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Beli Mawr and Llyr Llediath in Welsh Pedigrees
Bartrum's "Pedigrees of the Welsh Tribal Patriarchs"
The Lands of the Silures
Catel Durnluc aka Cadell Ddyrnllwg
Ancient Powys
The Royal Family of Powys
The Royal Family of Gwynedd
The 5 Plebian Tribes of Wales
Maxen Wledig of Welsh Legend
Maxen Wledig and the Welsh Genealogies
Anwn Dynod ap Maxen Wledig
Constans I and his 343 Visit to Britain
Glast and the Glastening
Composite Lives of St Beuno
Rethinking the Gwent Pedigrees
The Father of Tewdrig of Gwent
Another Look at Teithfallt of Gwent
Ynyr Gwent and Caradog Freich Fras
Llowarch ap Bran, Lord of Menai
Rulers of Brycheiniog - The Unanswered Questions
Edwin of Tegeingl and his Family
Angharad, Heiress of Mostyn
Ithel of Bryn in Powys
Idnerth Benfras of Maesbrook
The Clan of Tudor Trevor
The Other "Sir Roger of Powys"
Hedd Molwynog or Hedd ap Alunog of Llanfair Talhearn
"Meuter Fawr" son of Hedd ap Alunog
Aaron Paen ap Y Paen Hen
Welsh Claims to Ceri after 1179
Trahaearn ap Caradog of Arwystli
Cadafael Ynfyd of Cydewain
Maredudd ap Robert, Lord of Cedewain
Cadwgan of Nannau
Maredudd ap Owain, King of Deheubarth
Two Families headed by a Rhydderch ap Iestyn
The Era of Llewelyn ap Seisyll
Cynfyn ap Gwerystan, the Interim King
The Consorts and Children of Gruffudd ap Llewelyn
The First Wife of Bleddyn ap Cynfyn
Hywel ap Gronwy of Deheubarth
The Brief Life of Gruffudd ap Maredudd
Owain Brogyntyn and his Family
The Other Gwenwynwyn
Eunydd son of Gwenllian
Sandde Hardd of Mortyn
The Floruit of Einion ap Seisyllt
The Enigmatic Elystan Glodrydd
The Unofficial "History" of Elystan of Powys
Cowryd ap Cadfan of Dyffryn Clwyd
Owain ap Cadwgan and Nest ferch Rhys - An Historic Fiction?
The "sons" of Owain ap Cadwgan ap Bleddyn
The Betrayal by Meirion Goch Revisited
Gwyn Ddistain, seneschal for Llewelyn Fawr
The Men of Lleyn - How They Got There
Trahaearn Goch of Lleyn
Einion vs Iestyn ap Gwrgan - The Conquest of Glamorgan
The Royal Family of Glamorgan
Dafydd Goch ap Dafydd - His Real Ancestry
Thomas ap Rhodri - Father of Owain "Lawgoch"
Einion ap Celynin of Llwydiarth
Marchweithian, Lord of Is Aled, Rhufoniog
Osbwrn Wyddel of Cors Gedol
Bradwen of Llys Bradwen in Meirionydd
Ednowain ap Bradwen
Sorting out the Gwaithfoeds
Three Men called Iorwerth Goch "ap Maredudd"
The Caradog of Gwynedd With 3 Fathers
Who Was Sir Robert Pounderling?
Eidio Wyllt - What Was His Birthname?
The Legendary Kingdom of Seisyllwg
The Royal Family of Ceredigion
Llewelyn ap Hoedliw, Lord of Is Cerdin
The Ancestry of Owain Glyndwr
Gruffudd ap Rhys, the Homeless Prince
The Children of Lord Rhys
Maredudd Gethin ap Lord Rhys
The 'Next Heir' of Morgan of Caerleon

        WAS IESTYN AP GWRGAN THE FOUNDER OF ONE OF THE 5 ROYAL TRIBES
                                                By Darrell Wolcott
 
         In 1799, Philip Yorke of Erthig published his book "The Royal Tribes of Wales" in which he named 5 Welsh princes who, he said, represented the kingly family for each of the major Welsh kingdoms. [1]  His list of names (the spelling is his) included:
 
        1.  Gruffudd ap Cynan of Gwynedd
        2.  Rhys ap Tewdwr of South Wales (Deheubarth)
        3.  Bleddyn ap Cynfyn of Powys
        4.  Jestyn ap Gwrgant of Glamorgan
        5.  Aethelstan Glodrydd, between the Wye and Severn
 
        The earliest source we have seen for these names is a c. 1600 manuscript [2] written by Joseph Chaloner, in which this author claimed "Gutun Owain wrote with his own hand the book of pedigrees from which this book was copied word for word". [3]  Chaloner's copy contains the following list as "pump brehenllwydd Kymrau" or "five kingly tribes of Wales":
 
         1.  Gruffudd ap Conan yng wyned (in Gwynedd)
         2.  Bleddyn ap Kynfrig (no kingdom named)
         3.  Rys ap Tewdwr Mawr yn neheubarth (in Deheubarth)
         4.  Jestan ap Gwrgon (no kingdom named)
         5.  Elistan Glodrudd (no kingdom named)
 
         In 1487, Gutyn Owen wrote the manuscript which Chaloner says he copied. [4]  Gutyn's manuscript has since suffered the loss of several folios, but in 1500 a copy was hand made [5] which is still complete.  This copy, made 100 years earlier than Chaloner's copy, lists "pump brenhinllwth Kymry"[6] as:
 
         1.  Gruffudd ap Kynan yn Gwynedd
         2.  Rys ap Tewdwr Mawr yn Neheubarth
         3.  Bleddyn ap Kynvyn y Mhowys
         4.  Elystan Glodrydd rwng Gwy a Hafren
         5.  Caradoc ap Iestyn y Morgannwc
 
        While Yorke listed the same 5 men which appear in Chaloner's manuscript, he revised the spelling of some names and changed the sequence of two names just below the top of the list.  No one need quarrel with the manner in which the names are spelled, nor in which sequence they should appear, but we SHOULD consider it important that the earlier copy of Gutyn's manuscript doesn't cite the same 5 men.  Both of the later writers replaced "Caradog ap Iestyn" with his better-known father, Iestyn ap Gwrgan.
 
          When we seek other Morgannwg sources we find several manuscripts, written between the dates of Gutyn Owen's work and that of Chaloner's copy, which mention a "brenhinllwyth Morganwc". [7]  All of these begin their pedigree "Caradog ap Iestyn ap Gwrgan".  While they continue with the supposed ancestry of the first Iestyn (born c. 1045), [8] the son of that Iestyn is not known to head ANY ruling family.  We believe the Caradog ap Iestyn cited as one of the 5 "Founders" was the one who was Lord of Afan and fathered a son called Morgan Arglwydd, said Morgan known to have been living in 1175. [9]
 
        That Caradog ap Iestyn married Gwladys ferch Gruffudd ap Rhys, [10] a sister of Lord Rhys born c. 1120.  Thus, Caradog was likely born near 1105.  His son, Morgan, married Gwenllian ferch Ifor Bach. [11]  This lady was born c. 1145 and a birthdate near 1135 would fit their (Caradog and Gwladys) son, Morgan.  Accordingly, the Iestyn ap Gwrgan who fathered Caradog, Lord of Afan, was born c. 1070 and could not be the first man of that name in this family. [12]  In fact, one wife cited for an Iestyn ap Gwrgan was Dyddgu ferch Iorwerth ap Cadwgan ap Elystan Glodrydd, a lady born about 1085. [13]  Therefore, we believe the "kingly family" of Morgannwg looks like this:
 
                                                  Elystan Glodrydd  990
                                                              l
                                                       Cadwgan 1020      Tewdwr  1015
                                                                  l                                l
                          1042  Gwrgan         Iorwerth 1055        Rhys  1045  
                                        l                    l                         l
                          1075  Iestyn=====Dyddgu 1085     Gruffudd  1085
                                        l                                              l
                         1105  Caradog===============Gwladys  1120
 
         The citations for Iestyn's marriage to Dyddgu only cite his ancestry back to Gwrgan ap Ithel, but this is far enough to be certain this was NOT the same Gwrgan ap Ithel who married a sister of Bleddyn ap Cynfyn. [14]  A family chart, showing how these same-named men were related to each other, can be found in the appendix to our paper "The Conquest of Glamorgan - Further Notes" which is a companion paper to this one.

NOTES:
[1]  Yorke's book was issued as a 2nd edition in 1887 and edited by Richard Williams, who added "an account of the 15 tribes of north Wales"
[2]  Harleian Ms 1970, 34; there is considerable doubt that the data compiled by Chaloner was actually written by Gutyn Owen.  See M.P. Siddons "The Development of Welsh Heraldry", vol 1, pp 373-374
[3]  Harleian Ms 1970, 47
[4]  John Rylans Welsh Ms 1, the original of which is now missing several folios
[5]  Peniarth Ms 129
[6]  ibid p 47
[7]  Peniarth Ms 178(1), 10 (circa 1545); Peniarth Ms 138, 601 (circa 1562);Mostyn Ms 113, 74 (circa 1572)
[8]  See the full pedigree of this Iestyn in our companion paper "The Ancestry of Iestyn ap Gwrgan"
[9]  Morgan ap Caradog was among the princes of Wales who had incurred the king's displeasure and who accompanied Lord Rhys to the king's council in Gloucester in 1175, according to that year's entry in the Brut
[10] The 1175 Brut entry calls Gwladys the sister of Lord Rhys and the mother of Morgan ap Caradog ap Iestyn
[11] Dwnn i, 238
[12] See our companion paper "The Conquest of Glamorgan - Further Notes" for a table identifying 3 men known as Iestyn ap Gwrgan in this family
[13] Pen. 129, 151 and Pen. 138, 541
[14] Mostyn Ms 212b, 117