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Ancestors and Children of the Lord Rhys
                                      SORTING OUT THE GWAITHFOEDS
                                                By Darrell Wolcott
          There is an old tale concerning a man called Gwaithfoed which is part of the lore of families descended from several men who bore that name, all claiming it was their Gwaithfoed.  The tale is set during the reign of Saxon King Edgar (959-975) and recites:
          "Gwaithfoed lived in the time of King Edgar, who summoned him to Chester to row his barge on the river Dee.  Gwaithfoed replied that he could not row a boat, but if he could he would not unless it were to save someone's life.  Edgar sent a second and more peremptory command, but Gwaithfoed would give the messenger no additional reply.  When that messenger begged most humbly for some word to carry back to his master, Gwaithfoed said to tell the king that he should 'fear him who fears not death'.  Struck with his courage, Edgar came to him and gave him his hand with great kindness, and entreated him to become his friend".[1]
         Others claim the incident occurred when King Edgar sought to force some of his tributary kings to demonstrate their homage and subservience to him by jointly rowing the king in his barge on the Dee river from his residence in Chester to St John's Church.[2]  While of doubtful historicity[3], only one of the known Gwaithfoeds was an adult at the time: the father of Gwerystan living in Tegeingl and perhaps 25 miles or less from Chester.
          In his 1963 work[4], Peter Bartrum made a start in unravelling the several different men named Gwaithfoed which medieval writers had combined into a single "Gwaithfoed Fawr".  Our work suggests the task is still unfinished.  We shall take a further look at each of 9 men named Gwaethfoed which are found in ancient or medieval texts:
          Wholly unmentioned by Bartrum, the earliest known Gwaithfoed is known only as a link in the ancestry of Heilig ap Glannog of Rhos.[5]  We date him to c. 885 as the father of Glannog, and son of Gwgan Gleddyfrydd ap Caradog Freich Fras.  He was thus ancestor to Llowarch Hwlbwrch, Iarddur ap Cynddelw, Madog Gloddiath and Nefydd Hardd and probably the ancestor of Maelog Crwm and Cadwgan of Nannau.
         Our construction of this family appears in the following chart:
                            740  Caradog of Rhos, ob 798
                                  780  Hywel, ob 825
                           815  Caradog Freich Fras
                          850  Gwgan Gleddyfrydd
                              885  Gwaithfoed
                                915  Glannog
                                  950  Heilig
                              980  Gwrydr Goch*
                          1020  Llowarch Hwlbwrch  
         *His brother Rychwyn was the ancestor of Nefydd Hardd, while his brother Pasgen was ancestor to Iarddur ap Cynddelw and Madog Gloddiath and probably also to Maelog Crwm.  We think his younger son was Cadwgan, ancestor of the later Cadwgan of Nannau 
        Born c. 915 and the second-earliest of all the Gwaithfoeds, he was the son of Gwynnog Farfsych ap Lles Llyddog[6] and the father of Gwerystan and direct ancestor of Bleddyn ap Cynfyn.  He is also the only known Gwaithfoed who was an adult during the reign of Saxon King Edgar (959-975) and might have been the subject of the "boat rowing" tale related by medieval writers.  Bartrum identified this man substantially correct as to ancestry and birthdate. We place him at Cwybr in the commote of Rhuddlan in Tegeingl.
         This man was also the father of Ednowain, born c. 945, who married Gwerfyl ferch Llyddocca ap Tudor Trevor. (Dwnn ii, 307, which incorrectly adds "Bendew" to Ednowain) 
         One of several men of this name descended from Lles Llyddog of Powys, this Gwaithfoed was the son of Gwrydr Hir ap Caradog ap Lles Llyddog.[7]  Born c. 955, he was the father of Neiniad and grandfather of Ednowain Bendew.  We also identify him as a brother of Idnerth Benfras and believe him to be the father of the Gronwy whose son was called Edwin of Tegeingl.  While Bartrum did not make those connections, he did otherwise identify this Gwaithfoed correctly as to ancestry and birthdate.
        This chart shows the relationship and dating of the two North Wales men named Gwaithfoed:
                                      855  Lles Llyddog
                        l                                                     l
        885  Gwynnog Farfsych                       890  Caradog
                        l                                                     l
        915  Gwaithfoed of Powys                    920  Gwrydr Hir
                        l                                                     l
           950  Gwerystan                          955  Gwaithfoed of Tegeingl
                        l                                                     l
            985  Cynfyn                                    985  Neiniad
                        l                                                     l
          1025  Bleddyn                           1020  Ednowain Bendew
        Born c. 975, this Gwaithfoed was the father of Cydrich of Gwynfe in the parish of Llangadog in Cantref Bychan.  Bartrum makes no guess as to his ancestry, but he occurs in the same generation as Gwyn ap Rhydderch, the grandfather of Cadifor Fawr of Ystrad Tywi.  Should we assume he was a brother of that Gwyn, it would explain the intermarriages which occurred between the two families.  A son of Cydrich ap Gwaithfoed married a sister of Iestyn ap Gwrgan of Glamorgan and his descendants are found in Senghenydd, Glamorgan. 
          Alternately, this Gwaithfoed might have been a son of Cloddien ap Gwrydr Hir cited as the father of Cadifor[8].  If so, that Cadifor was a brother of Cydrich.  Additionally, one must posit that either Gwaithfoed or his father must have married an unknown heiress of Cantref Bychan, Ystrad Tywy.
          Either of the following ancestries for this Gwaithfoed is possible, but no ancient citations shed any light on the matter:
                 900  Elgan of Dyfed                   920  Gwrydr Hir
                              l                                              l
                 935  Rhydderch                         950  Cloddien
                ________l__________                           l
                l                               l                            l
     965  Gwyn             975  Gwaithfoed     980  Gwaithfoed
               l                               l                            l       
   995  Collwyn            1005  Cydrich        1015  Cadifor
 1030  Cadifor Fawr*
         *ABT 18b cites this ancestry for Cadifor Fawr, but no sources which mention Cydrich ap Gwaithfoed identify the father of that Gwaithfoed. Peniarth Ms 140, 347 cites a Cadifor ap Gwaithfoed ap Cloddien ap Gwrydy Hir,  If one assumes the two Gwaithfoeds charted above are a single man, then Cydrich and Cadifor would be brothers. We have taken no position on the question
        Bartrum suggests this was also Gwaithfoed of Ceredigion and father to Aeddan, y Bach and Gwyn...a position which wholly defies chronology.[9]  Our work points to two such men of Gwent, the first born c. 1045 and the father of Sir Gwyn, and the second born c. 1135 and the father of Aeddan and y Bach.  We suggest the later Gwaithfoed was the great-grandson of the first one.  We would identify the earliest Gwaethfoed of Gwent as "ap Gwyn ap Glyddien (Cloddien) ap Gwybedydd ap Gwrydr Hir ap Caradog ap Lles Llyddog" [9] and believe he (or an intermediate ancestor) took up residence on the family's paternal lands in south Powys when other branches of the family remained in Tegeingl.  We further suggest that when his lands were overrun by Normans and incorporated into Salop (Shropshire), this Gwaethfoed moved south looking for a new spot to settle.  Entering the north of Upper Gwent, we think he appealed to its king, Ynyr Gwent, and was given Morfydd ferch Ynyr [10] as wife and lands where White Castle was later built.  It is even possible Gwaethfoed came to Gwent as an invader/squatter and avoided armed conflict with its king by agreeing to marry Ynyr's daughter.  We date Ynyr to c. 1030 and Morfydd to c. 1060 and reject the medieval tale that had Gwaithfoed of Ceredigion making a plundering raid into Gwent and returning home with the king's daughter as his wife.  Our view that the lady married a Gwaithfoed of Gwent seems more reasonable, both as to geography and chronology.[11]  His only known son is called Sir Gwyn, born c. 1075, builder of Gwyn's Castle now known as White Castle. 
        About the year 1100, Sir Drew de Baladon (or Balun) invaded upper Gwent as a retainer of the Marcher Lord Roger fitz William fitz Osbern.  Confronted by both Ynyr and Gwaithfoed, it apppears bloodshed was averted by both Welshmen agreeing to provide their sons as spouses for de Baladon's daughters.  Ynyr Ddu ap Ynyr married Jois de Baladon [12] while Sir Gwyn ap Gwaithfoed married Emma de Baladon[13]. 
          It was, we believe, the grandson of Sir Gwyn ap Gwaithfoed who was the second Gwaithfoed of Gwent who was father to Aeddan, y Bach, Gwilym (or Emlyn) and probably Cadwgan (mentioned below under Other Citations); those sons were born c. 1165/1170.  The name of the father of this c. 1135 Gwaethfoed was probably Sir Dryw[14]. 
          We chart and date the Gwent men as follows:
                                 920  Gwrydr Hir
                               955  Gwybedydd(a)
                                985  Glyddien or Cloddien 
                                 1015  Gwyn
                               1045  Gwaithfoed I=======Morfydd f. Ynyr
                                                                l                     1060
          1080  Emma de Baladon=====Sir Gwyn 1075
                                   1105  Dryw or Drew
                l                                                  l
 1135  Gwaithfoed II                                 Drwm  1140
             __l______________                        l
             l l                          l                        l                   1185
  1165 Aeddon,              Emlyn 1170   1170 Ieuan(b)==Joan f. Hywel
  1170  Y Bach                    l                                     l         Caerleon
                        1205 Sir John Gwyn                Sir Drwm 1200
                                        l                                      l
                        1240  Elisabeth(c)=========Sir Drew  1230
                                         Sir Gilbert Wynston(d) 1260
       (a) Younger brother of Gwaithfoed of Tegeingl who inherited the family lands in south Powys
        (b) Llyfr Baglan, 88 cites "Joane ferch Hywel Caerleon" married Ivon ap Sir Drew" while LB, 223 cites the same marriage, calling him "Ieuan ap Gwaethfoed".  Since LB 96 and 97 mention a "Drym ap Dryw" but LB 223 mentions a "Dryw ap Drym", we think both constructions appear in the family and are confused with each other
       (c) LB 97 cites "a daughter of Sir John Gwyn ap Emlyn ap Gwaithfoed" married "Sir Drym ap Sir Dryw", but LB 223 says "Elisabeth ferch Sir John Gwyn" married "Sir Dryw ap Sir Drym".  We think the the first mentioned citation reversed the names to agree with an earlier "Drym ap Dryw"
      (d) His marriage to Isabel ferch William de Valence is cited by LB 223; the latter was the first Earl of Pembroke who died in 1296.  Sir Gilbert is called "son of Dryw ap Drym" by "Elisabeth ferch Sir John Gwyn" in this citation
         Bartrum identifies this man as the father of Genillin and while he indicates this man was not "ap Elffin ap Gwyddno"[15], does not suggest the correct lineage.  He obviously did not descend from the shadowy Gwyddno Garanir whose Cantref Gwaelod was said to have become submerged; that man (if historic) lived in Ceredigion.  We would identify this Gwaithfoed as "ap Eunydd ap Cadifor ap Peredur Beiswrydd ap Einion ap Eunydd ap Pyll ap Sandde ap Gwyddno"[16] descended from Meirion ap Cunedda, and date his birth to c. 1100.  We also think he is the great-great-great grandson of the Eunydd ap Pyll who married Morfydd ferch Odwin ap Teithwalch ap Owain of Ceredigion[17].  That Eunydd inherited Castell Odwin in Ceredigion so that his direct descendants held paternal lands in Meirionydd and maternal lands in Ceredigion. 
        This Gwaethfoed appears to have left the Meirionydd lands to his son Genillin (born c. 1135) and the Ceredigion lands to another son, Cadifor. Probably a third son, born c. 1130, was Ednowain who Geraldus Cambrensis called a usurping abbott at Llanbadarn Fawr during his 1188 journey through Wales. 
        We note that Bartrum derives this man from the Meirionydd family of Eunydd ap Cadifor ap Peredur Beiswrydd[18], but identifies him as the father of a Cadifor whose descendants are found in Ceredigion.  He dates him exactly contemporary with the man he calls Gwaithfoed of Meirionydd.  We suggest this second Gwaithfoed was actually a grandson of the first one we mentioned: Gwaithfoed ap Cadifor ap Gwaithfoed ap Eunydd, born c. 1160.  Our charts of this family appear as:
                  Meirionydd family         Ceredigion family
                                                     860  Owain
                  865  Sandde               890  Teithwalch    
                             l                                  l
                    900  Pyll                     920  Odwin
                             l                                  l
                 935  Eunydd==========Morfydd  950
                                 965  Einion
                        1000  Peredur Beiswrydd          
                              1035  Cadifor
                              1070  Eunydd
                        1100  Gwaithfoed of Meirionydd
             l                                                     l
1135  Genillin                                 1130  Cadifor (Ceredigion)
      (Meirionydd)  ______________________l____________
                          l                            l                                l
          1160  Gwaithfoed      1165  Iorwerth             1160  Ifor[19]
                  of Ceredigion                  l                               l
                        l                              l                               l
           1190  Cadifor          1195  Gruffudd            1190  Philip[19]
                        l                              l                          
            1225  Ifor[20]     1230  Gruffudd Foel[21] 
                        l                   (Castell Odwin)
        1255  Gruffudd Foel[22]  
                (Glyn Aeron) 
          Bartrum's charts combine the 1160 and 1220 men named Ifor ap Cadifor into a single man, and contain a single Gruffudd Foel of Castell Odwin to whom is appended the families of both men of that name; this although the citations clearly make one Gruffudd Foel the son of Ifor[23] and the other a son of Gruffudd ap Iorwerth[24].  Our timeline for the subsequent families indicates the two men were born a generation apart.  The fact that both the Gwaithfoed of c. 1100 and the Gwaithfoed of c. 1160 named a son Cadifor, that both of these men named one son Ifor, and that each Cadifor also had a near descendant named Gruffudd Foel has apparently confused most genealogists.  It is only by applying a strict timeline to this extended family that one can see that the citations are not corrupt (as Bartrum assumed) but identify multiple family cadets.
         The c. 1255 Gruffudd Foel began a long string of same-named men, repeating names first used by the family of the c. 1230 Gruffudd Foel.  Thus we find a Rhydderch ap Ieuan Lloyd ap Ieuan ap Gruffudd Foel born c. 1330 who has sons Dafydd, Jenkin, Thomas, Philip and Rhys and a Rhydderch ap Ieuan Lloyd ap Ieuan ap Gruffudd Foel born c. 1360 who had sons Dafydd, Dafydd II, Thomas, Philip, Gruffudd, Jenkin, Rhys and Ieuan the noted poet.
        This man was born c. 1090 and father to Gwallog.  Bartrum charts him with the descendants of Llewelyn ap Cadwgan ap Elystan Glodrydd, but gives him no ancestry.  Instead, he is shown as an alternate father of Gwallog whose "other" father is shown as Gwrgeneu Fychan ap Gwrgeneu ap Llewelyn ap Cadwgan.[25] 
        In fact, Bartrum has combined two men named Gwallog.  There was a Gronwy ap Meilyr ap Gwallog ap Gwrgeneu Fychan ap Gwrgeneu ap Llewelyn ap Idnerth ap Madog ap Llewelyn ap Cadwgan who was born c. 1315 and had a son called Gronwy Fychan.  But there was also a Gronwy ap Meilyr ap Gwallog ap Gwaithfoed born c. 1190 who had a son called Ieuan Goch.  Bartrum would make Ieuan Goch a brother of Gronwy Fychan although his construction displays a chronological abortion[26].  If we attach the earlier Gwallog as a son of Gwaithfoed, then such a Gwaithfoed fits chronologically as a son of Llewelyn ap Cadwgan ap Elystan Glodrydd:
                                         990  Elystan Glodrydd
                                           1020  Cadwgan
                                           1055  Llewelyn
                    l                                                             l
    1090  Gwaithfoed                                       1085  Madog
                    l                                                             l
      1125  Gwallog                                          1120  Idnerth
                    l                                                             l
      1160  Meilyr(a)                                       1155  Llewelyn
                    l                                                             l
      1190  Gronwy                                        1190  Gwrgeneu
                    l                                                             l
      1220  Ieuan Goch                               1220  Gwrgeneu Fychan
                    l                                                             l
    1250  Ieuan Fychan(c)                              1255  Gwallog
                                                                    1285  Meilyr(b)
                                                                   1315  Gronwy
                                                               1345  Gronwy Fychan
                                                               1375  Ieuan Fychan(d)
      (a) Pen. 131, 303 and Dwnn i, 96 cite "Meilyr ap Gwallog ap Gwaithfoed", but neither extend his ancestry further
       (b)  Pen. 128, 720a & 730b cite "Meilyr ap Gwallog ap Gwrgeneu Fychan"
      (c)  Pen. 138, 554 cites this man and a sister as children of Ieuan Goch ap Gronwy ap Meilyr; the sister married Iorwerth ap Maredudd ap Madog Danwr, a man born c. 1235
       (d) Pen, 128, 845a cites this man as the father of two children, both of whom married spouses born c. 1400/1410
        Peniarth Ms. 132, 127 mentions a "Nest ferch Gruffudd ap Cadwgan ap Gwaithfoed".  Her granddaughter, an unnamed daughter of Gronwy Person, married Philip Fychan ap Philip ap Trahaearn ap Cadwgan ap Tegwared ap Ysbwys ap Idio Wyllt.  Idio Wyllt was a son of Nest, sister of Rhys ap Tewdwr; this would date Philip Fychan to c. 1260 and his wife's grandmother to c. 1230.  This would point to a birthdate of this Gwaithfoed near 1135, so Cadwgan may have been another brother of Aeddan and y Bach of Gwent. (See Gwaithfoed of Gwent II above)  Bartrum charts this "Cadwgan ap Gwaethfoed" on the same page as "Cadifor ap Gwaethfoed of Ceredigion" but does not attach him to any ancestry.  Our dates are shown by this chart:
            1023  Tewdwr ap Tewdwr Mawr ap Cadell ap Einion
                 1050  Nest======Sitric ap Olaf  1035
                        1065  Eidio Wyllt
                        1100  Ysbwys(a)     Gwaithfoed of Gwent II  1135
                                      l                            l
                      1130  Tegwared                Cadwgan  1165
                                      l                            l
                       1160  Cadwgan                Gruffudd  1195
                                      l                            l
                      1190  Trahaearn                 Nest(b)  1230
                                      l                            l
                         1225  Philip                Gronwy Person  1245
                                      l                            l
                     1260  Philip Fychan=======dau  1275
        (a)  This, and most citations, mention Ysbwys and his brother Mabron as "ap Golwg Goch ap Idio Wyllt".  Actually Golwg Goch is a nickname of Idio meaning "red eyes", and the "ap" is a mistake.  Both men, by their chronological placement in pedigrees of their descendants, were sons of Idio Wyllt.
          (b) She married Cadwgan ap Owain descended from Rhydderch ap Tewdwr; this Cadwgan was born c. 1215.  The marriage is cited in Pen. 132, 127, the source of our entire chart

[1] A paraphrase of the story recited in Iolo Manuscripts, Llandovery, 1868, pp 481/482
[2] The barge-rowing event (sans any mention of Gwaithfoed) is told by Florence of Worcester (who dates it to 973), Matthew of Westminister (who dates it to 974) and William of Malmsbury (who gives no date) and say it involved 8 sub-kings.  The Saxon Chronicle and Henry of Huntingdon report that 6 kings met Edgar at Chester to agree to a treaty of alliance, but make no mention of rowing the king's barge.  There is a notice affixed to a wall in Chester which says the event occurred in 972, while a painting appears on a stained-glass window of St. John's church in Chester which depicts men rowing Edgar's barge.
[3]  Archaeologia Cambrensis, 1877, pp 237/239 discusses several valid reasons why the event probably never happened.
[4] "Pedigrees of the Welsh Tribal Patriarchs", National Library of Wales Journal, Vol xiii, pp 126-127
[5] Pen. 181, 391 and Pen. 134, 86 cite "Llowarch Hwlbwrch ap Gwrydr Goch ap Heilig ap Glannog ap Gwaithfoed ap Gwgan Gleddyfrydd" and provide the only ancestry given for Heilig which is chronologically stable
[6] Mostyn Ms 117,3 inserts a "Gwinnan" between Gwaithfoed and Gwynnog Barbsych, but also inserts "Gwyn" between Gwerystan and Gwaithfoed.  Both must be deleted to chronologically align with other family branches descended from Lles Llyddog.  A number of other citations cite "Gwerystan ap Gwaithfoed" but none correct the ancestry of this Gwaithfoed as our construction requires
[7] ABT 1b cites "Gwaithfoed ap Gwrydr ap Caradog ap Lles Llyddog" but incorrectly attached Gwerystan to him.  Per ABT 2d, he was the ancestor of Ednowain Bendew ap Neiniad ap Gwaithfoed ap Gwrydr
[8] Pen. 140, 347 cites "Cadifor ap Gwaithfoed ap Cloddien ap Gwrydr Hir".  Llyfr Baglan 109 and 122 cite "Cydrich ap Gwaithfoed" but both wrongly call his father "of Cardigan"
[9] Bartrum's reference is to a Gwaithfoed born c. 1100 and actually the one from Meirionydd.  Aeddon and Y Bach were born c. 1165/1170, while Sir Gwyn was born c. 1075; they could not have had a common father. 
[10] See Wrexham Ms 1, 81
[11] Pen. 140, 348/349 and Mostyn Ms 212b, 91/92 cite this marriage, but incorrectly describe Gwaithfoed as "of Ceredigion".  We assign the marriage to the only Gwaithfoed who fits the lady chronologically (and geographically)
[12] The pedigree of the de Baladon family appears in Bradford's 'History of Monmouthshire', vol 1, part 1, page 4 where the husband of Joyce is called Ynyr, King of Gwent.  In the same work, vol 1, part 2b, page 335, a pedigree of Ynyr Gwent appears in which Ynyr Ddu is incorrectly charted as a brother of Ynyr, and assigned the wives belonging to both; one a lady born c. 1045 and the other a lady born c. 1080.
[13] This marriage is cited in the de Baladon family pedigree referenced in the next above note
[14] ibid 'History of Monmouthshire, vol 1, part 2a, page 242 cites Dryw as the son of Sir Gwyn and Emma de Baladon
[15] Barturm's "A Welsh Classical Dictionary", 1993, p 303
[16] Pen. 140, 273 and Pen. 131, 306 cite this ancestry for a "Gwaithfoed of Ceredigion" although the family is derived from Meirion ap Cunedda and lived in Meirionydd
[17] Pen. 140, 348/349 cites "mam Gwaithfoed: Morfydd ferch Odwin ap Teithwalch ap Owain" and traces her ancestry to Ceredig ap Cunedda.  No citations specifically say who Morfydd married and thus who was the father of whichever Gwaithfoed is mentioned.  We match her with Eunydd ap Pyll based primarily on the timeline, but also because we think this Gwaethfoed and his immediate ancestors inherited lands in both Meirionydd and Ceredigion
[18] ibid note 15, p 302
[19] Dwnn i, 245 says "Ifor ap Cadifor ap Gwaithfoed" married "Lleuci ferch Cadifor ap Dyfnwal".  Cadifor ap Dyfnwal was born c. 1135 and a daughter born c. 1165 fits this Ifor ap Cadifor.  Cardiff Ms 3.11, 18/19 cites "Philip ap Ifor ap Cadifor ap Gawithfoed" married "Angharad ferch Llewelyn, prince of Gwynedd".  This must have been Llewelyn ap Iorwerth, born c. 1169, since Llewelyn ap Gruffudd had no daughters who were permitted to marry.  Angharad would date from c. 1200
[20] This Ifor ap Cadifor ap Gwaithfoed had a sister named Ales who, according to Dwnn i, 20 and Dwnn i, 21, married Cadwgan Fawr ap Cadwgan from the Cydwili family descended from Llewelyn ap Gwrgan.  Cadwgan Fawr was born c. 1210 and could not have married a sister of the Ifor ap Cadifor born c. 1160.
[21]  Dwnn i, 38 says "Gruffudd Foel Lord of Castell Odwyn(sic) ap Ifor ap Cadifor ap Gawithfoed" married "Annest ferch Robert ap Madog", while Pen. 131, 221 extends her ancestry to "Robert ap Madog ap Trahaearn".  9th from Elystan Glodrydd, Annest would be born c. 1270.  Bartrum would emend every source which cites this marriage to say "Gruffudd Foel of Glyn Aeron(sic) ap Gruffudd ap Iorwerth ap Cadifor ap Gwaithfoed" was meant, but that man is a generation too old.  The marriage belongs to Gruffudd Foel of Glyn Aeron, but he was the son of Ifor ap Cadifor as given in Dwnn i, 245. 
[22] This is the Gruffudd Foel who was a paternal ancestor of the bard "Ieuan ap Rhydderch ap Ieuan Lloyd of Glyn Aeron". 
[23] See Dwnn i, 15, 18, 38, 46, 80, 230 & 245
[24] Pen. 131, 220, 225 & 227 and Pen. 129, 51
[25] While there were two men named Gwrgeneu Fychan ap Gwrgeneu ap Llewelyn in this family, one was born c. 1220 and the other c. 1270; neither could have been grandsons of Llewelyn ap Cadwgan.  Bartrum shows 3 missing generations in his construction
[26] Bartrum's "Welsh Genealogies AD 300-1400" on chart Elystan Glodrydd 20 depicts Ieuan Goch as born c. 1230 and Gronwy Fychan at c. 1330, then inserts an extra Ieuan Goch as father of two of Gronwy Fychan's children