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Legendary History Prior to 1st Century BC
Beli Mawr and Llyr Llediath in Welsh Pedigrees
The Bartrum "Welsh Genealogies"
Bartrum's "Pedigrees of the Welsh Tribal Patriarchs"
A study in charting medieval citations
The Evolution of the "Padriarc Brenin" Pedigree
Generational Gaps and the Welsh Laws
Minimum Age for Welsh Kingship in the Eleventh Century
The Lands of the Silures
Catel Durnluc aka Cadell Ddyrnllwg
Ancient Powys
The Royal Family of Powys
The Royal Family of Gwynedd
The 5 Plebian Tribes of Wales
Maxen Wledig of Welsh Legend
Maxen Wledig and the Welsh Genealogies
Anwn Dynod ap Maxen Wledig
Constans I and his 343 Visit to Britain
Glast and the Glastening
Composite Lives of St Beuno
Rethinking the Gwent Pedigrees
The Father of Tewdrig of Gwent
Another Look at Teithfallt of Gwent
Ynyr Gwent and Caradog Freich Fras
Llowarch ap Bran, Lord of Menai
Rulers of Brycheiniog - The Unanswered Questions
Lluan ferch Brychan
The Herbert Family Pedigree
Edwin of Tegeingl and his Family
Angharad, Heiress of Mostyn
Ithel of Bryn in Powys
Idnerth Benfras of Maesbrook
Henry, the Forgotten Son of Cadwgan ap Bleddyn
The Muddled Pedigree of Sir John Wynn of Gwydir
The Mysterious Peverel Family
The Clan of Tudor Trevor
The Other "Sir Roger of Powys"
Ancestry of Ieuaf ap Adda ap Awr of Trevor
The Retaking of Northeast Wales
Hedd Molwynog or Hedd ap Alunog of Llanfair Talhearn
"Meuter Fawr" son of Hedd ap Alunog
The Medieval "redating" of Braint Hir
Aaron Paen ap Y Paen Hen
Welsh Claims to Ceri after 1179
The Battle of Mynydd Carn
Trahaearn ap Caradog of Arwystli
Cadafael Ynfyd of Cydewain
Maredudd ap Robert, Lord of Cedewain
Cadwgan of Nannau
Maredudd ap Owain, King of Deheubarth
What Really Happened in Deheubarth in 1022?
Two Families headed by a Rhydderch ap Iestyn
The Era of Llewelyn ap Seisyll
Cynfyn ap Gwerystan, the Interim King
The Consorts and Children of Gruffudd ap Llewelyn
The 1039 Battle at Rhyd y Groes
The First Wife of Bleddyn ap Cynfyn
Hywel ap Gronwy of Deheubarth
The Brief Life of Gruffudd ap Maredudd
The Other Gwenwynwyn
Eunydd son of Gwenllian
Sandde Hardd of Mortyn
The Floruit of Einion ap Seisyllt
The Enigmatic Elystan Glodrydd
Cowryd ap Cadfan of Dyffryn Clwyd
Owain ap Cadwgan and Nest ferch Rhys - An Historic Fiction?
The "sons" of Owain ap Cadwgan ap Bleddyn
The Betrayal by Meirion Goch Revisited
Gwyn Ddistain, seneschal for Llewelyn Fawr
The Men of Lleyn - How They Got There
Trahaearn Goch of Lleyn
Einion vs Iestyn ap Gwrgan - The Conquest of Glamorgan
Dafydd Goch ap Dafydd - His Real Ancestry
Thomas ap Rhodri - Father of Owain "Lawgoch"
The "Malpas" Family in Cheshire
Einion ap Celynin of Llwydiarth
Marchweithian, Lord of Is Aled, Rhufoniog
Osbwrn Wyddel of Cors Gedol
Bradwen of Llys Bradwen in Meirionydd
Ednowain ap Bradwen
Sorting out the Gwaithfoeds
Three Men called Iorwerth Goch "ap Maredudd"
The Caradog of Gwynedd With 3 Fathers
Who Was Sir Robert Pounderling?
Eidio Wyllt - What Was His Birthname?
The Legendary Kingdom of Seisyllwg
The Royal Family of Ceredigion
Llewelyn ap Hoedliw, Lord of Is Cerdin
The Ancestry of Owain Glyndwr
Welsh Ancestry of the Tudor Dynasty
Gruffudd ap Rhys, the Homeless Prince
The Children of Lord Rhys
Maredudd Gethin ap Lord Rhys
The 'Next Heir' of Morgan of Caerleon
Pedigree of the ancient Lords of Ial
The Shropshire Walcot Family
Pedigree of "Ednowain Bendew II"
Pedigree of Cynddelw Gam
                                    CATEL DURNLUC aka CADELL DDYRNLLWG
                                                  By Darrell Wolcott
 
         Often called a Prince of Powys, he first appears (as Catel durnluc) in an early 9th century (abt 820) "Life of St. Germanus" copied into his "Historia Brittonum" by Ninnius.  Some 160 years later, he was included in the Harleian Ms 3859 pedigrees as "Catel dunlurc" and "Catel map Selemiaun".  Citations in the 12th century "Bonedd y Saint", as copied by various 16th century men, render his nickname as "deyrnlluc", deyrnllwydd", "dyrnlluc" and "dyrnllwch".  Peter Bartrum appears to have favored "Ddyrnllug".
 
         Bartrum would interpret it as "gleaming hilt" since he claims the Welsh "dwrn" means "hilt" and "lluch" means "gleaming".[1]  Even if we were to agree with both his translations (which we don't), one must first assume the words were badly misspelled and secondly assume his guess as to the intended words is the best possible guess.  We find another meaning of the nickname to be more persuasive.  The "Cadell" in Ninnius, like the biblical verse found in Psalms 113, was "raised out of the dust and set among princes"....an analogy the author used to describe a servant-boy who was elevated to kingship.  Thus "deyrn", meaning "king or monarch", coupled with "llwch" meaning "dust".  (the Welsh word-ending "ch" is phonetically identical to the word-endings "c" and "g", all three pronounced as a hard "k")
 
        The historical Cadell, however, was neither a humble servant of evil King Benlli nor did St. Germanus have any role in making him a king.  The purpose of the tale incorporated in the saint's Life was no more than standard hyperbole to make him look all-powerful; if Cadell was not already the king of his tribe when St. Germanus visited Britain, it was only because his father was still alive.  His family ruled the lands between Chester and the Severn before Cadell expelled the Irish usurper from his Clwydian fort and annexed the lands west of the Dee and east of the Clwyd to his adjacent kingdom.  It is not known by what name his kingdom was called in Cadell's lifetime; we think it was not called Powys until his tribe merged with another to his south about AD 470.[2] Cadell, born c. 380, would not have been alive that late.  And we suspect his nickname "king raised from the dust" was a much later invention by the author of the Ninnius tale.
 
          The early source[3] which calls Cadell "map Selemiaun" has never been explained.  Other early pedigrees call his father either Cadeyrn/Catigern or Pasgen.  Perhaps a corrupted version of Celeinion or Selyfiawn[4], we suggest 'Selemiaun' was Cadell's mother and that she was so well-known when the pedigree was drafted that it was thought unnecessary to further identify her.[5]  Born c. 365, Cadell's mother might have been a daughter of Selyf of Llydaw, father of King Aldroen.  Llydaw was then the territory which lay west and north of the Dee....the northeastern part of today's Wales.  During the lifetime of Cadell and after the Roman legions departed, Irish squatters had moved into parts of Wales and we think Benlli led such a group.  About the year 430, Cadell attacked and burnt his fort (not fire from heaven called down by St. Germanus).  We suggest he may have been asked to do so, and assisted, by his mother's family into whose lands Benlli had settled. 
 
         Some early sources [6] make Cadell the grandson of Vortigern by mistaking two same-named men.  The "Cadeyrn ap Gwrtheyrn" often called the father of Cadell was actually a paternal ancestor born c. 220.  In the 4th following generation was another man named Cadeyrn who probably WAS the father of Cadell.  That group of early pedigrees [7] which make him "Cadell ap Pasgen ap Brydw ap Rhuddfedel Frych ap Cadeyrn ap Gwrtheyrn" omit only "ap Cadeyrn" immediately following Cadell.  Other early citations DO say "Cadell ap Cadeyrn" [8] but mistake his father for the earlier Cadeyrn ap Gwrtheyrn.  That Gwrtheyrn was born c. 185 and was NOT the one called Vortigern.  We suspect he was, however, the ancestor of Vortigern.
 
         No ancestor of Vortigern earlier than Gloyw Gwallt Hir of c. 280 is cited by any credible source. [9] We suspect Gloyw occurs in a cousin line of Cadell, and would chart that family as:
 
                            185  Gwrtheyrn ap Rydeyrn
                                                l
                                    220  Cadeyrn
                                                l
                                250  Rhuddfedel Frych
                           _____________l_____________
                           l                                         l
         280  Gloyw Gwallt Hir                      285  Brydw
                           l                                         l
                315  Guidolyn                        315  Pasgen
                           l                                         l
                350  Gwydol                         350  Cadeyrn
                           l                                         l
         385  Gwrtheyrn (Vortigern)         380  Cadell Ddyrnllwg
 
          With such a construction, we now have Vortigern and Cadell as contemporaries.  The dating of Vortigern is consistent with his being named "overking" of Britain in 425 and dying as an old man around the year 450.  And our dating of Cadell allows the Cadell of Nunnius to have been the father of 9 children in 429 when he met St. Germanus.[10]  No grandson of Vortigern could have had any children that early, nor even have been born yet.  But like his earlier same-named ancestor, Vortigern did name a son Cadeyrn...just not the one who fathered Cadell. [11] Vortigern also named sons Brydw and Pasgen, names found in what we think was a cousin line of the extended family.
 
           A wholly different Powys man named Cadell had been given the "dyrnllug" nickname in early pedigrees of Tudor Trefor. [12] The Cadell standing atop those pedigrees was born c. 580 and we believe he was the "king Cadell" killed at the c. 616 Battle of Chester together with Selyf ap Cynan Garwyn.[13]  That man was probably a younger brother of Powys king Selyf, and likely was Lord of the lands where the battle occurred.  One pedigree skips 200 years from this Cadell to the ancestors of the early 5th century Cadell.[14]
 

NOTES:
[1] P.C. Bartrum, "A Welsh Classical Dictionary", 1993, page 74
[2] Refer to the paper "Ancient Powys" elsewhere on this site
[3] Harl Ms 3859, 27
[4] The Welsh letters "f" and "m" are often used interchangeably as can be seen in nouns such as Merfyn being sometimes spelled "Mermin" and with adjectives as "Mawr" being also spelled "Fawr". 
[5] If Cadell's mother had been named Selyfiawn but spelled Selemiaun, she would have borne a female name wholly unique to the ancient pedigree sources.
[6] Jesus College Ms 20, 16 and 18
[7] ABT 6k, 9b & 20; HLG 2f
[8] op cit note 6
[9] Some modern internet sources claim the father of Gloyw Gwallt Hir was named Rhodri, a male name not used by Welsh families earlier than the 7th century.  Those sources never cite an ancient source because none exist.
[10] The account of this tale found in Ninnius does not name any of the sons of Cadell
[11]  We have suggested that Cadeyrn ap Vortigern was father to Cassanauth Wledig, the earliest known patriarch of the part of Powys south of the Severn River. While chronologically and geographically possible, such a relationship is not cited by any ancient source.
[12] ABT 9b; HLG 12a
[13] King Cadell is mentioned in the account of the Battle of Chester appearing in the both Annals of Tigernach and Annals of Ulster under the unemended date 613