Guest-written Papers
Reference Abbreviations
Guidance Articles for Researchers
Single Family Analysis
Families of Mixed Origin
Family Pedigrees
Mis-identified Same-Named People in Wales
Battles and Historical Events
Ancient Welsh Territories
Welshmen in Llydaw, Brittany
The Men of the North
Legendary History Prior to 1st Century BC
Beli Mawr and Llyr Llediath in Welsh Pedigrees
Papers Related to Maxen Wledig
Bartrum's "Pedigrees of the Welsh Tribal Patriarchs"
Britain's Royal Roman Family
The Royal Family of Powys
2nd Powys Royal Dynasty
The Royal Family of Gwynedd
Men Descended from Tudwal Gloff
Royal Family of Gwent/ Glamorgan
Royal Family of Brycheiniog
15 Noble Tribes of Gwynedd
The 5 Plebian Tribes of Wales
Glast and the Glastening
Papers about Rhiryd Flaidd and Penllyn
The Men of Collwyn ap Tangno of Lleyn
Edwin of Tegeingl and his Family
Ednowain Bendew in Welsh pedigrees
Ithel of Bryn in Powys
Idnerth Benfras of Maesbrook
Tudor Trefor and his Family
Trahaearn ap Caradog of Arwystli
The Family of Trahaearn ap Caradog
Cadafael Ynfyd of Cydewain
Maredudd ap Owain, King of Deheubarth
Sandde Hardd of Mortyn
The Floruit of Einion ap Seisyllt
The 5 Dafydd Llwyds of Llanwrin Parish
Cowryd ap Cadfan of Dyffryn Clwyd
Osbwrn Wyddel of Cors Gedol
Bradwen of Llys Bradwen in Meirionydd
Who Was Sir Robert Pounderling?
Sir Aaron ap Rhys
Eidio Wyllt - What Was His Birthname?
Ifor Bach, Lord of Senghenydd
Ancestors and Children of the Lord Rhys

                           THE MEDIEVAL "REDATING" OF BRAINT HIR
                                          By Darrell Wolcott
          Usually called the Founder of the 10th Noble Family of north Wales, Braint Hir was said (by the noted 15th century bard and genealogist Gutyn Owain) to have lived in the latter half of the ninth century, contemporary with the sons of Rhodri Mawr. But later writers began tinkering with his pedigree in order to identify him with a certain Brianum found in Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia Regum Britanniae. In that Latin manuscript written in the 12th century, the author describes a scene where King Cadwallon ap Cadfan is considering a request by Edwin who had asked permission to wear a crown.  Putting his head on the knee (in the lap?) of his young nephew Brianum, the lad soon awoke him with tears falling like rain.
         We are not concerned with the boy's sadness to learn his uncle was considering allowing Edwin to wear a crown; what we are struck by is the license taken by the medieval translator[1].  A mere mention of "nepotis sui quem Brianum" is turned into "Braint, son of Nefyn, his nephew" and in the next reference to the boy (again merely as Brianum) the translator turns him into "Braint Hir".  This began a scurrying by genealogists to recast his pedigrees to make him contemporary with Cadwallon (c.600-634). A c.1400 manuscript[2]which cites pedigrees of various non-royal families had given his ancestry as:
                                   Rychwyn farfog
                                Caranog Glewddigar
                                      Braint Hir
         If the last (most recent) named man in this chart was roughly contemporary with the last-named men in the other pedigrees in this manuscript, he should occur c. 1150/1200.  Braint Hir at nine generations earlier would date to c. 860/910 or almost exactly where Gutyn Owain had placed him.  Those who later sought to identify Braint with Cadwallon ap Cadfan found their opportunity in the pedigree of St. Egryn[3].  By simply adding one extra line to that pedigree, the entire chronology was shifted back 300 years[4]:
                                        Rychwin farfog
                                    Caranog Glewddiger
                 _________________l_________              Iago
                 l                                              l                 l
             Nefydd                                   Gwedrog      Cadfan
                 l                                              l                 l
            Braint Hir                            Gwrydr Drwm==Efeilian
                                                                   St Egryn[5]
          The result was deemed "close enough" even though it places Braint Hir in the same generation as Cadwallon, brother of the Efeilian shown in the chart.  Rather than casting Braint as a nephew of Cadwallon, he appears no more than a first-cousin of a brother-in-law. One would have to also assume that Nefydd, a man now portrayed in the same generation as Cadfan, must have married a daughter of Cadfan in order to make Braint Hir the nephew of Cadwallon.  Or assume that Cadwallon married a sister of Nefydd....either way, the generational relationships shown by the (faked) chart make both assumptions unlikely.  But there are other reasons to reject this chart.  When we assign likely birthdates to the men at the top of the chart, Rychwin would occur c. 430/435.  In his original pedigree, he was described as "of Bodrychwin in Rhos".  That placename did exist at some point in time, but was located in Llanfair Talhaearn in Uwch Aled in Rhufoniog.[6]  Even if we assume that both commotes may have once been broadly referred to as Rhos, the Rychwin in the fake chart would have been born in the same generation as Owain Ddantgwyn who did rule Rhos in the late 5th and early 6th centuries.  How has history missed this early grandson of Cunedda?  One likely born before the family of Cunedda came to Gwynedd.  Even the usually careful Peter Bartrum accepts the revised pedigree and dates Rychwin to c. 430 without ever asking that question.  Perhaps he was led astray by another medieval emendation of the pedigree.  The infamous Iolo Morgannwg probably anticipated our question, because he turned the "Cynwas" (also variously spelled Cynwal, Cynnog and Cwnws) cited as the son of Rychwin into "Cynan Glodrydd ap Cadell Ddyrnllwg"[7].  He probably meant Cyngen Glodrydd, a man some medieval pedigrees cite as a son of Cadell.[8]  Voila, now the men are  Powysian who may have easily lived in northeast Wales before the era of the Cunedda migration.  But there is no record of that family taking up residence on the west side of the Clwyd river; they were situated farther east around Chester, Maelor and southward perhaps to the Severn.  The only reasonable answer to the question we posed as to why history knew of no Rychwin in Rhos in the 5th century is this: because he was only placed in that century by men living in the 16th and 17th centuries.
          It wasn't even Geoffrey of Monmouth's claim that his "Brianus nephew of Cadwallon" was identical to Braint Hir, that notion being proposed over 400 years later.  It isn't too harsh a conclusion to think that Geoffrey's Brianus was merely a character he invented to flesh out his story about Edwin wanting to wear a crown like his "boyhood friend" Cadwallon.  Outside of this tale spun by Geoffrey, there is no source for the belief that Edwin and Cadwallon ever were friends.
         But the medieval genealogists were not yet finished.  Pointing to another citation[9] from Bonedd y Saint, they next made Rychwin farfog identical to the "Rychwin in Nant Conwy" whose father is given as Heilig ap Glannog.  But not even the Heilig ap Glannog associated with the legendary inundation stories preceeded Cunedda to Wales[10]; the only real man of that name found in old pedigrees was born c. 950. If his son, Rychwin, was the ancestor or Braint Hir, the latter would not occur until c. 1130....not a big problem until you consider the Rhissiart cited in the c. 1400 pedigree would not have yet been born when the pedigree was written.
         Having examined and rejected all the attempts to redate the floruit of Braint Hir, we are left with the original pedigree and the conclusion that he was, in fact, active in the second half of the 9th century.  A birthdate of c. 880 is our estimate, which would date his Rychwin (whether or not "farfog" and whether or not from Bodrychwin in Rhos) to c. 720.  Most writers, even if they don't agree when he lived, associate Braint Hir with Is Dulas in Rhos. The ruling family in that whole section of mainland Gwynedd in the 8th century was the one descended from Owain Ddantgwyn and represented in that era by Meirion ap Rhufon and his son, Caradog.[11]  It is probable that a Rychwin who was ancestor to Braint Hir represented a junior branch of that family, passing down his part of family lands in Is Dulas to his great-great-great grandson. 
          One final thought about Braint Hir.  By being named as one of the Founders of Noble Tribes of Gwynedd, we should expect to find some actions which earned him that honor.  Rather than ascribe to him the heroic deeds Geoffrey recited for his "Brianus" (which may well have been non-historic), we prefer to think his honors were earned during the c. 900 wars to evict the Danish settlers[12].  It may have been a young Braint Hir who actually cleared them from Rhos shortly before the warband of Cynan ap Elyfyn, and his son Marchudd, arrived on the scene.  He was in the right place and lived at the right time for that conjecture to be reasonable.   

[1]  Acton Griscom's "Historia Reginum Britanniae of Geoffrey of Monmouth", 1929, presents the Latin text of Geoffrey's work from Cambridge Univ Ms 1706, followed by an English translation, not of the Latin, but of the Welsh version found in Jesus College Ms 61; the latter dates from c. 1500 and it was this translation which turned Geoffrey's "Brianun" into "Braint Hir"
[2] Hen Lwythau Gwynedd y'r Mars, 11
[3] Bonedd y Saint, 72 from "Early Welsh Genealogical Tracts" derives St Egryn from the same family as Braint Hir
[4] The final line to ByS 72 "and Efeilian ferch Cadfan ap Iago was his mother" was added to the pedigree about 1560, first appearing in Peniarth Ms 75, and copied by several other writers from the 16th to the 18th century.  Refer to Peter Bartrum's "Late Additions to Bonedd y Saint" in Transactions of the Honorable Society of Cymmrodorion, 1959.
[5] There is no independent method of dating St. Egryn; his original pedigree, when collated with the pedigree of Braint Hir, would date him near 915.  Only the late addition to his pedigree claims an early 7th century date for him.
[6] Melville Richards "Welsh Administrative and Territorial Units", 1969, pp 17, 118
[7] Iolo Ms, pp 131
[8] ABT 6k, ByS 33 & 38; for a discussion of the chronological problems in making Cyngen a son of Cadell, refer to the paper "Vortigern and the Powys Dynasty" at the link below:
[9] ByS 42 lists several brothers said to be sons of Heilig ap Glannog, including a Rychwin
[10] The legendary tale of the flooding of his lands is set in the 6th century, but no man of that name is found in pedigree material until the 10th century.  We suspect the date of the inundation story was set in reference to the c. 475 Caradog Freich Fras, but the Heilig found in pedigrees was the great-great grandson of the c. 815 Caradog Freich Fras of Rhos
[11] His obit appears in 798 and his pedigree in Harleian Ms 3859, 3
[12] Refer to the paper "The Retaking of Northeast Wales" at the link below: