Legendary History Prior to 1st Century BC
Beli Mawr and Llyr Llediath in Welsh Pedigrees
The Bartrum "Welsh Genealogies"
Bartrum's "Pedigrees of the Welsh Tribal Patriarchs"
A study in charting medieval citations
The Evolution of the "Padriarc Brenin" Pedigree
Generational Gaps and the Welsh Laws
Minimum Age for Welsh Kingship in the Eleventh Century
The Lands of the Silures
Catel Durnluc aka Cadell Ddyrnllwg
Ancient Powys
The Royal Family of Powys
The Royal Family of Gwynedd
The 5 Plebian Tribes of Wales
Maxen Wledig of Welsh Legend
Maxen Wledig and the Welsh Genealogies
Anwn Dynod ap Maxen Wledig
Constans I and his 343 Visit to Britain
Glast and the Glastening
Composite Lives of St Beuno
Rethinking the Gwent Pedigrees
The Father of Tewdrig of Gwent
Another Look at Teithfallt of Gwent
Ynyr Gwent and Caradog Freich Fras
Llowarch ap Bran, Lord of Menai
Rulers of Brycheiniog - The Unanswered Questions
Lluan ferch Brychan
The Herbert Family Pedigree
Edwin of Tegeingl and his Family
Angharad, Heiress of Mostyn
Ithel of Bryn in Powys
Idnerth Benfras of Maesbrook
Henry, the Forgotten Son of Cadwgan ap Bleddyn
The Muddled Pedigree of Sir John Wynn of Gwydir
The Mysterious Peverel Family
The Clan of Tudor Trevor
The Other "Sir Roger of Powys"
Ancestry of Ieuaf ap Adda ap Awr of Trevor
The Retaking of Northeast Wales
Hedd Molwynog or Hedd ap Alunog of Llanfair Talhearn
"Meuter Fawr" son of Hedd ap Alunog
The Medieval "redating" of Braint Hir
Aaron Paen ap Y Paen Hen
Welsh Claims to Ceri after 1179
The Battle of Mynydd Carn
Trahaearn ap Caradog of Arwystli
Cadafael Ynfyd of Cydewain
Maredudd ap Robert, Lord of Cedewain
Cadwgan of Nannau
Maredudd ap Owain, King of Deheubarth
What Really Happened in Deheubarth in 1022?
Two Families headed by a Rhydderch ap Iestyn
The Era of Llewelyn ap Seisyll
Cynfyn ap Gwerystan, the Interim King
The Consorts and Children of Gruffudd ap Llewelyn
The 1039 Battle at Rhyd y Groes
The First Wife of Bleddyn ap Cynfyn
Hywel ap Gronwy of Deheubarth
The Brief Life of Gruffudd ap Maredudd
Owain Brogyntyn and his Family
The Other Gwenwynwyn
Eunydd son of Gwenllian
Sandde Hardd of Mortyn
The Floruit of Einion ap Seisyllt
The Enigmatic Elystan Glodrydd
The Unofficial "History" of Elystan of Powys
Cowryd ap Cadfan of Dyffryn Clwyd
Owain ap Cadwgan and Nest ferch Rhys - An Historic Fiction?
The "sons" of Owain ap Cadwgan ap Bleddyn
The Betrayal by Meirion Goch Revisited
Gwyn Ddistain, seneschal for Llewelyn Fawr
The Men of Lleyn - How They Got There
Trahaearn Goch of Lleyn
Einion vs Iestyn ap Gwrgan - The Conquest of Glamorgan
The Royal Family of Glamorgan
Dafydd Goch ap Dafydd - His Real Ancestry
Thomas ap Rhodri - Father of Owain "Lawgoch"
The "Malpas" Family in Cheshire
Einion ap Celynin of Llwydiarth
Marchweithian, Lord of Is Aled, Rhufoniog
Osbwrn Wyddel of Cors Gedol
Bradwen of Llys Bradwen in Meirionydd
Ednowain ap Bradwen
Sorting out the Gwaithfoeds
Three Men called Iorwerth Goch "ap Maredudd"
The Caradog of Gwynedd With 3 Fathers
Who Was Sir Robert Pounderling?
Eidio Wyllt - What Was His Birthname?
The Legendary Kingdom of Seisyllwg
The Royal Family of Ceredigion
Llewelyn ap Hoedliw, Lord of Is Cerdin
The Ancestry of Owain Glyndwr
Welsh Ancestry of the Tudor Dynasty
Gruffudd ap Rhys, the Homeless Prince
The Children of Lord Rhys
Maredudd Gethin ap Lord Rhys
The 'Next Heir' of Morgan of Caerleon
Pedigree of the ancient Lords of Ial
The Shropshire Walcot Family
Pedigree of "Ednowain Bendew II"
Pedigree of Cynddelw Gam

                                            By Darrell Wolcott
          If there ever was an historical man who was the eponym for the Welsh cantref of Maelienydd, it was probably a late fifth century figure from the era when the territorial name Powys denoted lands east of the Wye and Dyfi rivers and south of the upper Severn.[1]  Some modern scholars[2] identify him as the "Millo map Camuir" cited as the great-grandson of Cadell Ddyrnllwg in Harleian Ms 3859.  That man would have been born c. 475 and it is entirely possible he was the "Lord of Maelienydd" during his lifetime.  But chronologically, he could not be the Mael to whom the medieval genealogists have appended the descriptive by-name "Maelienydd".
          Several sixteenth-century books of pedigrees[3] trace some Powys families to a "Mael Maelienydd ap Cadfael ap Clydog ap Cadell ap Rhodri Mawr".  If such a Mael ever lived, it was not in Maelienydd; that family was seated in Deheubarth.  Clydog ap Cadell was slain by his brother Meurig in 920.  A rough idea of his age can be seen by this chart:
                                   820  Rhodri Mawr
                                   855   Cadell
                              885/890  Clydog  ob 920  
          If Clydog had any sons at all, they were yet toddlers when he was killed.  A Brut entry for 938 says that Hyfaidd ap Clydog died; either he was a young man who contracted an illness or the son of a different Clydog.  The same entry says Meurig also died that year, with the Red Book of Hergest version making him a brother of Hyfaidd.  Neither the notice in Annales Cambriae nor the Peniarth Ms 20 version of the Brut make the men brothers, but do make it clear both "died" as opposed to having been slain.  We remain unconvinced either man was definitely a son of Clydog ap Cadell.  Often the Brut, when it records men who died prematurely, heaps praise on them and laments their early passing.  Men simply noted as having died usually lived out a full life and there was nothing unremarkable about such a death.  In any event, no son of Clydog ap Cadell named Cadfael occurs until the 16th century when he is used to link "Mael Maelienydd" to the clan of Rhodri Mawr. 
        One 17th century manuscript[4] claims Mael was living in 978. Such a date would be consistent with a grandson of Clydog, but one must suspect the author did no more than quote an oral tradition believed by current families who claim him as their ancestor.  In a pedigree of the Evans family of Shrewsbury submitted at the 1623 Visitation of Shropshire, that family is traced to a "Madock Moloynock" who is cited as "de Melyenith" and said to occur in 978. But any man named Mael who was alive in 978 and living in Maelienydd is wholly unrelated to the families cited in the 16th and 17th century pedigrees; the Mael who heads those families was not born until after c. 1015. 
          An alternate ancestry for Mael occurs on other pages in two of the five manuscripts cited in Note 2 and is also the only one cited by Griffith Hiraethog[5].  In those citations, Mael Maelienydd is made the son of "Pasgen ap Gwyn ap Gruffudd ap Beli and Selyf ap Brochwel ap Aeddan".  In all cases, he is given a son called Iorwerth Hilfawr of Halchdyn in Deuddwr.  The families which follow are all men of Powys who marry mostly ladies of Powys.  We strongly doubt the Mael found in these pedigrees lived in Maelienydd, a land then held by Elystan Glodrydd and his clan.  Rather, we think the "Maelienydd" was added to his name by the same medieval genealogists who tended to call any early Cadell of Powys "Ddyrnllwg" and any Brochwel "Ysgithrog".
         Chronologically, the pedigree Mael fits with the Powys family but not with the "clan of Rhodri Mawr" citations.  We would ascribe the latter attribution to the medieval belief that one had to descend from Rhodri Mawr to be of any importance or hold any real power.[6] We further find these families engaged in the same repeating-string naming habits previously found in the dynastic royal family of Powys. We have elsewhere[6] shown there were four different branches of that family with men named Pasgen ap Gwyn ap Gruffudd ap Beli ap Selyf ap Brochwel ap Aeddan.  Those Pasgens occur c. 980, 1080, 1180 and 1280.
         Our analysis of the Mael pedigrees indicates both the Pasgen of c. 980 and the Pasgen of c. 1080 named a son Mael.  But neither Mael was Lord of Maelienydd or even lived there.  Each of those men named a son Iorwerth, the earliest of those (born c. 1045) appears to be the one correctly described as "of Halchdyn in Deuddwr". He had sons named Trahaearn and Madog, while the later Iorwerth ap Mael had sons named Trahaearn and Cadwgan.  Pedigrees of both lines, although 100 years apart, are thoroughly confounded in the medieval manuscripts but consistently insert a "Tynhaearn" between each Trahaearn and his father Iorwerth.  Apparently the earliest of the men named Trahaearn was known as Trahaearn Tynhaearn "the iron man" and this nick-name was turned into his father by inserting an "ap".  A consistent timeline can be established for both families so long as the extra generation called Tynhaearn is omitted.
           The Trahaearn ap Iorwerth of c. 1075 had a son named Iddon Galed, while his namesake of c. 1175 had two sons, Iddon and Einion.  Both men called Iddon ap Trahaearn named a son Cyfnerth.  The Cyfnerth of c. 1135 named his sons Heilyn and Ieuaf, while the Cynferth of c. 1235 called his sons Ieuaf and Einion.  Each of the men called Ieuaf ap Cyfnerth named one son Iorwerth and each Iorwerth named a son Ieuan.  It is only when we examine the cited marriages in each line that it becomes clear the two name strings "Ieuan ap Iorwerth ap Ieuaf ap Cynferth" actually occur 100 years apart.  Our charts for these men begin with their common ancestor, Selyf ap Brochwel ap Aeddan ap Cyngen ap Brochwel ap Eliseg:
                        850  Selyf I
                 l                                             l
     880  Aeddan II                             885  Beli I
                 l                                             l
     910  Brochwel II                        915  Gruffudd I
                 l                                             l
      945  Selyf II                              950  Gwyn I
                 l                                             l
        980  Beli II                             980  Pasgen I
                 l                                             l
   1015  Gruffudd II                         1015  Mael I
                 l                                             l
     1050  Gwyn* II                        1045  Iorwerth I
                 l                                             l
    1080  Pasgen II                      1075  Trahaearn I
                 l                                             l
      1115  Mael II                           1105  Iddon I
                 l                                             l
    1145  Iorwerth II                      1135  Cyfnerth I
                 l                                  _______l__________
                 l                                  l                          l
   1175  Trahaearn II                    Ieuaf I  1165         Heilyn  1165
                 l                                  l
    1205  Iddon II                      Iorwerth I  1195
                 l                                  l
    1235  Cynferth II                     Ieuan I  1230
        l                              l
    Einion  1265               Ieuaf II  1265
                                 Iorwerth II  1295
                                   Ieuan II  1325
           *This is the Gwyn ap Gruffudd cited in HLG 2(f) on page 113 of Bartrum's Early Welsh Genealogical Tracts and the one whose obit is recorded in the Brut in 1101
           One other chronological error occurs in the pedigree material for the other sons of Iorwerth ap Mael.  The earliest Iorwerth was ancestor to an Einion ap Rhiryd ap Cadwgan ap Llywarch ap Madog ap Iorwerth, while the later Iorwerth was the ancestor of Dafydd Llwch ap Madog ap Rhiryd ap Cadwgan.  The occurrance of the names, although not in the same sequence, of Rhiryd, Cadwgan and Madog in those families has resulted in a number of combinations in the medieval pedigrees as their authors attempted to turn it into a single line where Einion ap Rhiryd of c. 1210 was the brother of Madog ap Rhiryd of c. 1245.  The chronologically accurate charts appear as:
                      1015  Mael                    1115  Mael
                                 l                                  l
                   1045  Iorwerth                1145  Iorwerth  
                                 l                                  l
                    1080  Madog                  1180  Cadwgan
                                 l                                  l
                    1115  Llywarch                1210  Rhiryd
                                 l                                  l
                    1145  Cadwgan               1245  Madog
                                 l                                  l
                     1180  Rhiryd              1275  Dafydd Llwch**
                    1210  Einion*
                          *Ancestor of the Evans family of Shrewsbury
                              **Ancestor of the Lloyd family of Trewylan
             In Bartrum's Welsh Genealogies AD 300-1400, a family line without ancestry is shown on his chart Mael Maelienydd - 1, ending with a daughter who married a man descended from Mael.  We believe the unattributed family is another cadet of the Powys family and would chart it as:
                 980  Pasgen I (ancestor of Mael I)
             1015  Trahaearn 
               1050  Hywel*
               1080   Rhiryd*
               1115  Morgan
           1150  Morgan Fychan               Cyfnerth  1135
                            l                                l
         1180  Ednyfed Chwith                   Heilyn  1165
                            l                                l
             1215  Gruffudd                        Griffri  1200
                            l                                l
            1250  Tangwystl============Iorwerth  1240
          *These two names are reversed in Pen Ms 129 & 131 but each of the later men called Pasgen ap Gwyn also had sons named Trahaearn, and each of those men named a son Hywel who named a son Rhiryd.  We suspect each of those families followed the pattern set by the first Trahaearn ap Pasgen, the one in this chart.
            Our final observation on these families concerns a final string of identical names found later in both families, more difficult to separate as they occur only one generation apart:
               1230  Ieuan ap Iorwerth I      1325  Ieuan ap Iorwerth II
                           l                                        l
              1260  Iorwerth                   1355  Madog Fychan
                           l                      ___________l______
                           l                      l                           l
               1290  Ieuan       1385  Iolyn            1390  Marged
                           l                      l
        1320  Madog Fychan  1415 Maredudd
             l                              l
 1350  Iolyn               1350  Marged
1380  Maredudd
         The Marged ferch Madog Fychan ap Ieuan of c. 1350 married a grandson of Dafydd Llwch (whom see above) who would occur c. 1340, while the Marged ferch Madog Fychan ap Ieuan of c. 1390 married Ithel Foel ap Madog ap Cadwgan descended from Rhiryd Flaidd, a man who also occurs c. 1390.  A single lady could not have married both men.  The spouses cited for Iolyn and Maredudd all fit chronologically with the father/son of 1385 and 1415, but one son of Maredudd ap Iolyn was born c. 1415. 

[1] The lands of the Cornovii Tribe of Celts. Immediately to the north lay the old kingdom of Ddyrnllwg; at some point in the fifth century, the name Powys was applied to both.
[2] David Nash Ford's "Early British Kingdoms" website makes this identification
[3] Peniarth Ms 127, 128, 129, 131 and 141
[4] Harleian Ms 1973 by Jacob Chaloner, c. 1625
[5] Peniarth Ms 129 & 131 offer both versions of his ancestry; Peniarth Ms 177 cites only the Powys connection
[6] Other examples of this false attribution to the family of Rhodri Mawr include Edwin of Tegeingl, Rhydderch ap Iestyn of Gwent, and Gruffudd ap Llewelyn of Powys