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                                    THE CHRONOLOGY OF ERATOSTHENES
                                                 By Darrell Wolcott
         The 3rd-century BC Greek geographer and mathematician, Eratosthenes, used a diastematic system of dating events which proceeds by intervals between important events.  The following chart shows his estimated dates of ancient events[1]:
             The fall of Troy                           1184 BC
              interval of 80 years
             The return of the Heraclidae        1104
              interval of 60 years
             The settlement of Ionia               1044
              interval of 159 years
             The regency of Lycurgus              885
              interval of 108 years
             The year before the 1st Olympiad  777
             The First Olympiad                       776
         Other sources, including the list of Olympic game winners, tend to confirm this dating of the 1st Olympiad.  We accept this date as well as all later dates proposed by Eratosthenes.  It is with those dates earlier than 776BC with which we have considerable doubts.  Our question, then, has to do with the time intervals by which he separated the more ancient events in his chart.
         When we seek his reason for the 80 year interval between the fall of Troy and the return of the Heraclidae, it appears he was following Ephorus[2] who earlier said the interval was "two generations". Then he followed Hecataeus[3] in deciding that meant 80 years.  We examined the pedigrees of the Heraclidae family, as well as those of the men they ousted from their traditional lands, and conclude that two generations was much nearer 63 years.  For those not familiar with "The Return of the Heraclidae", we pause to summarize that event.
         The Heraclidae were the direct descendants of Heracles, the king of Argos.  A junior branch of that family led by Eurystheus son of Sthenelus had seized control of the kingdom after the death of Heracles.  To avoid being killed, Heracles' son Hyllus and his men fled to Athens where he was received by King Theseus or his son, Demophon[5]. Eurystheus followed the refugees to attack Athens for giving them shelter, leaving his younger first-cousins, Atreus and Thyestes, in charge of his kingdom.  The father of those men was Pelops, King of Lydia, whose sister was the mother of Eurystheus.  When Eurystheus and his sons were killed in the Athens expedition, Atreus ousted his own brother Thyestes and assumed the Mycenae kingship, which then encompassed most of the Pelopennese peninsula.  His sons were Agememnon and Menelaus of Trojan War fame.  Orestes, son of Agememnon, married Hermoine daughter of Menelaus and consolidated the kingdom.  It was Tisamenus, son of Orestes, who held that kingship when the Heraclidae finally took it back.
        Leading the Heraclidae in battle were Aristodemus, Temenus and Cresphontes, sons of Aristomachus.  The latter was the son of Cleodaeus, son of Hyllus, son of Heracles.  A chart of the family will show the relationships:
                     Perseus, King of Argos            Tantalus, King of Lydia
                    ________l____________                ____l_____
                    l                                    l               l              l
             Electryon                     Sthenelus===Nicippe     Pelops
                    l                                        l                         l
             Alcmene (dau)                           l                        l
                    l                                        l                        l
              Heracles                           Eurystheus           Atreus
                    l                                                 ________l____
                    l                                                l                      l
                Hyllus                                   Agememnon         Menelaus
                    l                                                l                      l
             Cleodaeus                                    Orestes=====Hermoine
                    l                                                        l
            Aristomachus                                       Tisamenus 
       3 sons who retook the
          Since it was Tisamenus, son of Orestes, whom the Heraclidae ousted from their lands, he occurs two generations after Agamemnon, the leader of the armies which sacked Troy.  It was his brother, Menelaus, who had been married to Helen when Paris of Troy ran off with her.  So while we agree with a 2-generation interval between the fall of Troy and the return of the Heraclidae, we think 80 years is an excessive interval and would reduce that to 63 years.
         The families driven out of Peloponnese by the return of the Heraclidae sought refuge in Athens.  The King of Athens, Thymoetes, accepted the refugees, but he died without a son.  His daughter married Melanthus, a man from Messenia who had fled to Athens to escape the Heraclidae, and Melanthus became king of Athens.  His son, Codrus decided his kingdom had become overpopulated with all the Pelopennese refugees, many of whom had earlier been dispossessed from Ionia.  A large contingent from Athens was sent to reclaim those lands which lay across the Aegean Sea, under the leadership of two younger sons of Codrus.  That this occurred sometime after the return of the Heraclidae is evident, but the exact interval is not known.  Eratosthenes said 60 years, but that appears to have been no more than a folklore guess that was current when Eratosthenes lived.  Based on the pedigree of the Athens kings, we suspect it was closer to 70 years. 
                    Theseus, king when Heraclidae expelled
                      daughter==========Melanthus, fled to Athens
                                          l            when Heraclidae returned
                            l                              l
                    Androclus                   Neleus
        NOTE: If we asume Melanthus was 20 years old when he fled to Athens and that Codrus was born 10 years after that, then his two younger sons would perhaps be born 35 years later and maybe age 25 when they relocated to Ionia.  This would place the settlement of Ionia about 70 years after Melanthus fled the Heraclidae.
        We believe, however, this event is unimportant in fixing the interval between the return of the Heraclidae and the regency of Lycurgus since the latter can be reckoned directly from the former.
        Lycurgus was the noted law-giver of ancient Sparta, a younger son of it's royal family.  After the Heraclidae retook Peloponnese, it had been Aristodemus son of Aristomachus who had received Laconia as his portion.  He had twin sons, Procles and Eurysthenes, between whom the kingdom was divided.  The son of Eurysthenes, Agis, had an elder son, Echestratus, and a younger son Lycurgus.  King Echestratus died when his son Labotas was but an infant, so Lycurgus was named regent to rule for the child during his minority[7]. 
       Believing himself to be a benevolent and selfless statesman (the manner in which history came to record him), he was deeply offended when his contemporaries suggested he was using the power of his regency for his own purposes.  He handed over the regency to the mother of Labotas and exiled himself from Sparta, determined not to return until the child had reached adulthood and fathered an heir which would succeed him.  It was much later when Lycurgus came back home and introduced the laws which became his legacy.
       The following chart shows the relative places in time for the members of this family:
                       l                                              l
              Eurysthenes                                 Procles
                       l                                              l
                     Agis                                       Soos
             ______l___________                         l
             l                              l                         l
        Lycurgus              Eschestratus            Eurypon
                                            l                        l
                                      Labotas              Eunomus
         This chart is based on the accounts of Herodotus, the earliest known source.  However, both Eratosthenes and most later sources claim Lycurgus was a member of the other family, a brother of Polydectes, and that the child king for whom he served as regent was Charilaus.  Such an identification adds two full generations to the interval between the settlement of Ionia and the regency of Lycurgus, a number fixed at 159 years by Eratosthenes.  But an interval can be calculated without reference to Ionia; Aristodemus was one of the Heraclidae who regained Peloponnese.  If we assume his twin sons were born near the date of that event, Labotas would have been born about 90 years later.  And Lycurgus' regency would have begun when Labotas was under 10 years old.  Thus, it seems to us that the maximum interval between the return of the Heraclidae and the regency of Lycurgus was about 100 years, and certainly not the 219 years calculated by Eratosthenes.  Even adding the two generations occasioned by identifying the child king as Charilaus would not yield 219 years.  We think only about 95 years elapsed between the return of the Heraclidae and the regency of Lycurgus, thus only about 25 years separated his regency from the settlement of Ionia.
         We acknowledge the correctness of 777BC as the year before the First Olympiad.  The problem which faced Eratosthenes is the claim that Lycurgus and Iphitus together founded the first olympic games.  Since the era of Lycurgus was believed (incorrectly we think) to be much more ancient than 776BC, it was suggested that both men had originated a form of the games, but winners were not recorded until the games of 776.  Thus, a concept of "uncounted Olympiads" was introduced.  Two men offered differing numbers of such "uncounted" 4-year periods; Eusebius thought there had been 27 such periods (108) years, while Callimachus reckoned only 13 or 52 years.  As in all prior calculations, Eratosthenes chose the longest option.  One might suggest that the more anciently he dated earlier events (such as the fall of Troy), the more readily his chronology would be accepted by the Greeks.
         We suggest that Lycurgus was perhaps 30 years old when his brother died, leaving him as regent for the child Labotas.  And further, that he was about 63/64 years old when he jointly founded the Olympics with Iphitus.  There is only one reason why the early men conjured up the "uncounted" Olympiads: to date the earlier events much further back in time than they actually occurred.
         Adding up the net interval differences between our estimates and those of Eratosthenes, we find a total of 216 years.  Accordingly, we suggest the fall of Troy actually should be dated as 968BC, a date much nearer to the estimate of 940BC which was current prior to Eratosthenes. Thereafter, we would date the events as:
                 The Fall of Troy                       968BC
                 The Return of the Heraclidae      905
                 The Settlement of Ionia             835
                 The Regency of Lycurgus           810
                 The First Olympiad                    776
         In the Appendix hereto, we shall present the pedigrees of all the major families involved in the "dating" events chosen by Eratosthenes, together with estimated birthdates derived from our analysis.

[1] See "Epoch-making Eratosthenes" by Astrid Moller in Greek, Roman and Byzantine Studies, vol 45, pp 245/260.  Also "Ancient Chronography: Eratosthenes Dating of the Fall of Troy" by Nikos Kokkinos in Ancient West and East, vol 8, pp 37/56
[2] His History was written c. 340BC and while now lost, was cited by several other ancient historians who mention his "two generation" interval
[3] His History was written c. 500BC and while now lost, was cited by later historians as positing a 40 year generational gap for early Spartan kings
[4] The story of the Heraclidae is told by many early historians, including Didoros Siculus and Apollodorus, and by Euripides in his play "Heracleidae"
[5] Most sources say the Athens king who received the fleeing Heraclidae was Demophon, son of Theseus.  See Appendix II for the timeline which suggests it was Theseus who was still king of Athens and his son not yet born.
[6] Strabo's Geography book XIV lists the cities founded by each of the men who led the settlement on the coast of Ionia
[7] Later historians give Lycurgus a different pedigree which dates him two generations younger, but we have followed the earliest source: Herodotus i, 65

APPENDIX I - Family Pedigrees:
       It should be understood that the estimated birthdates in our charts is primarily relational and intended to show each of the families on a common timeline.  One could arbitrarily alter every listed date by the same number of years, either earlier or later, and not change the family relationships with each other.  It is only by establishing an independent connection to some person or event whose place in time is undisputed that one can determine if our entire body of dates is either reasonable or far off the mark.  We have selected the date of the First Olympiad (776BC) and accepted the evidence of the "discus of Iphitus" that he and Lycurgus both were alive on that date.  But we readily acknowledge that if the extant pedigrees of the Spartan King List contain missing generations, that would affect all earlier estimated dates.  This risk is mitigated, however, by having to assume all the related family pedigrees also have the same number of missing generations.
         In our view, it is more reasonable to assume Lycurgus was alive in 776BC than it is to assume there were some number of "uncounted" Olympiads before 776BC so that one can posit a more ancient floruit for him.
                                  CHART I - THE HERACLIDAE
                                        1060BC  Heracles(a) CHART II
                                             1030  Hyllus(b)
                                           1000  Cleodaeus
                                            965  Aristomachus
                                            935  Aristodemus(c)
                        l                                                   l
            905  Procles(d)                           905  Eurysthenes(d)
                        l                                                   l
              875  Soos                                     875  Agis
                        l                         ______________l_______
                        l                         l                                     l
            840  Eurypon     845  Echestratus             840  Lycurgus(e)
                              l                         l                                
           810  Eunomus      815  Labotas 
          780  Polydectes
          750  Charilaus(f)
            (a)  Apollodorus tells of the time Heracles assisted Laomedon of Troy by rescuing his daughter, Hesione.  Thus, the two men were contemporary and should be dated 3 generations before the Fall of Troy
            (b)  Euripides tells of Hyllus being forced from his lands and seeking refuge in Athens with Theseus or his son Demophon.  These men were contemporary and should be dated 2 generations before the Fall of Troy
            (c)  Apollodorus names Aristodemus as one of 3 brothers who reclaimed their Pelopennesian lands by defeating Tisamenus, a grandson of Agamemnon.  Thus those men were contemporary and should be dated 1 generation after the Fall of Troy
           (d) Twin sons of Aristodemus who divided the relclaimed Heraclidae kingdom between them
          (e)  Herodotus says Lycurgus became regent for his young nephew, Labotas; we would date that regency as beginning about 810 BC, and make Lycurgus a man in his 60's at the First Olympiad
          (f)  Historians later than Herodotus, including Plutarch, make Lycurgus a brother of Polydectes and say he was regent for a young Charilaus. Our charts reject that later view 

                                         CHART II - ARGOS KINGS
                         1215BC  Abas
             l                                          l
 1180 Proetus                    1180  Ascrisius==Eurdice  1165
             l                                          l          CHART IV
1145  Megapenthes             1150  Danae(a)
                l                                                       l
1115  Argeus                     1135  Perseus(b) 
             l                              ______l__________
             l                              l                            l             1085
1085  Anaxagoras    1105  Electryon       1095 Sthenelus==Nicippe
             l                             l                                       l  CHART III
 1050  Alector        1075  Alcmene(c)           1060  Eurystheus(d)
             l                            l                            
 1020  Iphis          1060  Heracles
             l                       CHART I
 985  Sthenelus
 955 Cylarabes(e)
          (a)  An unproven claim suggests this young lady was seduced by her uncle, Proetus; that Perseus and Megapenthes were thus half-brothers
          (b)  Relationships not charted for lack of space include (1) Mestor son of Perseus who married Lysidice, a sister of the Nicippe in our chart; (2) Anexo, the spouse of Electryon son of Perseus, who was another sister of Lysidice and Nicippe; (3) Alcaeus son of Perseus who married Astydameia, a 3rd sister of Nicippe; and (4) Gorgophone daughter of Perseus who married Oebalus son of Cynortes of Sparta
          (c)  She married her first-cousin, Amphitryon son of Alcaeus.  Alcaeus was a brother of her father whose marriage was recited in note (b) above
          (d)  The king who seized the kingdom following the death of Heracles and drove that cousin line out of Peloponnesia. He then made war on Athens for sheltering Hyllus son of Heracles, turning the care of his kingdom over to his first-cousins, Atreus and Thyestes, sons of his mother's brother Pelops of Lydia
          (e)  His one-third of Argos was seized by Orestes son of Agamemnon c. 925, about 1 generation after the Fall of Troy

                                          CHART III - LYDIA
                                               1115  Tantalus(a)
            l                    l                      l                    l                 l 1087
1085 Nicippe     1086 Anexo  1075  Pelops   1084 Lysidice  Astydameia
           =                  =                     l                    =               =
     Sthenelus       Electryon               l                 Mestor        Alcaeus
     CHART II        CHART II               l               CHART II     CHART II
                                                  l                                    l
                                    1040  Atreus                          Thyestes 1045
                                 ________ l_______________
   1000                       l                                         l             995
 Clytaemnestra===Agememnon(b) 1010   1005  Menelaus(c)==Helen
    CHART IV      l                                                          l CHART
                        l                                                          l    IV
         980  Orestes(d===================Hermoine 975
                                      950  Tisamenus(e)
       (a)  The four ladies in our chart who married four sons of Perseus of Argos are all called daughters of Pelops in the ancient literature.  Not only is that inconsistent with the relative timeline, but the son of Nicippe (Eurystheus) is called a first-cousin of Atreus and not a brother-in-law. 
     (b)  The king who assembled the armies which attacked and finally sacked Troy
      (c)  The husband of Helen who, when abducted by Paris of Troy, was the ostensible reason why Agememnon assembled an army which waged a 10 year war to avenge his brother's dishonor.  We suspect the war had other objectives; many doubt it was even historical
     (d)  It was Orestes who seized the part of Argos held by Cylarabes, so those two men were contemporary.  His marriage to a 1st-cousin consolidated his rule over most of Pelopennesia
     (e)  Tisamenus was ruling in Pelopennesia when the Heraclidae finally ousted his line to reclaim the lands from which they had been expelled 3 generations earlier.  That war was led by Aristodemus 2 generations after the Fall of Troy, so those two men were contemporary

                                       CHART IV - SPARTA
                             1280BC  Lelex
                                1250  Myles
                               1215  Eurotas
                              1185  Sparta(a)===Lacedaemon(b) 1200
                    l                                             l
       1165  Eurydice                       1170  Amyclas
                   =                                            l
       1180  Acrisius                       1140  Cynortes 
              CHART II                                      l
                                                 1110  Oebalus===Gorgophone 1100
                                                                         l     CHART II
                                                        1075  Hippocoon
                                                        1035  Tyndareus(c)
                               l                                                       l
              1000  Clytaemnestra                              995  Helen(d)
                              =                                                     =
               1010  Agememnon(e)                         1005  Menelaus(f)
                         CHART III                                      CHART III
       (a) Heiress of Sparta, principal city in the territory of Laconia in Pelopennesia
         (b) Of unknown ancestry, his name later became synonymous with Sparta and its people
         (c) All sources make him a younger brother of Hippocoon and son of Oebalus and Gorgophone.  But the timeline of her family and that of Tyndareus are separated by two generations, so we suggest he was her grandson
         (d)  Later called Helen of Troy, she had first been abducted by Theseus of Athens when she was perhaps 10 years old and Theseus was in his 50's.  She was later freed and married Menelaus, but abducted by Paris of Troy
        (e)  Leader of the armies which attacked Troy, he was the brother of Menelaus and his wife was a sister of Helen.
        (f)  The cuckolded husband of Helen for whose honor, it is claimed, the Trojan War was fought

                                             CHART V - ATHENS
                                    1200  Ericthonius
                                      1170  Pandion I
                                     1140   Cecrops
                                      1105  Pandion II
                                       1075  Aegeus
                                      1040  Theseus(a)
                         l                                         l
        1010  Demophon(b)               1005  Acamas(c)
             980  Oxyntes
          945  Thymoetes(d)
            915  Daughter====Melanthus(e)  925
                          895  Cordus
                     l                                     l
        860  Neleus(f)                 860  Androclus(f)
         (a)  Abducted Helen of Sparta c. 985 when in his 50's and when she was about 10 years old.  She was later freed. 
         (b)  Said to have been the king when the Heraclidae were forced from their lands after the death of Heracles, but we suggest his father was still king at that time.  He is mentioned in the Iliad as fighting at Troy
         (c)  Homer mentions him in the Iliad as a warrior at Troy
         (d)  He was king of Athens who took in refugees that fled from Peloponnese when the Heraclidae retook their lands
        (e) He fled from Messinia when the Hereclidae retook Pelopennese and later became king of Athens.  We posit that became possible by his marriage to the king's daughter, but no such lady or marriage are mentioned by historians
        (f) Younger sons of Cordus who led the resettlement of Ionia

                                        CHART VI - TROY
                                      1200BC  Dardanus
                                         1165  Erictonius
                                            1135  Tros
                             l                                          l
                 1105  Ilus                       1100   Asaracus
                             l                                          l
             1075  Laomedon(a)                  1070  Capys
                             l                                          l
               1040  Priam(b)                    1035  Anchises(c)
                             l                                          l
                995  Creusa(d)============Aeneas(e)  1005
                                    975  Ascanius(f)
                                                l             FALL OF TROY, 968BC
                                  945  Silvius Julus(g)
                                910   daughter(h)===Fetebir
                                                895  Alanus
                                                865  Hessitio
                                                835  Brutus(i)
        (a)  Contemporary with Heracles who assisted him when his children were teens, thus c. 1030/1025BC
        (b)  He was king of Troy during the Trojan War.  His eldest son, Hector, had a son by that date so Priam was elderly
        (c)  Yet living at the fall of Troy, but elderly and had to be carried to safety
        (d)  A younger daughter of Priam and sister of Hector and of Paris, the man who had abducted Helen of Sparta
        (e)  The hero of Virgil's Aenead who escaped Troy as it fell, carrying his aged father and leading his young son.
        (f)  Probably under 10 years old at the fall of Troy, he later succeeded his father as king of Alba Longa in Italy
        (g)  Denied succession to the kingship of Alba Longa, the younger half-brother of Ascanius was chosen...a man also called Silvius.  Supposedly called Julus, the later family of Julius Caesar claimed descent from him
       (h)  The Nennius pedigree calls her "Rhea Silva, daughter of Numa Pompilius", but both of those persons lived much later and weren't even related.  The pedigree is correct in that she was the grandaughter of Ascanius, but likely the daughter of Silvius
        (i)  This man is called the founder of Britain, the ancient ancestor of Beli Mawr
                             CHART VII - AENEAS' SECOND FAMILY
                                  1005  Aeneas=====Livinia(a)  970
                                        955  Silvius Postumus(b)
                                          925  Aeneas Silvius
                l                        l                                l
    895  Latinus(c)      892  Capys(c)         890  Tiberinus(c)
                                         l                                        l
                           860  Aventinus(e)               861  Amulius(d)
                           830  daughter===Procas(f)  845
                                   815  Numitor(g)
                                   786  Rhea Silva(h)
                                  771  Romulus(i)
       (a)  After wandering several years after fleeing Troy, Aeneas settled in Italy.  His father was then dead and his son Ascanius was an adult.  He married the daughter of an Italian chieftan when he was in his 50's, succeeded his new father-in-law as king and died 3 years later when that wife was pregnant.  Fearing her grown stepson who became king, she hid in the woods with her new child.  Thus he was called "Silvius" and known as "Postumus" as his father died some months before his birth.
       (b)  As the son of Lavinia, he was chosen as king of Alba Longa when his much older half-brother Ascanius died.  The son of Ascanius was denied succession, but he was probably too young to be king anyway.
       (c)  The early king lists name these as men who became king of Alba Longa, and some add 4 more names before reaching Amulius and Aventinus.  No one knows how those men were related, but we suggest the early historians simply added enough names between Romulus and Aeneas to synchronize the 771BC birth of Romulus with the 1184BC dating of the Fall of Troy claimed by Eratosthenes.
       (d)  Also called Romulus Silvius by Livy and Alladius by Dionysius.  Dio Cassius calls him Amulius.
       (e)  Those who mention a relationship say Aventinus was a son of Amulius, a requirement to move the Fall of Troy back 15 generations earlier than Romulus of 771BC.  We think he was only 8 generations after Aeneas.
      (f)  None of the early historians cite this marriage, but most sources agree that Procas was NOT himself descended from Aeneas.
      (g)  Eldest son of Procas, his brother Amulius usurped the kingship and killed the sons of Numitor.  His daughter was made a Vestal Virgin to prevent her from bearing sons, but she came up pregnant anyway and claimed it was the god Mars who did it.  She and her twin sons were hidden from Amulius until grown, but not nursed by a she-wolf as the myth claims.
      (h)  The mother of Romulus and Remus whose name incorrectly found its way into one Nennius pedigree of Brutus.  It is not known who had sex with her to produce her twin sons, but she was barely 15 when she gave birth.
      (i)  The legendary founder of Rome, becoming its king at age 18.  After his death, we was succeeded by a wholly unrelated man called Numa Pompilius...whose name also found its way incorrectly into the pedigree of Nennius

APPENDIX II - The Ousting of the Heraclidae:
        While not one of the events Eratosthenes used to construct his chronology (it having occurred prior to his beginning with the Fall of Troy), the traditional accounts found in ancient sources contain various dating problems with the likely floruit of the men involved.
        First, we are told that Heracles and Eurystheus were born within either hours or days of each other, the former being the maternal grandson of Electryon and the latter a son of Sthenelus.  Electryon and Sthenelus were sons of Perseus.  This is possible if Sthenelus was a much younger brother, but we are next told that Eurystheus made war on the sons of Heracles when that man died.
        We are not told at what age Heracles died, but if we assume he was about 50, then so was Eurystheus.  Clearly the sons of Heracles were at least young men able to flee to Athens.  But if they were "old men" as some accounts claim, then (a) Eurystheus was a full generation older and hardly able to attack Athens as a warrior, and (b) their flight did not occur until 25/30 years after Heracles died.
        Should we agree that the Heraclidae were driven from their lands almost immediately after the death of Heracles and that his sons were men 10/20 years old, our suggested timeline for the event would be about 1010BC.  Now if the king who sheltered them in Athens was Demophon, he should be a man born c 1040BC but he later fought at the Fall of Troy, an event we place over 40 years later.  For this reason, we suggest it was the father of Demophon who was king of Athens when the sons of Heracles fled to him.
        Ignoring our actual dating of events and simply constructing a timeline where 0 is assigned to the birth of Perseus, we find:
                        0  Perseus                       20  Tantalus
                 _________l______               ________l_________
                 l                           l              l                              l
       30  Electryon     40  Sthenelus==Nicippe 55          60  Pelops
                 l                                  l                                     l
       60  Alcmene                           l                                     l   
                 l                                  l              Athens             l
       75  Heracles          75  Eurystheus   90  Theseus     95 Atreus
                 l                                                    l                  l
      105   sons                                120  Demophon             l
                l                                                                        l
   125  death of Heracles ae 50                            125  Agememnon
                                                                     167  Fall of Troy
         Euripides' account of the event makes the sons of Heracles young children, while making their first-cousin Iolaus an old man.  But Iolaus was the son of Heracles' brother and near the same age as Hyllus and the other sons of Heracles.  And the mother of Heracles was still alive in the Euripides version of the story.  Accordingly, we'd date the event to c. 1010 and identify the Athens king as Theseus; if Demaphon was even born yet, he'd be an infant.  We suggest he was born 3/5 years after the event and was in his 40's at the Fall of Troy.