Legendary History Prior to 1st Century BC
Beli Mawr and Llyr Llediath in Welsh Pedigrees
The Bartrum "Welsh Genealogies"
Bartrum's "Pedigrees of the Welsh Tribal Patriarchs"
A study in charting medieval citations
The Evolution of the "Padriarc Brenin" Pedigree
Generational Gaps and the Welsh Laws
Minimum Age for Welsh Kingship in the Eleventh Century
The Lands of the Silures
Catel Durnluc aka Cadell Ddyrnllwg
Ancient Powys
The Royal Family of Powys
The Royal Family of Gwynedd
The 5 Plebian Tribes of Wales
Maxen Wledig of Welsh Legend
Maxen Wledig and the Welsh Genealogies
Anwn Dynod ap Maxen Wledig
Constans I and his 343 Visit to Britain
Glast and the Glastening
Composite Lives of St Beuno
Rethinking the Gwent Pedigrees
The Father of Tewdrig of Gwent
Another Look at Teithfallt of Gwent
Ynyr Gwent and Caradog Freich Fras
Llowarch ap Bran, Lord of Menai
Rulers of Brycheiniog - The Unanswered Questions
Lluan ferch Brychan
The Herbert Family Pedigree
Edwin of Tegeingl and his Family
Angharad, Heiress of Mostyn
Ithel of Bryn in Powys
Idnerth Benfras of Maesbrook
Henry, the Forgotten Son of Cadwgan ap Bleddyn
The Muddled Pedigree of Sir John Wynn of Gwydir
The Mysterious Peverel Family
The Clan of Tudor Trevor
The Other "Sir Roger of Powys"
Ancestry of Ieuaf ap Adda ap Awr of Trevor
The Retaking of Northeast Wales
Hedd Molwynog or Hedd ap Alunog of Llanfair Talhearn
"Meuter Fawr" son of Hedd ap Alunog
The Medieval "redating" of Braint Hir
Aaron Paen ap Y Paen Hen
Welsh Claims to Ceri after 1179
The Battle of Mynydd Carn
Trahaearn ap Caradog of Arwystli
Cadafael Ynfyd of Cydewain
Maredudd ap Robert, Lord of Cedewain
Cadwgan of Nannau
Maredudd ap Owain, King of Deheubarth
What Really Happened in Deheubarth in 1022?
Two Families headed by a Rhydderch ap Iestyn
The Era of Llewelyn ap Seisyll
Cynfyn ap Gwerystan, the Interim King
The Consorts and Children of Gruffudd ap Llewelyn
The 1039 Battle at Rhyd y Groes
The First Wife of Bleddyn ap Cynfyn
Hywel ap Gronwy of Deheubarth
The Brief Life of Gruffudd ap Maredudd
Owain Brogyntyn and his Family
The Other Gwenwynwyn
Eunydd son of Gwenllian
Sandde Hardd of Mortyn
The Floruit of Einion ap Seisyllt
The Enigmatic Elystan Glodrydd
The Unofficial "History" of Elystan of Powys
Cowryd ap Cadfan of Dyffryn Clwyd
Owain ap Cadwgan and Nest ferch Rhys - An Historic Fiction?
The "sons" of Owain ap Cadwgan ap Bleddyn
The Betrayal by Meirion Goch Revisited
Gwyn Ddistain, seneschal for Llewelyn Fawr
The Men of Lleyn - How They Got There
Trahaearn Goch of Lleyn
Einion vs Iestyn ap Gwrgan - The Conquest of Glamorgan
The Royal Family of Glamorgan
Dafydd Goch ap Dafydd - His Real Ancestry
Thomas ap Rhodri - Father of Owain "Lawgoch"
The "Malpas" Family in Cheshire
Einion ap Celynin of Llwydiarth
Marchweithian, Lord of Is Aled, Rhufoniog
Osbwrn Wyddel of Cors Gedol
Bradwen of Llys Bradwen in Meirionydd
Ednowain ap Bradwen
Sorting out the Gwaithfoeds
Three Men called Iorwerth Goch "ap Maredudd"
The Caradog of Gwynedd With 3 Fathers
Who Was Sir Robert Pounderling?
Eidio Wyllt - What Was His Birthname?
The Legendary Kingdom of Seisyllwg
The Royal Family of Ceredigion
Llewelyn ap Hoedliw, Lord of Is Cerdin
The Ancestry of Owain Glyndwr
Welsh Ancestry of the Tudor Dynasty
Gruffudd ap Rhys, the Homeless Prince
The Children of Lord Rhys
Maredudd Gethin ap Lord Rhys
The 'Next Heir' of Morgan of Caerleon
Pedigree of the ancient Lords of Ial
The Shropshire Walcot Family
Pedigree of "Ednowain Bendew II"
Pedigree of Cynddelw Gam

        Under this heading, Bartrum presents two pedigrees:
        (1) "Mam Tudyr Trevor oedd Rieingar verch Lluddicka ap Kariadoc vreichfras iarll Henffordd ap y Keiloc myngrudd or gogledd ap Eidol darianlas ap Kenau ap Koel godeboc.  Tri o meibon oedd i Dudyr Trevor, nid amgen, Grono, Lluddicka, Dingad.  I Rono y bu verch yr hon a elwid Gwen ferch ac etifedd i Rono.  Mam oedd hono i Elystan glodrydd, ac oddiwth i vam i kavas Elystan iarllaeth Henffordd, ac oddiwrth i vam i kowsse Dudyr Trevor yr un iarllaeth achos i vam oedd verch ac etifedd Lluddicka ap Kariadoc vreichvras iarll Henffordd."
       (2) [a] "Mam Tudur Trevor oedd Rieingar verch Lluddyka ap Kriadoc vreichvras"
            [b] "Mam Lluddyka ap Tudur Trevor oedd Angharad verch Howel ddaf ap Kadell"
            [c] "Mam Llowarch gam ap Lluddyka ap Tudur Trevor oedd verch Iago ap Idwal ap Meuric"
            [d] "Mam Ednyfed ap Llowarch gam oedd Nest verch Gwrystan ap Gwaithfoed"
        In his notes to these pedigree, Bartrum says:
        "Little confidence can be placed in these relationships although, surprisingly, they are all chronologically possible except for 'Mam Tudur Trefor' and "Mam Llywarch Gam'.  To the best of my knowledge [the second pedigree] does not appear again until Lewys Dwnn who gives an expanded version (ii.307)."
         For those whose Welsh isn't fluent, we shall attempt to render the pedigree in English:
         "The mother of Tudor Trevor[1] was Reingar ferch Lluddocca ap Caradog Freich Fras, earl of Hereford, ap y Ceiliog Myngrudd of the North ap Eidol Darian Las ap Ceneu ap Coel Godebog.  Tudor Trevor had three sons, namely, Gronwy, Lluddocca and Dyngad.  Gronwy had a daughter and heiress named Gwen, who was the mother of Elystan Glodrydd.  This Elystan Glodrydd became earl of Hereford by right of his mother since Tudor Trevor had inherited it from his mother, the daughter of Lluddocca ap Caradog Freich Fras, earl of Hereford."
         While Reingar was the granddaughter of Caradog Freich Fras, he was not the man of that name who lived in the 6th century near Hereford whose flawed pedigree follows that name.  She was a lady of north Wales whose grandfather was the Caradog Freich Fras of c. 820 found in the pedigree of Heilig ap Glannog.  This misidentification led early historians to believe Tudor Trevor held lands in Hereford, whereas his lands were all north of the Severn in Cheshire and Shropshire.
         Gronwy ap Tudor Trevor died before his father; his only daughter, Gwenllian, married a man of southeast Wales named Cuhelyn ap Ifor and she was the mother of Elystan Glodrydd who became King of Fferlys.  That kingdom lay between the Wye and Severn, south of Powys and north of Gwent.  It did, prior to the Norman incursions, extend east into Herefordshire.
         The first item is a repeat from the first pedigree, but deletes all the wording which misidentified the Caradog Freich Fras in the ancestry of Tudor Trevor's mother. Reingar was born c. 885. 
         The second item identifies the wife of Tudor Trevor by calling her the mother of his son, Lluddocca.  Angharad ferch Hywel Dda was born c. 915.
         The third item identifies the wife of Lluddocca ap Tudor Trevor, but incorrectly extends her ancestry beyond Idwal.  Born c. 950, this unnamed lady[2] was a daughter of Iago ap Idwal Foel ap Anarawd ap Rhodri Mawr, not the later Iago ap Idwal ap Elisedd ap Meurig ap Idwal Foel.
         The fourth item identifies the wife of Llowarch Gam ap Lluddocca.  Nest[3] was born c. 980 and was a sister of Cynfyn ap Gwerystan and aunt of Bleddyn ap Cynfyn.
         Had Bartrum correctly identified the Caradog Freich Fras and the Iago ap Idwal mentioned in the pedigrees, he could not have concluded that ANY of the relationships cited were chronologically impossible; while slightly corrupt as cited, the marriages were not only possible but highly probable.  Tudor Trevor was descended from a junior branch of the First Powys Dynasty, held a vast lordship in the lands bordering Wales and Mercia, and his family should be expected to have married neighboring nobility.
        The following charts shows the timeline of the family:
805  Gwrgeneu[4]  820 Caradog Freich Fras
            l                            l
835  Cadfarch         850  Llyddoca[5]        Cadell  850
            l                            l                    l                          880
  870  Ynyr============Reingar 885    Hywel Dda  880   Idwal Foel
                         l                                   l                      l
          900  Tudor Trevor============Angharad  915      Iago 915
                      _____________l_______________                l
                      l                    l                        l                l
          935  Gronwy    930 Dyngad[6]      935 Lluddocca====dau 950
                           l                                                        l
                     l                                                        l
                     l                      Ifor[7]  930   __________l
                     l                        l                l                      [8]
        970  Gwenllian========Cuhelyn  960   l           Gwaithfoed 920
                                 l                            l                  l   
                 990  Elystan Glodrydd                l           Gwerystan 950
                                                              l                 l
                                               965  Llowarch Gam===Nest  980

[1]  Tudor was called "trefor" because he was born at Tref Awr, a manor in Nanheudwy near the present Llangollen
[2] She is called Angharad in Dwnn ii, 307
[3] This lady is called Lleuci in Dwnn ii, 307
[4] The ancestry of Gwrgeneu extends back to Cadell ap Cynan Garwin of the First Powys Dynasty; Cadell was a younger brother of King Selyf and both fell in the 613 Battle of Chester
[5] Llyddoca was a brother of Gwgan Gleddyfrudd who is found in the pedigree of Heilig ap Glannog
[6] Dyngad was the eldest son of Tudor Trevor and inherited the northern part of the lordship, principally Maelor.  Lluddocca received his father's manor and the part of his lands which extended south to the Severn; except for Nanheudwy, those lands were all in present-day Shropshire.  The third son, Goronwy, died during the lifetime of Tudor and thus inherited nothing
[7] Ifor was the son of Seferys ap Cadwr.  His sister, Sissely, married Dyngad ap Tudor Trevor.  This family descended from Tegonwy ap Teon and represented the southern branch of the extended Powys family
[8] Gwaithfoed of Powys represented another branch of the family descended from Tegonwy ap Teon; his descendant, Bleddyn ap Cynfyn, founded the Second Powys Dynasty.  The first-cousin of Gwaithfoed was Gwrydr Hir ap Caradog ap Lles Llydog; that Gwrydr Hir married Arddun, a daughter of Tudor Trevor