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Ancestors and Children of the Lord Rhys

                                               By Darrell Wolcott
          This paper outlines our investigation into how Peter Bartrum wholly ignored the existence of a family descended from Ifor Bach of Senghenydd when preparing his chart "Cydrich 2".  While there IS a well-known family headed by a Hywel Felyn ap Gruffudd ap Ifor Bach, there is NO clear evidence that he had a son named Llewelyn. [1]
          In his indexes, Bartrum lists a "Generation 7" (circa 1230) man called Llewelyn ap Hywel Felyn ap Gruffudd.  He lists as his sources Dwnn ii, 50 and Llyfr Baglan 122.  He also lists LB 74 and 228, plus Bodleian Add. A281, 237 but marked those 3 citations as "corrupt".
          Dwnn ii, 50 tells us Rhys ap Einion married Gwladys ferch Llewelyn ap Hywel Felyn.  It does not continue with the father of this Hywel Felyn, and thus does not support his index assertion that his father was named Gruffudd.
          LB 122 tells us Rhys ap Einion Sais married Gwladys ap Llewelyn ap Hywel Felyn of Senghenydd.  It then adds Hywel Felyn was son to Gruffudd ap Ifor Bach. It is clear to us (since it did not continue with "ap") that the author of Llyfr Baglan presented a pedigree found among his sources, then added his own comment to the pedigree.  His comment is correct, there WAS a Hywel Felyn, son of Gruffudd ap Ifor Bach.  But it wasn't THIS Hywel Felyn.
          We have access to the text of 2 of the 3 citations which Bartrum marked as "corrupt", and believe the 3rd citation contained the same data which caused him to reject the other two.  Both LB 74 and 228 tell us Rhys ap Einion Sais married Gwladys ferch Llewelyn ap Hywel Felyn ap Hywel ap Gruffudd.
          Bartrum did acknowledge that Llewelyn, and his daughter Gwladys, were born in his "Generation 7" and "Generation 8" respectively, but charted Llewelyn as the son of Hywel Felyn of "Generation 5" (circa 1170). This implies either a missing name connecting Llewelyn to Hywel Felyn or asserts that a 70 year old Hywel Felyn had a son.
          We concur that Rhys ap Einion Sais was born c. 1255 and that an age-appropriate wife for him would be born between 1255 and 1270 (Bartrum's Generation 8).  When we present the pedigree citations of Gwladys in chart form, we have:

                        1135  Trahaearn ap Gwgan              Gruffudd ap Ifor Bach  1135
                                               l                                  ________l__________
                                               l                                  l                                l
                                 1165  Hywel             1165  Hywel Felyn            1170  Hywel
                                               l                                  l                                l
                                  1195  Rhys                1235  Llewelyn          1200  Hywel Felyn
                                              l                                   l                                l
                              1225  Einion Sais                           l                 1235  Llewelyn
                                             l                                    l                                l
                                1255  Rhys============Gwladys      1265       Gwladys

          After reviewing the relevant citations, which presentation of the ancestry of Gwladys should we accept as correct?  I can't guess why Bartrum was so convinced there could only be a single Hywel Felyn in the family, but by his rejection of the existence of a Hywel  ap Gruffudd ap Ifor Bach, he missed the entire extended family which descended from him.
          The Bartrum index entry for Llewelyn ap Hywel Felyn should have continued "ap Hywel".  Of the 5 citations he gave to support the name, 3 support "ap Hywel", 1 sort-of supports "ap Gruffudd" and the 5th is wholly silent on the matter.
          In our paper on Ifor Bach [2], we discussed in some detail the same-named cousin branches who descended from two men named Madog ap Hywel Felyn. There was, in addition, one other son of Hywel ap Gruffudd, Einion ap Hywel.  Had Bartrum not erred in his presentation of Gwladys, he might well have discovered that Einion.
          To his credit, Bartrum did locate, and mostly chart correctly, a same-named cousin line in a Brycheiniog family.  The string Ieuan ap Einion ap Hywel ap Gruffudd occurs in two families descended from Gruffudd Gwyr ap Cadifor ap Gwgan ap Gwgan Blaidd Gwyrdd ap Bleddyn.  Bartrum separated the two lines on his chart "Bleddyn ap Maenyrch 31" and added a note calling attention to the identical string of names.  Since those men were born 2 generations apart, he was also able to assign 6 of the 9 children cited for an "Ieuan ap Einion ap Hywel ap Gruffudd" to the correct family, mostly by the estimated birthdates of those children: [3]

                                    1175  Gruffudd Gwyr
                             l                                                      l
          1205  Gruffudd Fychan                           1210  Hywel
                            l                                                       l
           1240  Gruffudd Fab                                1240  Einion
                            l                                                       l
             1280  Hywel                                         1275  Ieuan
                           l                                                        l
             1310  Einion                                   4 children born c. 1310
                           l                                      3 children born c. 1270*
             1345  Ieuan
         2 children born c. 1375

                  *Bartrum dated three daughters to c. 1300 and matched them each with a husband that he dated c. 1270
          The 3 daughters of a "Ieuan ap Einion ap Hywel ap Gruffudd", which Bartrum added to the family on the right in the above chart, were:
             (1)  Gwerfyl (1270) who married Llewelyn Fychan (1260) ap Llewelyn (1230) ap Madog (1195) ap Hywel Felyn (1165) ap Gruffudd (1135) ap Ifor Bach (1105) of Senghenydd [4]
             (2)  Efa (1270) who married Lleision (1260) ap Rhys (1225) ap Morgan Fychan (1195) ap Morgan Gam (1165) ap Morgan, Lord of Afan (1135) ap Caradog (1105) ap Iestyn (1075) ap Gwrgan (1042) ap Ithel Ddu (1012) [5]
            (3)  Gwenllian (1275) who married Hywel of Senghenydd (1265) ap Ifor Fychan (1230) ap Ifor (1195) ap Cadrod (1165) ap Einion (1130) ap Cadrod Mawr (1095) ap Einion (1065) ap Cadifor Fawr (1030) [6]
          If Bartrum had charted a Hywel ap Gruffudd ap Ifor Bach, he might have noticed that two of these ladies married men of Senghenydd and discovered that their father, Ieuan ap Einion ap Hywel ap Gruffudd, fit chronologically with a  Hywel ap Gruffudd of Senghenydd:
          1105  Ifor Bach
          1135  Gruffudd               
           1170  Hywel
           1205  Einion
           1235  Ieuan
       3 daughters 1270/75

[1]  Bartrum also charted a Generation 7 daughter, Gwenllian, for the Generation 5 Hywel Felyn.  Both children belong to a Generation 6 Hywel Felyn
[2]  See this family in our Ifor Bach paper at the link below:
[3] Some of these children were cited as having descended from Gruffudd Gwyr and others descended from Gruffudd Fab.  It may have been that difference which influenced Bartrum to make his parental assignments
[4]  Glam. 112 calls the lady Gwladys; Harl 3525, 29 and Harl 2300(2), 177 make her an unnamed daughter of Ieuan ap Einion
[5]  Dwnn i, 95; Pen 132, 129; and Harl 2414, 2 all cite this marriage
[6]  Glam. 48