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Legendary History Prior to 1st Century BC
Beli Mawr and Llyr Llediath in Welsh Pedigrees
The Bartrum "Welsh Genealogies"
Bartrum's "Pedigrees of the Welsh Tribal Patriarchs"
A study in charting medieval citations
The Evolution of the "Padriarc Brenin" Pedigree
Generational Gaps and the Welsh Laws
Minimum Age for Welsh Kingship in the Eleventh Century
The Lands of the Silures
Catel Durnluc aka Cadell Ddyrnllwg
Ancient Powys
The Royal Family of Powys
The Royal Family of Gwynedd
The 5 Plebian Tribes of Wales
Maxen Wledig of Welsh Legend
Maxen Wledig and the Welsh Genealogies
Anwn Dynod ap Maxen Wledig
Constans I and his 343 Visit to Britain
Glast and the Glastening
Composite Lives of St Beuno
Rethinking the Gwent Pedigrees
The Father of Tewdrig of Gwent
Another Look at Teithfallt of Gwent
Ynyr Gwent and Caradog Freich Fras
Llowarch ap Bran, Lord of Menai
Rulers of Brycheiniog - The Unanswered Questions
Lluan ferch Brychan
The Herbert Family Pedigree
Edwin of Tegeingl and his Family
Angharad, Heiress of Mostyn
Ithel of Bryn in Powys
Idnerth Benfras of Maesbrook
Henry, the Forgotten Son of Cadwgan ap Bleddyn
The Muddled Pedigree of Sir John Wynn of Gwydir
The Mysterious Peverel Family
The Clan of Tudor Trevor
The Other "Sir Roger of Powys"
Ancestry of Ieuaf ap Adda ap Awr of Trevor
The Retaking of Northeast Wales
Hedd Molwynog or Hedd ap Alunog of Llanfair Talhearn
"Meuter Fawr" son of Hedd ap Alunog
The Medieval "redating" of Braint Hir
Aaron Paen ap Y Paen Hen
Welsh Claims to Ceri after 1179
The Battle of Mynydd Carn
Trahaearn ap Caradog of Arwystli
Cadafael Ynfyd of Cydewain
Maredudd ap Robert, Lord of Cedewain
Cadwgan of Nannau
Maredudd ap Owain, King of Deheubarth
What Really Happened in Deheubarth in 1022?
Two Families headed by a Rhydderch ap Iestyn
The Era of Llewelyn ap Seisyll
Cynfyn ap Gwerystan, the Interim King
The Consorts and Children of Gruffudd ap Llewelyn
The 1039 Battle at Rhyd y Groes
The First Wife of Bleddyn ap Cynfyn
Hywel ap Gronwy of Deheubarth
The Brief Life of Gruffudd ap Maredudd
The Other Gwenwynwyn
Eunydd son of Gwenllian
Sandde Hardd of Mortyn
The Floruit of Einion ap Seisyllt
The Enigmatic Elystan Glodrydd
Cowryd ap Cadfan of Dyffryn Clwyd
Owain ap Cadwgan and Nest ferch Rhys - An Historic Fiction?
The "sons" of Owain ap Cadwgan ap Bleddyn
The Betrayal by Meirion Goch Revisited
Gwyn Ddistain, seneschal for Llewelyn Fawr
The Men of Lleyn - How They Got There
Trahaearn Goch of Lleyn
Einion vs Iestyn ap Gwrgan - The Conquest of Glamorgan
Dafydd Goch ap Dafydd - His Real Ancestry
Thomas ap Rhodri - Father of Owain "Lawgoch"
The "Malpas" Family in Cheshire
Einion ap Celynin of Llwydiarth
Marchweithian, Lord of Is Aled, Rhufoniog
Osbwrn Wyddel of Cors Gedol
Bradwen of Llys Bradwen in Meirionydd
Ednowain ap Bradwen
Sorting out the Gwaithfoeds
Three Men called Iorwerth Goch "ap Maredudd"
The Caradog of Gwynedd With 3 Fathers
Who Was Sir Robert Pounderling?
Eidio Wyllt - What Was His Birthname?
The Legendary Kingdom of Seisyllwg
The Royal Family of Ceredigion
Llewelyn ap Hoedliw, Lord of Is Cerdin
The Ancestry of Owain Glyndwr
Welsh Ancestry of the Tudor Dynasty
Gruffudd ap Rhys, the Homeless Prince
The Children of Lord Rhys
Maredudd Gethin ap Lord Rhys
The 'Next Heir' of Morgan of Caerleon
Pedigree of the ancient Lords of Ial
The Shropshire Walcot Family
Pedigree of "Ednowain Bendew II"
Pedigree of Cynddelw Gam
                                      SORTING OUT THE GWAITHFOEDS
                                                By Darrell Wolcott
 
          There is an old tale concerning a man called Gwaithfoed which is part of the lore of families descended from several men who bore that name, all claiming it was their Gwaithfoed.  The tale is set during the reign of Saxon King Edgar (959-975) and recites:
 
          "Gwaithfoed lived in the time of King Edgar, who summoned him to Chester to row his barge on the river Dee.  Gwaithfoed replied that he could not row a boat, but if he could he would not unless it were to save someone's life.  Edgar sent a second and more peremptory command, but Gwaithfoed would give the messenger no additional reply.  When that messenger begged most humbly for some word to carry back to his master, Gwaithfoed said to tell the king that he should 'fear him who fears not death'.  Struck with his courage, Edgar came to him and gave him his hand with great kindness, and entreated him to become his friend".[1]
 
         Others claim the incident occurred when King Edgar sought to force some of his tributary kings to demonstrate their homage and subservience to him by jointly rowing the king in his barge on the Dee river from his residence in Chester to St John's Church.[2]  While of doubtful historicity[3], only one of the known Gwaithfoeds was an adult at the time: the father of Gwerystan living in Tegeingl and perhaps 25 miles or less from Chester.
 
          In his 1963 work[4], Peter Bartrum made a start in unravelling the several different men named Gwaithfoed which medieval writers had combined into a single "Gwaithfoed Fawr".  Our work suggests the task is still unfinished.  We shall take a further look at each of 9 men named Gwaethfoed which are found in ancient or medieval texts:
 
GWAITHFOED OF RHOS:
 
          Wholly unmentioned by Bartrum, the earliest known Gwaithfoed is known only as a link in the ancestry of Heilig ap Glannog of Rhos.[5]  We date him to c. 885 as the father of Glannog, and son of Gwgan Gleddyfrydd ap Caradog Freich Fras.  He was thus ancestor to Llowarch Hwlbwrch, Iarddur ap Cynddelw, Madog Gloddiath and Nefydd Hardd and probably the ancestor of Maelog Crwm and Cadwgan of Nannau.
 
         Our construction of this family appears in the following chart:
 
                            745  Caradog of Rhos, ob 798
                                            l
                                  785  Hywel, ob 825
                                            l
                           820  Caradog Freich Fras
                                            l
                          855  Gwgan Gleddyfrydd
                                            l
                              885  Gwaithfoed
                                            l
                                915  Glannog
                                            l
                                  950  Heilig
                                            l
                              980  Gwrydr Goch*
                                            l
                          1010  Llowarch Hwlbwrch  
 
         *His brother Rychwyn was the ancestor of Nefydd Hardd, while his brother Pasgen was ancestor to Iarddur ap Cynddelw and Madog Gloddiath and probably also to Maelog Crwm.  We think his younger son was Cadwgan, ancestor of the later Cadwgan of Nannau 
 
GWAITHFOED OF POWYS
 
        Born c. 915 and the second-earliest of all the Gwaithfoeds, he was the son of Gwynnog Farfsych ap Lles Llyddog[6] and the father of Gwerystan and direct ancestor of Bleddyn ap Cynfyn.  He is also the only known Gwaithfoed who was an adult during the reign of Saxon King Edgar (959-975) and might have been the subject of the "boat rowing" tale related by medieval writers.  Bartrum identified this man substantially correct as to ancestry and birthdate. We place him at Cwybr in the commote of Rhuddlan in Tegeingl.
 
         This man was also the father of Ednowain, born c. 945, who married Gwerfyl ferch Llyddocca ap Tudor Trevor. (Dwnn ii, 307) 
 
GWAITHFOED OF TEGEINGL
 
         One of several men of this name descended from Lles Llyddog of Powys, this Gwaithfoed was the son of Gwrydr Hir ap Caradog ap Lles Llyddog.[7]  Born c. 955, he was the father of Neiniad and grandfather of Ednowain Bendew.  We also identify him as a brother of Idnerth Benfras and believe him to be the father of the Gronwy whose son was called Edwin of Tegeingl.  While Bartrum did not make those connections, he did otherwise identify this Gwaithfoed correctly as to ancestry and birthdate.
 
        This chart shows the relationship and dating of the two North Wales men named Gwaithfoed:
 
                                      855  Lles Llyddog
                        _________________l______________
                        l                                                 l
        885  Gwynnog Farfsych                       890  Caradog
                        l                                                 l
        915  Gwaithfoed of Powys                   920  Gwrydr Hir
                        l                                                 l
           950  Gwerystan                      955  Gwaithfoed of Tegeingl
                        l                                                 l
             985  Cynfyn                                 985  Neiniad
                        l                                                 l
           1025  Bleddyn                          1020  Ednowain Bendew
 
GWAITHFOED OF YSTRAD TYWI
 
        Born c. 975, this Gwaithfoed was the father of Cydrich of Gwynfe in the parish of Llangadog in Cantref Bychan.  Bartrum makes no guess as to his ancestry, but he occurs in the same generation as Gwyn ap Rhydderch, the grandfather of Cadifor Fawr of Ystrad Tywi.  Should we assume he was a brother of that Gwyn, it would explain the intermarriages which occurred between the two families.  A son of Cydrich ap Gwaithfoed married a sister of Iestyn ap Gwrgan of Glamorgan and his descendants are found in Senghenydd, Glamorgan. 
 
          Alternately, this Gwaithfoed might have been a son of Cloddien ap Gwrydr Hir cited as the father of Cadifor[8].  If so, that Cadifor was a brother of Cydrich.  Additionally, one must posit that either Gwaithfoed or his father must have married an unknown heiress of Cantref Bychan, Ystrad Tywy.
 
          Either of the following ancestries for this Gwaithfoed is possible, but no ancient citations shed any light on the matter:
 
                 900  Elgan of Dyfed                  920  Gwrydr Hir
                              l                                          l
                 935  Rhydderch                        950  Cloddien
                ________l___________                          l
                l                              l                          l
      965  Gwyn             975  Gwaithfoed      980  Gwaithfoed
               l                               l                          l       
    995  Collwyn             1010  Cydrich      sons Cydrich and Cadifor
               l
 1030  Cadifor Fawr*
 
         *ABT 18b cites this ancestry for Cadifor Fawr, but no sources which mention Cydrich ap Gwaithfoed identify the father of that Gwaithfoed
           
            
 
GWAITHFOED I OF GWENT
 
        Bartrum suggests this was also Gwaithfoed of Ceredigion and father to Aeddan, y Bach and Gwyn...a position which wholly defies chronology.[9]  Our work points to two such men of Gwent, the first born c. 1045 and the father of Sir Gwyn, and the second born c. 1135 and the father of Aeddan and y Bach.  We suggest the later Gwaithfoed was the great-grandson of the first one.  We would identify the earliest Gwaethfoed of Gwent as "ap Gwyn ap Glyddien (Cloddien) ap Gwybedydd ap Gwrydr Hir ap Caradog ap Lles Llyddog" [9] and believe he (or an intermediate ancestor) took up residence on the family's paternal lands in south Powys when other branches of the family remained in Tegeingl.  We further suggest that when his lands were overrun by Normans and incorporated into Salop (Shropshire), this Gwaethfoed moved south looking for a new spot to settle.  Entering the north of Upper Gwent, we think he appealed to its king, Ynyr ap Cadwgan, and was given Merwydd ferch Ynyr [10] as wife and lands where White Castle was later built.  It is even possible Gwaethfoed came to Gwent as an invader/squatter and avoided armed conflict with its king by agreeing to marry Ynyr's daughter.  We date Ynyr to c. 1030 and Merwydd to c. 1060 and reject the medieval tale that had Gwaithfoed of Ceredigion making a plundering raid into Gwent and returning home with the king's daughter as his wife.  Our view that the lady married a Gwaithfoed of Gwent seems more reasonable, both as to geography and chronology.[11]  His only known son is called Sir Gwyn, born c. 1075, builder of Gwyn's Castle now known as White Castle. 
 
        About the year 1100, Sir Drew de Baladon (or Balun) invaded upper Gwent as a retainer of the Marcher Lord Roger fitz William fitz Osbern.  Confronted by both Ynyr and Gwaithfoed, it apppears bloodshed was averted by both Welshmen agreeing to provide their sons as spouses for de Baladon's daughters.  Ynyr Ddu ap Ynyr married Jois de Baladon [12] while Sir Gwyn ap Gwaithfoed married Emma de Baladon[13]. 
 
GWAITHFOED II OF GWENT:
 
          It was, we believe, the grandson of Sir Gwyn ap Gwaithfoed who was the second Gwaithfoed of Gwent who was father to Aeddan, y Bach, Gwilym (or Emlyn) and probably Cadwgan (mentioned below under Other Citations); those sons were born c. 1165/1170.  The name of the father of this c. 1135 Gwaethfoed was probably Sir Dryw[14]. 
 
          We chart and date the Gwent men as follows:
 
                                 920  Gwrydr Hir
                                             l
                               955  Gwybedydd(a)
                                             l
                                985  Glyddien or Cloddien 
                                             l
                                 1015  Gwyn
                                             l
                               1045  Gwaithfoed I=======Morfydd f. Ynyr
                                                              l                     1060
          1080  Emma de Baladon=======Sir Gwyn 1075
                                                l
                                    1105  Dryw or Drew
                 ___________________l__________
                 l                                              l
 1135  Gwaithfoed II                                 Drwm  1140
             __l______________                        l
             l l                        l                       l                   1185
  1165 Aeddon,              Emlyn 1170   1170 Ieuan(b)==Joan f. Hywel
  1170  Y Bach                   l                                 l         Caerleon
                        1205 Sir John Gwyn               Sir Drwm 1200
                                      l                                 l
                        1240  Elisabeth(c)=========Sir Drew  1230
                                                       l
                                         Sir Gilbert Wynston(d) 1260
 
       (a) Younger brother of Gwaithfoed of Tegeingl who inherited the family lands in south Powys
        (b) Llyfr Baglan, 88 cites "Joane ferch Hywel Caerleon" married Ivon ap Sir Drew" while LB, 223 cites the same marriage, calling him "Ieuan ap Gwaethfoed".  Since LB 96 and 97 mention a "Drym ap Dryw" but LB 223 mentions a "Dryw ap Drym", we think both constructions appear in the family and are confused with each other
       (c) LB 97 cites "a daughter of Sir John Gwyn ap Emlyn ap Gwaithfoed" married "Sir Drym ap Sir Dryw", but LB 223 says "Elisabeth ferch Sir John Gwyn" married "Sir Dryw ap Sir Drym".  We think the the first mentioned citation reversed the names to agree with an earlier "Drym ap Dryw"
      (d) His marriage to Isabel ferch William de Valence is cited by LB 223; the latter was the first Earl of Pembroke who died in 1296.  Sir Gilbert is called "son of Dryw ap Drym" by "Elisabeth ferch Sir John Gwyn" in this citation
 
 
GWAITHFOED OF MEIRIONYDD
 
         Bartrum identifies this man as the father of Genillin (Cynillin) and while he indicates this man was not "ap Elffin ap Gwyddno"[15], does not suggest the correct lineage.  He obviously did not descend from the shadowy Gwyddno Garanir whose Cantref Gwaelod was said to have become submerged; that man (if historic) lived in Ceredigion.  We would identify this Gwaithfoed as "ap Eunydd ap Cadifor ap Peredur Beiswrydd ap Einion ap Eunydd ap Pyll ap Sandde ap Gwyddno"[16] descended from Meirion ap Cunedda, and date his birth to c. 1100.  We also think he is the great-great-great grandson of the Eunydd ap Pyll who married Morfydd ferch Odwin ap Teithwalch ap Owain of Ceredigion[17].  That Eunydd inherited Castell Odwin in Ceredigion so that his direct descendants held paternal lands in Meirionydd and maternal lands in Ceredigion. 
 
        This Gwaethfoed appears to have left the Meirionydd lands to his son Cynillin (born c. 1135) and the Ceredigion lands to another son, Cadifor. Probably a third son, born c. 1130, was Ednyowain who Geraldus Cambrensis called a usurping abbott at Llanbadarn Fawr during his 1188 journey through Wales. 
 
GWAITHFOED OF CEREDIGION
 
        We note that Bartrum derives this man from the Meirionydd family of Eunydd ap Cadifor ap Peredur Beiswrydd[18], but identifies him as the father of a Cadifor whose descendants are found in Ceredigion.  He dates him exactly contemporary with the man he calls Gwaithfoed of Meirionydd.  We suggest this second Gwaithfoed was actually a grandson of the first one we mentioned: Gwaithfoed ap Cadifor ap Gwaithfoed ap Eunydd, born c. 1160.  Our charts of this family appear as:
 
                  Meirionydd family         Ceredigion family
 
                                                    860  Owain
                                                               l
                  865  Sandde               890  Teithwalch    
                            l                                  l
                    900  Pyll                     920  Odwin
                            l                                  l
                 935  Eunydd=============Morfydd  950
                                           l
                                 965  Einion
                                           l
                        1000  Peredur Beiswrydd          
                                           l                                
                              1035  Cadifor
                                           l                                
                              1070  Eunydd
                                           l
                        1100  Gwaithfoed of Meirionydd
             ___________________l___________
             l                                                l
1135  Cynillin                              1130  Cadifor (Ceredigion)
      (Meirionydd)  _______________________l____________
                        l                            l                           l
          1160  Gwaithfoed       1165  Iorwerth          1160  Ifor[19]
                  of Ceredigion                 l                           l
                        l                            l                           l
            1190  Cadifor          1195  Gruffudd          1190  Philip[19]
                        l                            l                          
              1220  Ifor[20]       1230  Gruffudd Foel[21] 
                        l                   (Castell Odwin)
        1255  Gruffudd Foel[22]  
                 (Glyn Aeron) 
 
          Bartrum's charts combine the 1160 and 1220 men named Ifor ap Cadifor into a single man, and contain a single Gruffudd Foel of Castell Odwin to whom is appended the families of both men of that name; this although the citations clearly make one Gruffudd Foel the son of Ifor[23] and the other a son of Gruffudd ap Iorwerth[24].  Our timeline for the subsequent families indicates the two men were born a generation apart.  The fact that both the Gwaithfoed of c. 1100 and the Gwaithfoed of c. 1160 named a son Cadifor, that both of these men named one son Ifor, and that each Cadifor also had a near descendant named Gruffudd Foel has apparently confused most genealogists.  It is only by applying a strict timeline to this extended family that one can see that the citations are not corrupt (as Bartrum assumed) but identify multiple family cadets.
 
         The c. 1255 Gruffudd Foel began a long string of same-named men, repeating names first used by the family of the c. 1230 Gruffudd Foel.  Thus we find a Rhydderch ap Ieuan Lloyd ap Ieuan ap Gruffudd Foel born c. 1330 who has sons Dafydd, Jenkin, Thomas, Philip and Rhys and a Rhydderch ap Ieuan Lloyd ap Ieuan ap Gruffudd Foel born c. 1360 who had sons Dafydd, Dafydd II, Thomas, Philip, Gruffudd, Jenkin, Rhys and Ieuan the noted poet.
 
 
GWAITHFOED OF BUELLT:
 
        This man was born c. 1090 and father to Gwallog.  Bartrum charts him with the descendants of Llewelyn ap Cadwgan ap Elystan Glodrydd, but gives him no ancestry.  Instead, he is shown as an alternate father of Gwallog whose "other" father is shown as Gwrgeneu Fychan ap Gwrgeneu ap Llewelyn ap Cadwgan.[25] 
 
        In fact, Bartrum has combined two men named Gwallog.  There was a Gronwy ap Meilyr ap Gwallog ap Gwrgeneu Fychan ap Gwrgeneu ap Llewelyn ap Idnerth ap Madog ap Llewelyn ap Cadwgan who was born c. 1315 and had a son called Gronwy Fychan.  But there was also a Gronwy ap Meilyr ap Gwallog ap Gwaithfoed born c. 1190 who had a son called Ieuan Goch.  Bartrum would make Ieuan Goch a brother of Gronwy Fychan although his construction displays a chronological abortion[26].  If we attach the earlier Gwallog as a son of Gwaithfoed, then such a Gwaithfoed fits chronologically as a son of Llewelyn ap Cadwgan ap Elystan Glodrydd:
 
                                      990  Elystan Glodrydd
                                                     l
                                       1020  Cadwgan
                                                     l
                                       1055  Llewelyn
                    _____________________l______________
                    l                                                        l
    1090  Gwaithfoed                                     1085  Madog
                    l                                                        l
      1125  Gwallog                                                1120  Idnerth
                    l                                                        l
        1160  Meilyr(a)                                    1155  Llewelyn
                    l                                                        l
        1190  Gronwy                                    1190  Gwrgeneu
                    l                                                        l
      1220  Ieuan Goch                             1220  Gwrgeneu Fychan
                    l                                                        l
    1250  Ieuan Fychan(c)                             1255  Gwallog
                                                                             l
                                                                 1285  Meilyr(b)
                                                                             l
                                                                 1315  Gronwy
                                                                             l
                                                          1345  Gronwy Fychan
                                                                             l
                                                           1375  Ieuan Fychan(d)
 
      (a) Pen. 131, 303 and Dwnn i, 96 cite "Meilyr ap Gwallog ap Gwaithfoed", but neither extend his ancestry further
       (b)  Pen. 128, 720a & 730b cite "Meilyr ap Gwallog ap Gwrgeneu Fychan"
      (c)  Pen. 138, 554 cites this man and a sister as children of Ieuan Goch ap Gronwy ap Meilyr; the sister married Iorwerth ap Maredudd ap Madog Danwr, a man born c. 1240
       (d) Pen, 128, 845a cites this man as the father of two children, both of whom married spouses born c. 1400/1410
 
 
OTHER CITATIONS:
 
        Peniarth Ms. 132, 127 mentions a "Nest ferch Gruffudd ap Cadwgan ap Gwaithfoed".  Her granddaughter, an unnamed daughter of Gronwy Person, married Philip Fychan ap Philip ap Trahaearn ap Cadwgan ap Tegwared ap Ysbwys ap Idio Wyllt.  Idio Wyllt was a son of Nest, sister of Rhys ap Tewdwr; this would date Philip Fychan to c. 1260 and his wife's grandmother to c. 1230.  This would point to a birthdate of this Gwaithfoed near 1135, so Cadwgan may have been another brother of Aeddan and y Bach of Gwent. (See Gwaithfoed of Gwent II above)  Bartrum charts this "Cadwgan ap Gwaethfoed" on the same page as "Cadifor ap Gwaethfoed of Ceredigion" but does not attach him to any ancestry.  Our dates are shown by this chart:
 
           1015  Tewdwr ap Cadell ap Einion
                              l
                   1045  Nest======Sitrick ap Olaf  1030
                                      l
                        1065  Idio Wyllt
                                      l
                         1100  Ysbwys(a)     Gwaithfoed of Gwent II  1135
                                      l                            l
                        1130  Tegwared                Cadwgan  1165
                                      l                            l
                         1165  Cadwgan                Gruffudd  1195
                                      l                            l
                       1195  Trahaearn                   Nest(b)  1230
                                      l                            l
                          1230  Philip                Gronwy Person  1245
                                      l                            l
                     1260  Philip Fychan==========dau  1275
 
        (a)  This, and most citations, mention Ysbwys and his brother Mabon as "ap Golwg Goch ap Idio Wyllt".  Actually Golwg Goch is a nickname of Idio meaning "red eyes", and the "ap" is a mistake.  Both men, by their chronological placement in pedigrees of their descendants, were sons of Idio Wyllt.
          (b) She married Cadwgan ap Owain descended from Rhydderch ap Tewdwr; this Cadwgan was born c. 1215.  The marriage is cited in Pen. 132, 127, the source of our entire chart
 
  

NOTES:
[1] A paraphrase of the story recited in Iolo Manuscripts, Llandovery, 1868, pp 481/482
[2] The barge-rowing event (sans any mention of Gwaithfoed) is told by Florence of Worcester (who dates it to 973), Matthew of Westminister (who dates it to 974) and William of Malmsbury (who gives no date) and say it involved 8 sub-kings.  The Saxon Chronicle and Henry of Huntingdon report that 6 kings met Edgar at Chester to agree to a treaty of alliance, but make no mention of rowing the king's barge.  There is a notice affixed to a wall in Chester which says the event occurred in 972, while a painting appears on a stained-glass window of St. John's church in Chester which depicts men rowing Edgar's barge.
[3]  Archaeologia Cambrensis, 1877, pp 237/239 discusses several valid reasons why the event probably never happened.
[4] "Pedigrees of the Welsh Tribal Patriarchs", National Library of Wales Journal, Vol xiii, pp 126-127
[5] Pen. 181, 391 and Pen. 134, 86 cite "Llowarch Hwlbwrch ap Gwrydr Goch ap Heilig ap Glannog ap Gwaithfoed ap Gwgan Gleddyfrydd" and provide the only ancestry given for Heilig which is chronologically stable
[6] Mostyn Ms 117,3 inserts a "Gwinnan" between Gwaithfoed and Gwynnog Barbsych, but also inserts "Gwyn" between Gwerystan and Gwaithfoed.  Both must be deleted to chronologically align with other family branches descended from Lles Llyddog.  A number of other citations cite "Gwerystan ap Gwaithfoed" but none correct the ancestry of this Gwaithfoed as our construction requires
[7] ABT 1b cites "Gwaithfoed ap Gwrydr ap Caradog ap Lles Llyddog" but incorrectly attached Gwerystan to him.  Per ABT 2d, he was the ancestor of Ednowain Bendew ap Neiniad ap Gwaithfoed ap Gwrydr
[8] Pen. 140, 347 cites "Cadifor ap Gwaithfoed ap Cloddien ap Gwrydr Hir".  Llyfr Baglan 109 and 122 cite "Cydrich ap Gwaithfoed" but both wrongly call his father "of Cardigan"
[9] Bartrum's reference is to a Gwaithfoed born c. 1100 and actually the one from Meirionydd.  Aeddon and Y Bach were born c. 1165/1170, while Sir Gwyn was born c. 1075; they could not have had a common father. 
[10] See Wrexham Ms 1, 81
[11] Pen. 140, 348/349 and Mostyn Ms 212b, 91/92 cite this marriage, but incorrectly describe Gwaithfoed as "of Ceredigion".  We assign the marriage to the only Gwaithfoed who fits the lady chronologically (and geographically)
[12] The pedigree of the de Baladon family appears in Bradford's 'History of Monmouthshire', vol 1, part 1, page 4 where the husband of Joyce is called Ynyr, King of Gwent.  In the same work, vol 1, part 2b, page 335, a pedigree of Ynyr Gwent appears in which Ynyr Ddu is incorrectly charted as a brother of Ynyr, and assigned the wives belonging to both; one a lady born c. 1045 and the other a lady born c. 1080.
[13] This marriage is cited in the de Baladon family pedigree referenced in the next above note
[14] ibid 'History of Monmouthshire, vol 1, part 2a, page 242 cites Dryw as the son of Sir Gwyn and Emma de Baladon
[15] Barturm's "A Welsh Classical Dictionary", 1993, p 303
[16] Pen. 140, 273 and Pen. 131, 306 cite this ancestry for a "Gwaithfoed of Ceredigion" although the family is derived from Meirion ap Cunedda and lived in Meirionydd
[17] Pen. 140, 348/349 cites "mam Gwaithfoed: Morfydd ferch Odwin ap Teithwalch ap Owain" and traces her ancestry to Ceredig ap Cunedda.  No citations specifically say who Morfydd married and thus who was the father of whichever Gwaithfoed is mentioned.  We match her with Eunydd ap Pyll based primarily on the timeline, but also because we think this Gwaethfoed and his immediate ancestors inherited lands in both Meirionydd and Ceredigion
[18] ibid note 15, p 302
[19] Dwnn i, 245 says "Ifor ap Cadifor ap Gwaithfoed" married "Lleuci ferch Cadifor ap Dyfnwal".  Cadifor ap Dyfnwal was born c. 1135 and a daughter born c. 1165 fits this Ifor ap Cadifor.  Cardiff Ms 3.11, 18/19 cites "Philip ap Ifor ap Cadifor ap Gawithfoed" married "Angharad ferch Llewelyn, prince of Gwynedd".  This must have been Llewelyn ap Iorwerth, born c. 1165, since Llewelyn ap Gruffudd had no daughters who were permitted to marry.  Angharad would date from c. 1200
[20] This Ifor ap Cadifor ap Gwaithfoed had a sister named Ales who, according to Dwnn i, 20 and Dwnn i, 21, married Cadwgan Fawr ap Cadwgan from the Cydwili family descended from Llewelyn ap Gwrgan.  Cadwgan Fawr was born c. 1210 and could not have married a sister of the Ifor ap Cadifor born c. 1160.
[21]  Dwnn i, 38 says "Gruffudd Foel Lord of Castell Odwyn(sic) ap Ifor ap Cadifor ap Gawithfoed" married "Annest ferch Robert ap Madog", while Pen. 131, 221 extends her ancestry to "Robert ap Madog ap Trahaearn".  9th from Elystan Glodrydd, Annest would be born c. 1270.  Bartrum would emend every source which cites this marriage to say "Gruffudd Foel of Glyn Aeron(sic) ap Gruffudd ap Iorwerth ap Cadifor ap Gwaithfoed" was meant, but that man is a generation too old.  The marriage belongs to Gruffudd Foel of Glyn Aeron, but he was the son of Ifor ap Cadifor as given in Dwnn i, 245. 
[22] This is the Gruffudd Foel who was a paternal ancestor of the bard "Ieuan ap Rhydderch ap Ieuan Lloyd of Glyn Aeron". 
[23] See Dwnn i, 15, 18, 38, 46, 80, 230 & 245
[24] Pen. 131, 220, 225 & 227 and Pen. 129, 51
[25] While there were two men named Gwrgeneu Fychan ap Gwrgeneu ap Llewelyn in this family, one was born c. 1220 and the other c. 1270; neither could have been grandsons of Llewelyn ap Cadwgan.  Bartrum shows 3 missing generations in his construction
[26] Bartrum's "Welsh Genealogies AD 300-1400" on chart Elystan Glodrydd 20 depicts Ieuan Goch as born c. 1230 and Gronwy Fychan at c. 1330, then inserts an extra Ieuan Goch as father of two of Gronwy Fychan's children