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Legendary History Prior to 1st Century BC
Beli Mawr and Llyr Llediath in Welsh Pedigrees
The Bartrum "Welsh Genealogies"
Bartrum's "Pedigrees of the Welsh Tribal Patriarchs"
A study in charting medieval citations
The Evolution of the "Padriarc Brenin" Pedigree
Generational Gaps and the Welsh Laws
Minimum Age for Welsh Kingship in the Eleventh Century
The Lands of the Silures
Catel Durnluc aka Cadell Ddyrnllwg
Ancient Powys
The Royal Family of Powys
The Royal Family of Gwynedd
The 5 Plebian Tribes of Wales
Maxen Wledig of Welsh Legend
Maxen Wledig and the Welsh Genealogies
Anwn Dynod ap Maxen Wledig
Constans I and his 343 Visit to Britain
Glast and the Glastening
Composite Lives of St Beuno
Rethinking the Gwent Pedigrees
The Father of Tewdrig of Gwent
Another Look at Teithfallt of Gwent
Ynyr Gwent and Caradog Freich Fras
Llowarch ap Bran, Lord of Menai
Rulers of Brycheiniog - The Unanswered Questions
Lluan ferch Brychan
The Herbert Family Pedigree
Edwin of Tegeingl and his Family
Angharad, Heiress of Mostyn
Ithel of Bryn in Powys
Idnerth Benfras of Maesbrook
Henry, the Forgotten Son of Cadwgan ap Bleddyn
The Muddled Pedigree of Sir John Wynn of Gwydir
The Mysterious Peverel Family
The Clan of Tudor Trevor
The Other "Sir Roger of Powys"
Ancestry of Ieuaf ap Adda ap Awr of Trevor
The Retaking of Northeast Wales
Hedd Molwynog or Hedd ap Alunog of Llanfair Talhearn
"Meuter Fawr" son of Hedd ap Alunog
The Medieval "redating" of Braint Hir
Aaron Paen ap Y Paen Hen
Welsh Claims to Ceri after 1179
The Battle of Mynydd Carn
Trahaearn ap Caradog of Arwystli
Cadafael Ynfyd of Cydewain
Maredudd ap Robert, Lord of Cedewain
Cadwgan of Nannau
Maredudd ap Owain, King of Deheubarth
What Really Happened in Deheubarth in 1022?
Two Families headed by a Rhydderch ap Iestyn
The Era of Llewelyn ap Seisyll
Cynfyn ap Gwerystan, the Interim King
The Consorts and Children of Gruffudd ap Llewelyn
The 1039 Battle at Rhyd y Groes
The First Wife of Bleddyn ap Cynfyn
Hywel ap Gronwy of Deheubarth
The Brief Life of Gruffudd ap Maredudd
The Other Gwenwynwyn
Eunydd son of Gwenllian
Sandde Hardd of Mortyn
The Floruit of Einion ap Seisyllt
The Enigmatic Elystan Glodrydd
Cowryd ap Cadfan of Dyffryn Clwyd
Owain ap Cadwgan and Nest ferch Rhys - An Historic Fiction?
The "sons" of Owain ap Cadwgan ap Bleddyn
The Betrayal by Meirion Goch Revisited
Gwyn Ddistain, seneschal for Llewelyn Fawr
The Men of Lleyn - How They Got There
Trahaearn Goch of Lleyn
Einion vs Iestyn ap Gwrgan - The Conquest of Glamorgan
Dafydd Goch ap Dafydd - His Real Ancestry
Thomas ap Rhodri - Father of Owain "Lawgoch"
The "Malpas" Family in Cheshire
Einion ap Celynin of Llwydiarth
Marchweithian, Lord of Is Aled, Rhufoniog
Osbwrn Wyddel of Cors Gedol
Bradwen of Llys Bradwen in Meirionydd
Ednowain ap Bradwen
Sorting out the Gwaithfoeds
Three Men called Iorwerth Goch "ap Maredudd"
The Caradog of Gwynedd With 3 Fathers
Who Was Sir Robert Pounderling?
Eidio Wyllt - What Was His Birthname?
The Legendary Kingdom of Seisyllwg
The Royal Family of Ceredigion
Llewelyn ap Hoedliw, Lord of Is Cerdin
The Ancestry of Owain Glyndwr
Welsh Ancestry of the Tudor Dynasty
Gruffudd ap Rhys, the Homeless Prince
The Children of Lord Rhys
Maredudd Gethin ap Lord Rhys
The 'Next Heir' of Morgan of Caerleon
Pedigree of the ancient Lords of Ial
The Shropshire Walcot Family
Pedigree of "Ednowain Bendew II"
Pedigree of Cynddelw Gam

                      HEDD MOLWYNOG or HEDD ap ALUNOG OF LLANFAIR TALHEARN
                                                By Darrell Wolcott
 
          Called the founder of one of the 15 Noble Tribes of North Wales, the pedigree material for his descendants points to a birthdate c. 1050/1055.[1]  Most scholars agree he descended from Tudwal Gloff ap Rhodri Mawr who, after being injured in battle as a youngster, was granted lands in the royal forests of Uwch Aled, Rhufoniog.  The manor of Llanfair Talhearn is located on a part of Tudwal's lands.
 
           The medieval pedigrees[2] give Hedd a chronologically impossible descent from Tudwal Gloff, as follows:
 
                                820  Rhodri Mawr (ob 878)
                                             l
                              865   Tudwal Gloff[3]
                                             l
                                          Alser
                                             l
                                     Alan (Aelaw)
                                             l
                                 Llawfrodedd Farfog
                                             l
                                          Llawr
                                             l
                                         Tymyr
                                             l
                                         Greddf
                                             l
                                         Alunog
                                             l
                                 1050  Hedd
 
          A man born 8 generations after Tudwal could not occur as early as 1050/55 in a society where men did not take wives until their father was either dead or retired into a monastary.[4]  We should only expect to find 6 generations to fill the  almost 200 years from Tudwal to Hedd. We believe the chart includes some men twice by separating their birth name from their nickname and presenting the latter as their father.  A whole body of early historians referred to Hedd as "Hedd Molwynog" until Peter Bartrum favored the construction "Hedd ap Alunog" found in the manuscript Hen Lwythau Gwynedd a'r Mars. If he guessed wrong, those two generations in our chart may have been a single person.
 
         A second example where we may have two names which represent a single man is the "Llawr ap Llawfrodedd Farfog" cited earlier in the chart.  A legendary character called Llawfrodedd the Bearded appears in the Mabinogion tales "How Culhwch Won Olwen" and "The Dream of Rhonabwy" (farfog means bearded).  Perhaps the author of the old genealogical manuscript encountered among his now-lost sources, a Llawr llawfrydedd (the melancholy), and assumed that nickname was another given name, thus rendering it with an "ap".  Curiously, Bartrum accepted the existence of a real Llawfrodedd Farfog[5] and dated him to c. 925...an impossible birthdate for a great-grandson of Tudwal Gloff.
 
          A third example where we cannot be certain whether both a man's birth name and his nickname are presented in the chart occurs with Greddf ap Tymyr.  This might represent a single man "Greddf Tymer" (with a temper).  In all our work on Welsh pedigrees, and that of Peter Bartrum, the name "Tymyr" occurs only one other time and then it was a female.[6] 
 
         Since the chronology requires that one, and only one, of the three listed examples be identified as two separate men, we will follow Bartrum in presenting the father of Hedd as Alunog[7] and assume those writers who rendered it as Hedd Molwynog took their construction from the eighth century man Rhodri Molwynog.
 
         Thus, we would offer this revised chart as a more credible pedigree for Hedd:
 
                                  865  Tudwal Gloff
                                               l
                                     895  Alser
                                               l
                                     930  Aelan
                                               l
                              960  Llawr llawfrydedd
                                               l
                                 990  Greddf Tymer
                                               l
                                  1020  Alunog
                                               l
                                   1050  Hedd

NOTES:
[1]  In his "A Welsh Classical Dictionary", Peter Bartrum dates Hedd to c. 1070; our own work would revise that to c. 1050.
[2] National Library of Wales Journal, vol xiii, pp 112; HLG 10b
[3] Tudwal Gloff was a son of Rhodri Mawr by a second wife (or mistress). It is assumed he was not yet 14 in 878 when his father fell, but did join the battle to avenge Rhodri in 881.  Our estimate should be within one or two years of his actual birthdate.  His older half-brothers date from 850-855.
[4] See the paper "Generational Gaps and the Welsh Laws" elsewhere on this site
[5] Entries of a "legendary" and a "real" man of this name appear in Bartrum's Classical Dictionary; the latter dated to c. 925  We would reject the second citation in its entirety
[6] A lady named Tymyr is called a daughter of Rhun ap Maelgwn in Peniarth Ms 131
[7] There is no Welsh word "Alunog" by which Hedd may have been nicknamed; but "alluog" meaning "powerful" would have been a better choice than "molwynog" as a nickname if Alunog isn't the birth name of Hedd's father