Guest-written Papers
Reference Abbreviations
Guidance Articles for Researchers
Single Family Analysis
Families of Mixed Origin
Family Pedigrees
Mis-identified Same-Named People in Wales
Battles and Historical Events
Ancient Welsh Territories
Welshmen in Llydaw, Brittany
The Men of the North
Legendary History Prior to 1st Century BC
Beli Mawr and Llyr Llediath in Welsh Pedigrees
Papers Related to Maxen Wledig
Bartrum's "Pedigrees of the Welsh Tribal Patriarchs"
Britain's Royal Roman Family
The Royal Family of Powys
2nd Powys Royal Dynasty
The Royal Family of Gwynedd
Men Descended from Tudwal Gloff
Royal Family of Gwent/ Glamorgan
Royal Family of Brycheiniog
15 Noble Tribes of Gwynedd
The 5 Plebian Tribes of Wales
Glast and the Glastening
Papers about Rhiryd Flaidd and Penllyn
The Men of Collwyn ap Tangno of Lleyn
Edwin of Tegeingl and his Family
Ednowain Bendew in Welsh pedigrees
Ithel of Bryn in Powys
Idnerth Benfras of Maesbrook
Tudor Trefor and his Family
Trahaearn ap Caradog of Arwystli
The Family of Trahaearn ap Caradog
Cadafael Ynfyd of Cydewain
Maredudd ap Owain, King of Deheubarth
Sandde Hardd of Mortyn
The Floruit of Einion ap Seisyllt
The 5 Dafydd Llwyds of Llanwrin Parish
Cowryd ap Cadfan of Dyffryn Clwyd
Osbwrn Wyddel of Cors Gedol
Bradwen of Llys Bradwen in Meirionydd
Who Was Sir Robert Pounderling?
Sir Aaron ap Rhys
Eidio Wyllt - What Was His Birthname?
Ifor Bach, Lord of Senghenydd
Ancestors and Children of the Lord Rhys
                                    CATEL DURNLUC aka CADELL DDYRNLLWG
                                                  By Darrell Wolcott
         Often called a Prince of Powys, he first appears (as Catel durnluc) in an early 9th century (abt 820) "Life of St. Germanus" copied into his "Historia Brittonum" by Nennius.  Some 160 years later, he was included in the Harleian Ms 3859 pedigrees as "Catel dunlurc" and "Catel map Selemiaun".  Citations in the 13th century "Bonedd y Saint", as copied by various 16th century men, render his nickname as "deyrnlluc", deyrnllwydd", "dyrnlluc" and "dyrnllwch".  Peter Bartrum appears to have favored "Ddyrnllug".
         Bartrum would interpret it as "gleaming hilt" since he claims the Welsh "dwrn" means "hilt" and "lluch" means "gleaming".[1]  Even if we were to agree with both his translations (which we don't), one must first assume the words were badly misspelled and secondly assume his guess as to the intended words is the best possible guess.  We find another meaning of the nickname to be more persuasive.  The "Cadell" in Nennius, like the biblical verse found in Psalms 113, was "raised out of the dust and set among princes"....an analogy the author used to describe a servant-boy who was elevated to kingship.  Thus "deyrn", meaning "king or monarch", coupled with "llwch" meaning "dust".  (the Welsh word-ending "ch" is phonetically identical to the word-endings "c" and "g", all three pronounced as a hard "k")
        The historical Cadell, however, was neither a humble servant of evil King Benlli nor did St. Germanus have any role in making him a king.  The purpose of the tale incorporated in the saint's Life was no more than standard hyperbole to make him look all-powerful; if Cadell was not already the king of his tribe when St. Germanus visited Britain, it was only because his father was still alive.  His family ruled the lands between Chester and the Severn before Cadell expelled the Irish usurper from his Clwydian fort and annexed the lands west of the Dee and east of the Clwyd to his adjacent kingdom.  It is not known by what name his kingdom was called in Cadell's lifetime; we think it was not called Powys until his tribe merged with another to his south about AD 470.[2] Cadell, born c. 380, would not have been alive that late.  And we suspect his nickname "king raised from the dust" was a much later invention by the author of the Nennius tale.
          The early source[3] which calls Cadell "map Selemiaun" has never been explained.  Other early pedigrees call his father either Cadeyrn/Catigern or Pasgen.  Perhaps a corrupted version of Celeinion or Selyfiawn[4], we suggest 'Selemiaun' was Cadell's mother and that she was so well-known when the pedigree was drafted that it was thought unnecessary to further identify her.[5]  Born c. 365, Cadell's mother might have been a daughter of Selyf of Llydaw, father of King Aldroen.  Llydaw was then the territory which lay west and north of the Dee....the northeastern part of today's Wales.  During the lifetime of Cadell and after the Roman legions departed, Irish squatters had moved into parts of Wales and we think Benlli led such a group.  About the year 430, Cadell attacked and burnt his fort (not fire from heaven called down by St. Germanus).  We suggest he may have been asked to do so, and assisted, by his mother's family into whose lands Benlli had settled. 
         Some early sources [6] make Cadell the grandson of Vortigern by mistaking two same-named men.  The "Cadeyrn ap Gwrtheyrn" often called the father of Cadell was actually a paternal ancestor born c. 220.  In the 4th following generation was another man named Cadeyrn who probably WAS the father of Cadell.  That group of early pedigrees [7] which make him "Cadell ap Pasgen ap Brydw ap Rhuddfedel Frych ap Cadeyrn ap Gwrtheyrn" omit only "ap Cadeyrn" immediately following Cadell.  Other early citations DO say "Cadell ap Cadeyrn" [8] but mistake his father for the earlier Cadeyrn ap Gwrtheyrn.  That Gwrtheyrn was born c. 185 and was NOT the one called Vortigern.  We suspect he was, however, the ancestor of Vortigern.
         No ancestor of Vortigern earlier than Gloyw Gwallt Hir of c. 280 is cited by any credible source. [9] We suspect Gloyw occurs in a cousin line of Cadell, and would chart that family as:
                            185  Gwrtheyrn ap Rydeyrn
                                    220  Cadeyrn
                                250  Rhuddfedel Frych
                           l                                              l
         280  Gloyw Gwallt Hir                      285  Brydw
                           l                                             l
                315  Guidolyn                         315  Pasgen
                           l                                             l
                350  Gwydol                         350  Cadeyrn
                           l                                             l
         385  Gwrtheyrn (Vortigern)         380  Cadell Ddyrnllwg
          With such a construction, we now have Vortigern and Cadell as contemporaries.  The dating of Vortigern is consistent with his being named "overking" of Britain in 425 and dying as an old man around the year 450.  And our dating of Cadell allows the Cadell of Nennius to have been the father of 9 children in 429 when he met St. Germanus.[10]  No grandson of Vortigern could have had any children that early, nor even have been born yet.  But like his earlier same-named ancestor, Vortigern did name a son Cadeyrn...just not the one who fathered Cadell. [11] Vortigern also named sons Brydw and Pasgen, names found in what we think was a cousin line of the extended family.
           A wholly different Powys man named Cadell had been given the "dyrnllug" nickname in early pedigrees of Tudor Trefor. [12] The Cadell standing atop those pedigrees was born c. 580 and we believe he was the "king Cadell" killed at the c. 613 Battle of Chester together with Selyf ap Cynan Garwyn.[13]  That man was probably a younger brother of Powys king Selyf, and likely was Lord of the lands where the battle occurred.  One pedigree skips 200 years from this Cadell to the ancestors of the early 5th century Cadell.[14]

[1] P.C. Bartrum, "A Welsh Classical Dictionary", 1993, page 74
[2] Refer to the paper "Ancient Powys" elsewhere on this site
[3] Harl Ms 3859, 27
[4] The Welsh letters "f" and "m" are often used interchangeably as can be seen in nouns such as Merfyn being sometimes spelled "Mermin" and with adjectives as "Mawr" being also spelled "Fawr". 
[5] If Cadell's mother had been named Selyfiawn but spelled Selemiaun, she would have borne a female name wholly unique to the ancient pedigree sources.
[6] Jesus College Ms 20, 16 and 18
[7] ABT 6k, 9b & 20; HLG 2f
[8] op cit note 6
[9] Some modern internet sources claim the father of Gloyw Gwallt Hir was named Rhodri, a male name not used by Welsh families earlier than the 7th century.  Those sources never cite an ancient source because none exist.
[10] The account of this tale found in Nennius does not name any of the sons of Cadell
[11]  We have suggested that Cadeyrn ap Vortigern was father to Cassanauth Wledig, the earliest known patriarch of the part of Powys south of the Severn River. While chronologically and geographically possible, such a relationship is not cited by any ancient source.
[12] ABT 9b; HLG 12a
[13] King Cadell is mentioned in the account of the Battle of Chester appearing in the both Annals of Tigernach and Annals of Ulster under the unemended date 613
[14] ABT 9b