the lesser kings who were bested by his trickery was one representing Seisyllwg.  Again, that tale is not historical but claims there was a kingdom called Seisyllwg as early as c. 525 when Maelgwn came to power. 
 
          The final "source" cited by Lloyd is Triad 14 in series iii.[5] The Series iii triads were composed by Iolo Morgannwg (obit 1868) and were not considered authentic ancient material by Rachel Bromwich when she published her scholarly work "Trioedd Ynys Prydein".  The fact that Iolo mentioned lands called Seisyllwg is entitled to no weight in our search for historical truth; his other writings show no inclination to stay with the facts.
 
          Thus, we find little in the literature beyond the borrowing from a Mabinogion tale and changing the era to suit the new tale being related.  Phillimore and Lloyd date the formation of Seisyllwg to correspond with the estimated reign of an 8th century Ceredigion king named Seisyllt even though two other tales say it existed 200 years earlier.  When viewed alongside other "kingdoms" named in the Mabinogion[6], it ceases to belong to history so much as to legend. 
 
        If such a consolidation of Ceredigion and Ystrad Tywy ever took place, it must have dissolved before the year 900; the Brut entry of 872 calls Gwgan ap Meurig "king of Ceredigion", indicating those lands had their own king independent of Ystrad Tywy.  Further, the entry of 807 citing the death of Arthen (ap Seisyllt) calls him "king of Ceredigion" and this was within one generation of the man who supposedly created Seisyllwg. 
 
         One might logically ask, what difference does it make whether or not there was a kingdom of Seisyllwg in the 9th century?  It is crucial to the claim that Rhodri Mawr "inherited" it from his reputed wife, Angharad ferch Meurig, sister of king Gwgan ap Meurig.  Those who make that claim could not simply say she was the heiress of Ceredigion; Rhodri's supposed seat for that part of his empire was Dinefwr located in Ystrad Tywy, not Ceredigion.  It is certainly beginning to look like his "rule" in that part of Wales is as bogus as we have shown his rule in Powys to have been.  While various medieval and modern writers assert, as though it were established history, that Cadell ap Rhodri Mawr inherited a vast kingdom in south Wales, no ancient sources confirm that notion.  Professor Lloyd only calls it "most probable" and based on the fact that his descendants are found in south Wales.  But those were also descendants of Cadell's son, Hywel Dda, who did in fact rule from Dinefwr in Ystrad Tywy.  And it was no inheritance from either his father or his grandmother.
 
         Perhaps we should begin at the inception of this new dynasty, with Merfyn Frych.  As the maternal grandson of the last male descended from the First Gwyedd Dynasty (his mother was Esyllt ferch Cynan Tyndaethwy, an only child), Merfyn came to Anglesey from the Isle of Man in 816.  He forcefully ousted Hywel ap Caradog from the island cantref and sent him back to his patrimony of Rhos. One would suspect his first order of business was to meet with the heads of other families who had recognized Cynan Tyndaethwy as their king.  After securing their support for his kingship claim, as much by sword-rattling as by any entitlement via his mother, he would have likely turned his attention to the kingdom of Meirionydd, still ruled by descendents of Meirion ap Cunedda.  Its king was Cynan ap Brochwel ap Ednyfed.  We suspect Merfyn Frych was able to bring those lands into his sphere of influence by agreeing to marry a daughter of Cynan.  He was then about 29 years old and unmarried.  We suggest it was Nest ferch Cynan ap Brochwel of Meirionydd whom he married, not the mythical "Nest ferch Cadell ap Brochwel of Powys".[7]  But that Nest was no heiress (Cynan had a son, Cadwaladr) and she brought no land to her husband or their sons. 
 
         When Merfyn died, or was killed, in 844, his son Rhodri was perhaps 24/26 years old.  It is possible that Merfyn's brother Cadrod acted as interim king until Rhodri attained "full age", but he might have immediately succeeded his father.  This was the era of invasions by both Vikings and Saxons, and Rhodri set out to unite the Welsh Cymri for self-defense.  He found both Caradog Freich Fras ap Hywel of Rhos and Brochwel ap Aeddan of Powys eager to pool their forces to resist the Saxons who, unlike the Viking sea raiders, sought Welsh lands and not simply lootable valuables.  But the kingdom to his south, Ceredigion, may have been reluctant to lend its warband to the united army proposed by Rhodri.  Its king, Meurig ap Dyfnwal, was directly descended from Ceredig ap Cunedda and his family had fended off for centuries any overtures to fall under the influence of Gwynedd.  Assuring Meurig that his lands would remain as an independent kingdom, Rhodri Mawr likely secured a military alliance with Ceredigion by marrying Meurig's daughter Angharad.[8]  Again, this marriage brought no lands with it; Meurig had a son, Gwgan.
 
        Medieval writers claim this marriage was to bring the kingdom of Seisyllwg to Rhodri, when King Gwgan ap Meurig died in 872 without heirs.  Not only is it doubtful there ever was a kingdom of Seisyllwg, we suspect that Einion ap Meurig ap Caradog ap Cloddien Frych ap Llowarch ap Seisyll ap Eiddon Ddu[9] of a cousin line of Gwgan ap Meurig was a logical member of the Ceredigion Dynasty to inherit its rule.  But Angharad may well have inherited the personal manor of her brother and father, and it may have been a part of the inheritance of her son Cadell.  But whatever lands those may have been, they were in Ceredigion and not near Dinefwr.
 
          By Angharad ferch Meurig, Rhodri had at least 3 sons who survived him when he was killed in 878.  Anarawd, the eldest, succeeded him as king of Gwynedd, while Merfyn ap Rhodri was given the lordship of Lleyn and probably the neighboring cantrefi of Eifionydd and Ardudwy.  While the third son, Cadell, would have inherited scattered manors throughout those lands now ruled by his brothers, if he held any lordship at all we do not know where.  Nor do we have any early authority which cites his marriage; modern writers call her Rheingar but give her no ancestry. By tradition, she supposedly was a lady of Dinefwr in Ystrad Tywy.
 
         Subsequent events lead us to identify this lady as probably a sister of Llywarch and Rhodri ap Hyfaidd ap Bleddri; that family had replaced the ruling Dyfed family when it became extinct in the male line.  Owain ap Maredudd ap Tewdos (descended from the ancient Deisi dynasty of Dyfed) had only a daughter, Tangwystl:
 
 
                                650  Cadwgan ap Caten
                       _______________l_______________
                       l                                                l
             680  Rhain                                  680  Tryffin[10]
              (king of Dyfed)                         (lord of Ystrad Tywi)
                       l                                                l
            715  Tewdos                                 710  Cynan   
                      l       
           750  Maredudd                      To Cadifor Fawr of c. 1030
                     l                                       
           780  Owain                           
      (king of Dyfed)                 
                    l                                       
      810  Tangwystl                   
     
     (heiress of Dyfed)       
 
         Tangwystl, the heiress of Dyfed, married an unidentified man called Bleddri.  According to the Triads, this man was not a nobleman of Wales.[11]  We prefer to think he was described in that manner simply because no pedigree could be found citing his ancestry.  Tangwystl's father Owain died in 811 when she was but an infant and his brother, Meurig, was not yet of "full age" to become king.  It was most likely a brother-in-law of Owain and Meurig who became the interim king of Dyfed, a man who had married their sister and was father to Bleddri.  If so, then Bleddri and Tangwystl were first-cousins.  One logical guess for the identity of this interim king of Dyfed is Dyfnwallon of Ceredigion.  This might explain why historians think a link existed between Dyfed and Ceredigion; one son of Dyfnwallon became king of Ceredigion and it may have been another who became king of Dyfed. Thus:
 
       765  Dyfnwallon=====dau f. Maredudd ap Tewdos  780
                      ______l_____________________
                     l                                            l
          800  Meurig                              800  Bleddri 
           ______l________                      ______l________   
           l                      l                     l                       l
830  Gwgan*     835 Angharad    830  Hyfaidd**    840  Aleth
 
      *King of Ceredigion until he died childless in 872
      **King of Dyfed until he died in 893
 
           We can now chart the marriage connections which the clan of Rhodri Mawr made with the Ceredigion and Dyfed families:
 
      790  Merfyn Frych      800  Meurig
                    l                          l
    820  Rhodri Mawr========Angharad  835
            ____________l__________                     Hyfaidd  830
           l                                    l               ______l_______
           l                                    l               l                     l 860
865  Tudwal                     850  Cadell====Rheingar 865   Llywarch
          =                                           l                             l 890
 Elen f. Aleth ap Bleddri           880  Hywel Dda===========Elen
 
        Asser's Life of King Alfred says that the sons of Rhodri Mawr were threatening Hyfaidd's lands so that king submitted to the overlordship of Alfred for protection.[12]  Perhaps it was Alfred's idea that two sons of Rhodri Mawr should marry granddaughters of Bleddri, the first-cousins Rheingar ferch Hyfaidd and Elen ferch Aleth.  This was a common tactic which allowed sons of potential conquerors to obtain lands by marriage rather than by combat.  
 
       It would appear that land is all that the son of Tudwal ap Rhodri[13] obtained in Dyfed, and Tudwal (being lame) expected nothing more.  But Cadell wanted a kingdom the equal of Gwynedd which his elder brother Anarawd ruled.  Standing in his way were his brothers-in-law Llywarch and Rhodri ap Hyfaidd.  It is unknown how Llywarch, who became king of Dyfed in 893, met his death in 904 but his brother Rhodri must have then claimed the kingship.  
 
       The Annales Cambriae tell us in 904 that "Rhodri ap Hyfaidd's head was struck off".[14]  That language seems to imply an execution, not merely death on the battlefield.  If he continued the assault on the church of David which Asser says marked the reign of Hyfaidd his father, it may have given Cadell the opportunity to seek his arrest and execution.  But Cadell was now about 55 years old and perhaps in poor health....he died a mere 5 years later.  His sons Hywel and Clydog, however, were in their mid-20's; almost immediately after the last male heir of Dyfed was executed, Hywel Dda ap Cadell married the young daughter of Llywarch ap Hyfaidd.  And this, we believe, was when the clan of Rhodri Mawr first obtained the manor at Dinefwr.  Hywel quickly cowed the other dynastic families of Ceredigion and Dyfed into accepting local lordships subject to him as king, calling the combined kingdoms (Dyfed and Ceredigion) by the new name "Deheubarth".  Initially, Hywel may have ruled with one or more of his brothers, but in 921 he did homage to King Edward the Elder and can be assumed to have been in sole control of Deheubarth after the death of Clydog.[15]
 
         Our view, accordingly, is that "Seisyllwg" or "Seisyll's lands" was no more than Ceredigion; that Dyfed comprised most of what is now called Pembrokeshire and Carmarthenshire, and that Deheubarth was formed by Hywel Dda by combining the two kingdoms.  Moreover, we believe none of it was ever held by Rhodri Mawr; if Cadell ap Rhodri ever ruled anything from Dinefwr, it was only between 905 and 910.
 

NOTES:
[1] J.E. Lloyd "A History of Wales from the Earliest Times to the Edwardian Conquest", 2nd edition, 1912, p. 257
[2] Jeffret Gantz, translation "The Mabinogion", 1976, p. 65.  The oldest extant manuscript containing fragments of the Pwyll tale is Peniarth 6 written c. 1225.  How much earlier the tale may have circulated orally is not known, but probably not much earlier than the 11th century.
[3] Pen. 128, 66 calls him "Gwynn gohoyw ap Gloyw gwlad lydan ap Llarf ap Kassnar wldeic"; our reconstruction of the timeline for this family suggests that the Mabinogion tale errs in omitting "Llara" as the father of Gloyw.  Extant sources refer to the family patriarch as both "Casnar Wledig" and "Cassanauth Wledig"
[4] Y Cymmrodor, 1892, vol xi, p. 56
[5] "Myvyrian Archaiology of Wales", 1870, p. 402
[6] In the Pwyll tale, a prominent figure is Arawn, king of Annwvyn, whose realm is said to border Dyfed.  No such real kingdom is known to have ever existed and many consider it to be the Other World of Welsh mythology which "lies so far west of Wales that one cannot reach it unless you are dead".
[7] See the paper "Nest ferch Cadell ap Brochwel" elsewhere on this site which suggests no such 9th century lady existed. 
[8] The marriage of Rhodri Mawr to Angharad ferch Meurig of Ceredigion is cited in ABT 6j and Jesus Coll. Ms 20, items 20, 21 and 42 
[9] Pen. 140, pp 348/349 and Mostyn Ms 212b, pp 91/92 make Eiddon Ddu a son of Ceredig ap Cunedda, but the timeline of his descendants point to c. 635 for his birth.  We suspect he was a brother of Arthglwys ap Arthfoddw, the paternal ancestor of Meurig ap Dyfnwallon.  That line failed in the late 10th century with Odwin ap Teithwalch, whose only daughter married Eunydd ap Pyll of Meirionydd and carried Castell Odwin to her son. 
[10] ABT 18b says "Triffyn ap Owain vraisc".  That Tryffin was the father of Aircol Lawhir of the 5th century, but the Tryffin who was the father of Cynan in the pedigree of Cadifor Fawr would date to c. 680 and was probably a brother of Rhain ap Cadwgan.
[11] Triad 68 names "Hyfaidd ap Bleddri of Deheubarth" as one of 3 kings who sprang from villeins, i.e. the lower class of non-free men who were bound to the land.  Deheubarth simply refers to the "right-hand side of Wales"; early maps were oriented with East on the top, so South was on the right.  Harl, 3859, 2 cites a "Hyfaidd son of Tangwystl ferch Owain ap Maredudd" in the line of kings of Dyfed.  Thus Tangwystl was the wife of Hyfaidd's unnamed father.  Most would identify him with the king in the cited triad.
[12] Translation by Simon Keynes and Michael Lapidge published by Penguin Books in 1983, pp 94-96
[13] Burke's Commoners, vol iv, pp 381 says "Tudwal espoused Helen, daughter of Aleth who, in the genealogies, is styled brenin Dyfed".  It was Hyfaidd who was king of Dyfed at the time Tudwal Gloff would have sought a wife, and we believe Aleth was a younger brother of that king.  The male name "Aleth" occurs often among families descended from Tudwal and is unknown in other families.  Tudwal's lands were in Rhufoniog in Gwynedd but two early families said to descend from him are found in Dyfed, suggesting he did marry a lady from south Wales.  He was only a half-brother of Cadell and about a half-generation younger.
[14] The date is emended to 905 in the Brut, two versions of which render his name corruptly as "Rhydderch" ap Hyfaidd
[15] The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle entry for 921 names three Welsh kings who gave allegiance to King Edward as "Hywel, Clydog and Idwal".  However, the Brut says the Clydog who was Hywel's brother was killed in 920.  One of these dates must be off by a year or so as no other Clydog is known to have been a Welsh king in that era.