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Legendary History Prior to 1st Century BC
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Papers Related to Maxen Wledig
Bartrum's "Pedigrees of the Welsh Tribal Patriarchs"
Britain's Royal Roman Family
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2nd Powys Royal Dynasty
The Royal Family of Gwynedd
Men Descended from Tudwal Gloff
Royal Family of Gwent/ Glamorgan
Royal Family of Brycheiniog
15 Noble Tribes of Gwynedd
The 5 Plebian Tribes of Wales
Glast and the Glastening
Papers about Rhiryd Flaidd and Penllyn
The Men of Collwyn ap Tangno of Lleyn
Edwin of Tegeingl and his Family
Ednowain Bendew in Welsh pedigrees
Ithel of Bryn in Powys
Idnerth Benfras of Maesbrook
Tudor Trefor and his Family
Trahaearn ap Caradog of Arwystli
The Family of Trahaearn ap Caradog
Cadafael Ynfyd of Cydewain
Maredudd ap Owain, King of Deheubarth
Sandde Hardd of Mortyn
The Floruit of Einion ap Seisyllt
The 5 Dafydd Llwyds of Llanwrin Parish
Cowryd ap Cadfan of Dyffryn Clwyd
Osbwrn Wyddel of Cors Gedol
Bradwen of Llys Bradwen in Meirionydd
Who Was Sir Robert Pounderling?
Sir Aaron ap Rhys
Eidio Wyllt - What Was His Birthname?
Ifor Bach, Lord of Senghenydd
Ancestors and Children of the Lord Rhys
                                           HARLEIAN MS 3859
                                       Edited by Darrell Wolcott

        As the earliest known list of pedigrees of the Welsh Royal Families, this manuscript is also the one we believe contains the fewest chronological problems.  We have constructed a timeline into which virtually all the families mesh with each other when considering all the marriages mentioned in it and other ancient sources.  In this paper, we propose to share what we have concluded after many years studying the families contained in this manuscript.

       The original Latin text is reproduced by Egerton Phillimore in Y Cymmrodor, vol ix (1888) and we shall begin with that, followed by a narrative version which (a) uses our own preferred spelling orthography; (b) inserts those birth dates suggested by our entire body of work; and (c) emends the text only where required to adhere to a consistent timeline and when such emendations conform to other ancient manuscripts.  Insertions are of two types, both of which are enclosed in square brackets [].  Insertions which are mine alone are also underlined, while insertions made by Peter Bartrum, and with which we agree, are not underlined.  Those insertions made by Bartrum with which we do not agree, are omitted. We follow each pedigree with comments which we hope will be helpful to those using the data.  While the manuscript itself is unnumbered and does not assign the families to any kingdom, we shall use those suggested by Egerton Phillimore simply for identification.

        Please note that each pedigree begins with the most recent man at the top, and descends to the most ancient man at the bottom.  None of the names are preceded by "ap" or "ferch" to distinguish males from females.  Those identifications seen in copies of this manuscript were furnished by modern editors.

1 - Gwynedd

Cat man
Catgolau Iauhir
Eniau girt
Patn pefrut
Amalech q fuit beli magni

Narrative form:

Owain (906) ap Hywel Dda (879) ap Cadell (851) ap Rhodri Mawr (820) ap Merfyn Frych (790) ap Esyllt (773) ferch Cynan Dindaethwy (745) ap Cynan (715) ap Rhodri Molwynog (685) ap Idwal Ywrch (656) ap Blessed Cadwaladr (627) ap Cadwallon (598) ap Cadfan (569) ap Iago (540) ap Beli (510)

Beli (540) ap Rhun (505) ap Maelgwn Gwynedd (480) ap Cadwallon Lawhir (450) ap Einion Yrth (415) ap Cunedda Wledig (385) ap Edern (355) ap Padern Beisrudd (325) ap Tegid (295) [ap Iago (265) ap Gwyndog  (235)] ap Cein (205) ap Doli (170) ap Dwfyn (140) ap Amgolydd (110) ap Anwerydd (80) ap Onwedd (50) ap Dubun (20) ap Bryddgwyn (10 BC) ap Owain (40 BC) ap Afallach (70 BC) ap Afleth (100 BC) ap Beli Mawr (130 BC)

[a]  The scribe who penned the manuscript left a space in front of the topmost name (which omitted the first letter of that name) so that it could be added in large callligraphy, a common flourish in old manuscript production.
[b]  It would appear the purpose of this pedigree was to show that Owain ap Hywel, at whose direction the entire manuscript was drafted, was descended from the ancient Royal Family of Gwynedd.  Rather than recite Owain's paternal ancestry, the pedigree is primarily that of his great-great-great grandmother Esyllt. A strictly paternal pedigree would continue after Merfyn Frych as "ap Gwriad (755) ap Elidyr (725) ap Sandde (695) ap Alcwn (660) ap Teged (630) ap Gweir (595) ap Dwc (560) ap Llywarch Hen (520) ap Elidyr Lydanwyn (485) ap Meirchion Gul (445) ap Gwrwst Ledlum (415) ap Ceneu (380) ap Coel Hen (340) ap Tecfan (310) ap Deheuwaint (280) ap Telpwll (250) ap Urban (215) ap Gradd (185) ap Rhifedel (155) ap Rydeyrn (120) ap Eudigant (90) ap Eudeyrn (60) ap Eneid (25) ap Eudos (5 BC) ap Euddolen (35 BC) ap Afallach (70 BC) and thus to Beli Mawr.[1]
[c]  Apparently an attempt was made to connect the Gwynedd Royal Family to Maelgwn Gwynedd by confusing Beli ap Rhun ap Maelgwn with Beli ap Einion ap Owain Ddantgwyn, but the chronology does not support that connection.  The family probably should continue after Beli (510) as "ap Einion (475) ap Owain Ddantgwyn (445) ap Einion Yrth (415)"[2]
[d]  The ancestry earlier than Tegid (295) shows the scribe who copied the extant manuscript from an earlier source did not understand that the list of names "Cein, Guorcein, Doli, Guordoli, Dumn, Gurdumn, Amguoloyt" should be read as "Cein; before Cein, Doli; before Doli, Dumn; before Dumn, Amguoloyt".  Thus 3 nonsense names should be deleted from the list.  Our insertion of Iago and Gwynnog as generations between Tegid and Cein is based on citations found in Jesus College Ms 20 and Hengwrt Ms 33 (the Achau Brenhinoedd a Thywysogion Cymru section) and are required to make the pedigree chronologically sound.[3]
[e] Both the chronology and the name "Afleth" (the spelling is Amalech in other manuscripts[4]) suggest this was Lludd, the brother of Cassivellaunus and father of Tasciovanus mentioned by Roman historians in Julius Caesar's invasion of Britain in 55 BC
[f] We did not include the final part of the pedigree which claims the wife of Beli Mawr was Anna, mother of the Virgin Mary.  While such a claim may have been a part of tenth century lore and served to show the ancient ancestors were "civilized Christians", the chronology is wrong by at least a century.  It is further unlikely a lady of Palestine, born c. 35 BC, would have married anyone on the Isle of Britain.  Most likely, however, is that the statement was a copyist' gloss added long after the pedigree was first composed.
[1] "History of Gruffudd ap Cynan", an early biography of the Gwynedd king, gives this pedigree.  We estimate the manuscript was written within 120 years after that man died in 1137.
[2] See our full discussion in the paper "Ancestry of Cynan Dindaethwy" at the link below:
[3] JC Ms 20, 6 and ABT 27
[4] ABT 1a, c, 9b
[5] For our insertion of a Cynan as father of Cynan Dindaethwy, see our paper at the ling below:

2 - Dyfed

marget iut
Maxi gulecic
Pincr misser
Constantini magni
helen luic dauc
Narrative form:

Owain (910) ap Elen (895) ferch Llywarch (860) ap Hyfaidd (830) ap Tangwystl (810) ferch Owain (775) ap Maredudd (740) ap Tewdos (710) ap Rhain (680) ap Cadwgan (650) ap Caten (625) ap Cloten (600) ap Noe (575) ap Arthur (545) ap Pedur (520) ap Cyngar (490) ap Vortepir (465) ap Aircol Lawhir (435) ap Triffyn (405) ap Clotri (390) ferch Clydwyn (360) ap Ednyfed (330) ap Anwn Dynod (300) ap Maxentius (279) ap Maximianus Herculus (249) son-in-law of Diocletian (240)

Ebynt (500) ap Elynt (470) ap Amloyd (435) ap Amweryd (405) [ap Custennin (371) ap Maxen Wledig (344)] ap Constans (320) ap Constantine the Great (274) ap Constantinus Chlorus (250) whose wife was Helen Llyddog
[a] The pedigree of the mother of Owain ap Hywel Dda connects her maternally with first the Irish Deisi tribe of Dyfed and again maternally with Roman emperors. Note that generational gaps in Irish and Roman culture seem a bit shorter than we find in purely Welsh families. 
[b] The paternal ancestry of Elen ferch Llywarch is "Llywarch ap Hyfaidd ap Bledri", a king of Dyfed not further identified.  Bledri had married Tangwystl ferch Owain ap Maredudd, heiress of the Irish Deisi tribe which ruled Dyfed[1], but he probably was a man of Ceredigion.  We suggest he may have been a son of Dyfnwal ap Arthgen and brother of Meurig whose daughter married Rhodri Mawr.
[c] The pedigree makes a second maternal connection with Clotri ferch Clydwin in order to trace back to a Roman Emperor.  She was the mother of Triffyn, whose father was Aeda Brosc ap Corach and whose ancestors, the Deisi tribe, had earlier migrated to Dyfed from Ireland.[2]
[d] The "Maxi gulecic" in the pedigree is clearly not the Maxen Wledig who was killed in 388, but the Roman who fathered the son Anwn Dynod by Elen ferch Eudaf Hen.  We suggest he was the son of Emperor Maximianus Herculius, the man called "Protect" who (when promoted by Emperor Diocletion) probably married a base daughter of Diocletian; thus we identify "Protector" as his "father" Diocletian.  Both of those emperors bore the honorific "Brittanicus Maximus" or Protector of Britain.
[e]  The unrelated family added to this pedigree seeks, but wholly fails, to tie Elen ferch Llywarch to Constantine the Great through Maxen Wledig.  The two names we insert into that family are taken from Hengwrt Ms 33. 
[f] The "Helen Llyddog" who was the mother of Constantine the Great was NOT the same lady as Elen ferch Eudaf Hen, and was probably not even a lady of Britain.  It is known that Constans, son of Constantine, was in Britain about the time Maxen Wledig was conceived; those pedigrees which cite this ancestry for Maxen Wledig are at least chonologically possible.  Historians who call him a Spaniard, because Zosimus places him among the Menapii tribe, ignore the tribes also called Menapii who lived near Dublin, Ireland and at Menevia in Dyfed.  Refer to our paper on Constans at the link below:
[g] The name Amloyd for "Stater" and Amweryd for "Pincr misser" are taken from Hengwrt Ms 33[3]; the job titles of these men are used here. A "stator" is a magistrate's attendant and "pincera" is a butler at the king's court.
[1] ABT 18a; Triad #68; Brut y Tywysogyon, years 893 & 904
[2] This line is discussed in the paper "Maxen Wledig and the Welsh Genealogies" at the link below:
[3] Compare the parallel names in this list with those in ABT 18a

3- Rhos

Cat gual crisban
Eugein dant guin
Enniaun girt

Narrative form:

Hywel Farf Finiog (780) ap Caradog (740) ap Meirion (705) ap Rhufon (675) ap Einion (640) ap Idgwyn (610) ap Cadwallon Crisban (575) ap Cyngen (545) ap Meig (515) ap Cynglas (480) ap Owain Ddantgwyn (447) ap Einion Yrth (415) ap Cunedda (385)

[a] This Hywel is probably the man who contested Cynan Tyndaethwy for Anglesey when that man grew very old, had no sons, and refused to retire.  Their battles are recorded in the Brut during the years 813 and 816.  Cynan represented the senior line of the family, descended from Einion ap Owain Ddantgwyn; Hywel descended from Cynglas, younger brother of Einion ap Owain Ddantgwyn
[b] The positioning of this pedigree ahead of all families but his own probably indicates Owain ap Hywel Dda considered it most closely related to himself

4 - Ynys Manaw

Maxim guletic q occidit gratianu rege Romanorum

Narrative form:

Idwal (710) ap Tudwal (680) ap Anarawd (650) ap Merfyn (620) ap Cynfyn (580) ap Anllech (545) ap Tudwal (515) ap Rhun (480) ap Neithon (450) ap Senyllt Hael (420) ap Dyngad (385) ap Tudwal (355) ap Ednyfed (330) ap Anwn Dynod (300) ap Maxentius (279)

[a]  While the words which follow "Maxim guletic" incorrectly identify him as the man who killed the Roman Emperor, Gratian, they were likely added by a copyist long after the 10th century.  The "Maxen" who fathered Anwn Dynod was at least two generations older than the one who killed Gratian in the 380's.
[b]  This family became extinct in the male line with Idwal ap Tudwal; his sister Celenion married Sandde ap Alcwn and their son was Elidyr.  The son of Elidyr was Gwriad who married Esyllt ferch Cynan Tyndathwy; their son was Merfyn Frych.[1]
[c] Tudwal ap Ednyfed was a brother of Clydwyn ap Ednyfed from Pedigree #2 above

[1] JC Ms 20, 19; ABT 6(l)

5 - Ystrad Clud (Strathclyde)

Du gual hen
Ceretic guletic
Narrative form: 

Rhun (838) ap Arthgal (810) ap Dyfnwal (780) ap Rhydderch (750) ap Owain (720) and his brother Dyfnwal (723) ap Tewdwr (690) ap Beli (660) ap Elfin (630) ap [unnamed daughter (605) of Neithon, ferch unnamed daughter (580) of Beli] (ap Owain) ferch Beli (545) ap Neithon (510) ap Gwyddno (480) ap Dyfnwal Hen (450) ap Cinuit (420) ap Ceretic Wledig (390) ap Cynloyp (355) ap Cinhil (325) ap Cluim (295) ap Cursalem (260) ap Fer (230) ap Confer (200)

[a]  This is more a "king list" than a "family" and includes ancestry via daughters.  The later men were kings of Strathclyde, while the older men in this chart were men of Edinburg, who were likely a branch of the family descended from Doli of Pedigree #1 
[b]  Ceretic Wledig was contemporary with St Patrick.  Dyfnwal Hen ap Cinuit is often confused with Dyfnwal Hen ap Ednyfed ap Anwn Dynod, but the two men lived 3 generations apart.[1]
[c]  The father of the c. 630 Elfin was Neithon ap Cathen ap Cawrdaf of Pedigree #16
[d]  The father of the c. 605 unnamed daughter was Neithon ap Cano; this Neithon was a son of Morfydd ferch Urien Rheged
                                     Chart of the links 510 - 630
                  510  Neithon                         510  Urien Rheged
                              l                                                l
                    545  Beli                                 545  Morfydd
                              l                                                l                  Cawrdaf  530
                 580  daughter================Neithon                  l
                                          ______l_________                            Cathen  565
                                         l                            l                                l
                              600 Owain*           605  daughter=========Neithon  595
                                                                           630  Elfin
                                      *we would omit this name from the pedigree

6 - Men of the North
[R]iderch hen
Dum gual hen
Narrative form:

Rhydderch Hen (545) ap Tudwal (515) ap Clinoch (485) ap Dyfnwal Hen (450)

[a] This is a branch of the family immediately above; Clinoch was a brother of Gwyddno.  Rhydderch Hen was a patron of St Kentigern (525-610) and is also the man who came south to attack Rhun Hir following the death of Maelgwn Gwynedd. A cousin of this Rhydderch's father was Elidyr Mwynfawr who had married Eurgain, a daughter of Maelgwn.  Claiming she should inherit Maelgwn's lands because Rhun Hir was illegitimate, Elidyr tried but failed to take those lands by force. Probably around 570, Rhydderch Hen came to Gwynedd to avenge his kinsman Elidyr.  One source which relates this expedition[1] confuses Rhydderch Hen with Rhydderch Hael of the Hael cousins, men descended from Dyfnwal Hen ap Ednyfed ap Anwn Dynod who lived about 100 years earlier and who would have died no later than the first quarter of the 6th century (thus contemporary with the father of Maelgwn Gwynedd).
[b] When one ignores chronology, it is easy to see why this family was confused with that of the earlier Dyfnwal Hen; Rhydderch Hael was the son of Tudwal Tudclyd ap Cedic ap Dyfnwal Hen[2] and those who insist on making him identical to Rhydderch Hen claim that Cedic and Clinoch are alternate spellings of the same name.

[1] Aneurin Owen's "Ancient Laws and Institutes of Wales", 1841, vol i, pp 105
[2] Bonedd Gwyr y Gogled, 8

7 - Men of the North

[C]linog eitin
Du gual hen
Narrative form:

Clinoch Eiddin (515) ap Cynfelyn (485) ap Dyfnwal Hen (450)

[a]  This is another branch of the family cited above; Cynfelyn was a brother of Gwyddno and Clinoch ap Dyfnwal Hen.
8 - Men of the North

[U]rb gen
Narrative form:
Urien Rheged (510) ap Cynfarch Oer (480) ap Meirchion Gul (445) ap Gwrwst Ledlum (415) [ap Ceneu (380)] ap Coel Hen (340)

[a] Both the family timeline and other early sources make Gwrwst Ledlum the son of Ceneu ap Coel; this is one of the few insertions made by Phillimore and Bartrum which appears warranted.  We suspect the name Ceneu did appear in the original manuscript and was omitted by the scribe who penned the extant copy.

9 - Men of the North

Masguic clop
Coyl hen
Narrative form:

Gwylog (485) ap Llynnog (450) ap Maeswig Gloff (415) ap Ceneu (380) ap Coel Hen (340)

[a] This Gwylog had no known sons, but two daughters.  Elen Gryg ferch Gwylog is cited as the wife of Meurig ap Idno ap Meirchion Gul, and mother of Elaeth brenin.  Dwywei ferch Gwylog is cited as the wife of Dunawt ap Pabo Post Prydain ap Athrwys ap Mar ap Ceneu ap Coel Hen, and the mother of Deinoel.  Both those marriages point to a birthdate near 520 for these ladies.
[b] Some early sources reverse the order of the first two men in this pedigree, and call Dwywei a daughter of Llynnog ap Gwylog.
[c]  Many other early citations call the son of Ceneu and father of Llynnog "Mar" and we think that Mar is the same man as Maeswig Gloff

10 - Men of the North
Morcant bulc
Cincar braut
Bran hen
dugual moilmut
Coyl hen
Guote p auc
Urb an
Beli et Anna

Narrative form:
Morgan (550) ap Clydog (520) ap Morgan Bwlch (490) ap Cyngar (455) brother of Bran Hen (450) ap Dyfnwal Moelmud (420) ap Garbanian (385) ap Coel Hen Gutepac (340) ap Tecfan (310) ap Deheuwaint (280) ap Telpwll (250) ap Urban (215) ap Gradd (185) ap Rhifedel (155) ap Rydeyrn (120) ap Eudigant (90) ap Eudeyrn (60) ap Eneid (25) ap Eudos (5 BC) ap Euddolen (35 BC) ap Afallach (70 BC) [ap Afleth (100 BC)] ap Beli Mawr (130 BC)

[a] When we insert Afleth as the father of Afallach (from Hengwrt Ms 33), this is a cousin line to the family in Pedigree #1 above; Eudollen ap Afallach was a brother of Owain ap Afallach.
[b] The scribe who inserted "maps" in front of the names got carried away when he found Coel Hen's epithet "Goutepauc" on the line beneath him, and made this two men "Coel Hen map Goutepauc"
[c] The Rydeyrn ap Eudigant in this pedigree had a brother Deheuwaint who was the ancestor of Cadell Ddrynllwg (380) ap Cadeyrn (350) ap Pasgen (315) ap Brydw (285) ap Rhuddfedel Frych (250) ap Cadeyrn (220) ap Gwrtheyrn (185) ap Rydeyrn (155) ap Deheuwaint (125) ap Eudigant (90).  Many have tried to identify the Gwrtheyrn in Cadell's pedigree as the Gwrtheyrn ap Gwydol who was better known as Vortigern.  Born 200 years later, Vortigern named sons Cadeyrn, Pasgen and Brydw but those were common male names and certainly not the same men found in Cadell's pedigree.
[d] One suspects that Bran Hen ap Dyfnwal Moelmud was a man of importance since he appears in the pedigree although the subsequent family is that of his brother, Cyngar.  Perhaps he had no sons himself, or no descendants of note.
[e] We previously commented on the wife, Anna, assigned to Beli Mawr.  But perhaps his wife WAS named Anna, just not the one described in Pedigree #1.

11 - Men of the North


Narrative form:

Dunawt (510) ap Pabo Post Prydain (480) [ap Athrwys (450) ap Mar (415)] ap Ceneu (380) ap Coel Hen (340)

[a] Other early manuscripts which cite Dunawt ap Pabo insert Athrwys ap Mar between Pabo and Ceneu, and the chronology requires it.  The wife of Dunawt was Dwywei ferch Gwylog ap Llynnog ap Maesgwig Gloff (i.e. Mar) ap Ceneu, and we should expect Dunawt to also be 4 generations after Ceneu.
[b] Another indication that Pabo occurs 3 generations after Ceneu is provided by the cited marriage of his daughter Arddun to Brochwel Ysgithrog ap Cyngen of Powys.  Born c. 510, Brochwel would require a wife born c. 520

12 - Men of the North

[G]urci ha Pere me pion eleuther cas cord maur
let lum

Narrative form:

Gwrgi and Peredur (525) were mebion (sons) of Eliffer Gosgord Mawr (490) [ap Athrwys (450) ap Mar (415)] ap Ceneu (380) ap Coel Hen (340)

[a]  Other ancient sources insert Athrwys and Mar between Eliffer and Ceneu. In the family timeline, the mother of Gwrgi and Peredur was Efrddyl ferch Cynfarch Oer ap Meirchion Gul ap Gwrwst Ledlum at Ceneu ap Coel Hen and her birthdate would be c. 510; this Efrddyl was a twin sister of Urien Rheged.
[b] Gwrgi and Peredur are said to have been present at the 573 battle of Arfderydd and their obits appear at 580 in Annales Cambriae, both consistent with their birth c. 525
[c] Eliffer Gosgord Mawr is the Welsh spelling for "Oliver with the great warband"

13 - Dyfed
Narrative form:

Triffyn (795) ap Rhain (768) ap Maredudd (740) ap Tewdos (710) ap Rhain (680)

[a]  Rhain ap Maredudd in this pedigree was the brother of Owain ap Maredudd, whose daughter Tangwystl was the heiress of the Irish Deisi tribe who ruled Dyfed. She is cited in Pedigree #2 above as the mother of Hyfaidd ap Bledri.  Triffyn ap Rhain is the last male cited in the Deisi Royal Family and likely had no sons to assume the kingship, that being claimed by the husband and son of Tangwystl.
[b] A junior branch of the Deisi family did survive in the male line and is represented in Dyfed in the mid-11th century by Cadifor Fawr ap Collwyn ap Gwyn, and in Ystrad Tywy by Cydrich ap Gwaithfoed.  It is not known if their ancestor, Dei ap Llywri (born c. 775), was passed over for kingship when Owain ap Maredudd died in 811.  But we think Bledri could not have married Tangwystl before c. 820 so perhaps Bledri took the kingdom by force; or even that Bledri was never the king of Dafydd and it was his son, Hyfaidd, who usurped the crown c. 860 from Iob ap Dei.  Hyfaidd is described as a tyrant who oppressed the church at St. David and his son, Rhodri, was beheaded in 905 just one year after the death of Hyfaidd's eldest son, Llywarch.  The extinction of the lineage of Hyfaidd ap Bledri cleared the way for Hywel Dda ap Cadell to usurp the kingdom after marrying Elen, heiress of Llywarch ap Hyfaidd.  If Hywel was contested by Arthafat ap Iob of the Deisi family, the latter was unsuccessful since Hywel Dda and his progeny ruled Deheubarth (Ystrad Tywy, Ceredigion and Dyfed) for the next 200 or more years.

14 - Dyfed
Tres filii morgetiud st
Narrative form:

Rhain (768), Iudon (770) and Owain (775) are 3 sons of Maredudd (740)

[a] This is another mention of the last men descended from the Irish Deisi.  No sons are known for Iudon ap Maredudd but Rhain ap Maredudd had the son, Triffyn, cited immediately above.  Owain had only the daughter, Tangwystl, mentioned in Pedigrees #1 and our comments on Pedigree #13
[b]  The obit of the Maredudd in this pedigree is recorded in 797 by Annales Cambriae, and that of Owain ap Maredudd in 811

15 - Brychieniog

Tres st filii nougoy
sanant elized filia illor mat erat
regis pouis

Narrative form:

Gruffudd, Teudos and Caten (765/770) were 3 sons of Noe (735), and Sanant (750) ferch Elisse (720), was their mother by that king of Powys.

[a]  This citation is capable of several meanings, one of which we show above.  The lady Sanant is elsewhere called "ferch Elisse ap Rhain ap Cadwgan ap Caten" which would make her a first cousin of Maredudd ap Tewdos ap Rhain ap Cadwgan of the Dyfed family. 
[b] Noe, king of Powys, is elsewhere cited as Noe (735) ap Madog (700) ap Sandde (665) ap Tudwal (630) ap Merin (600) ap Madog (570) ap Rhun (535) ap Cenelaph Drumrudd (505) ap Cynan (470) ap Cassanauth Wledig (440) of Powys.  Noe also had a son, Ceneu, but perhaps by a different lady. 
[c]  Other sources cite a Brychieniog family as "Tewdwr ap Gruffri ap Elisse ap Tewdwr ap Gruffudd" and identify that Gruffudd as a son of the King of Powys and Sanant ferch Elisse ap Rhain ap Cadwgan ap Caten ap Ceindrec ferch Rhiwallon ap Idwallon ap Llowarch ap Rigeneu ap Rhein Dremrudd ap Brychan.  That pedigree omits a second Rhein who was father to the Rhein Dremrudd.  One would suspect that lands in Brychieniog were inherited by Caten from his mother and passed down the line to Sanant, whose son Gruffudd (one of her 3 sons named in this pedigree) received those lands.  His descendant, Tewdwr ap Gruffri, was born c. 900 and that family appers to have ended with that Tewdwr.  Those who would identify this family as rulers of Brychieniog are likely wrong; the kingly family in the 9th century appears to be one descended from Caradog Fraich Fras and which resulted in Bleddyn ap Maenyrch of the 11th century.

16 - Unattributed

Cinis seaplaut
Guid gen
Constantini magni
Diocletiani q p fecut eft xp'ianos toto mundo
Antun ddu & cleopatre
Deci mus
Mapmau cann

Narrative form:
Rhun (625) ap Neithon (595) ap Cathen (565) ap Cawrdaf (530) ap Serwan (495) ap Llawdden Llyddog (465) ap Cadleu (435) ap Cadell (405) ap Decion (375) ap Cinis Scaplaut (344) ap Llew Hen (310) ap Gwyddion (275) ap Caradog (240) ap Cynfelyn (210) ap Deheuwaint (175)

Constantina (323) ap Constantine the Great (274) ap Constantius (250)

The remaining names in the table are various Roman Emperors, having no value to Welsh genealogy.

[a] The first family shown above was probably that of Llawdden Llydog of Edinburgh and its pedigree does not occur elsewhere.  However, there are citations showing marriages, or children, by 3 daughters of Llawdden: Thenoi, who married Dyngad ap Nudd Hael descended from Dyfnwal Hen ap Ednyfed ap Anwn Dynod; Perfferen, who married Bugi ap Gwynlliw ap Tegid ap Cadell Ddyrnllwg; and Denyw, who was the mother of St. Kentigern.  These daughters would have been born c. 500, our basis for dating other members of this family. While earlier members of this family are unknown, we suggest it may have have been closely related to the Glasgow family in Pedigree #5 above.
[b]  We believe the second pedigree explains the Roman-sounding names, Cinis Scaplaut and Decion, which immediately follow Llew Hen of c. 310.  We think this Llew Hen sired a child by a daughter of Constantine the Great  She may have accompanied her brother, Constans, to Britain in 343 and perhaps remained to deliver that child in 344. Whether or not that couple ever married is conjectural.
[c]  The long list of Romans which constitute the majority of this pedigree appears to be an attempt to give a pedigree for Constantine the Great; we would reject it in its entirety as there are better and more contemporary sources for Roman genealogies.

[1]  These men are discussed in more depth in the paper "Anwn Dynod ap Maxen Wledig" at the link below:

17 - Dunoding

B ro mail

Narrative form:
Cuhelyn (860) ap Bleddyn (830) ap Caradog (800) ap Ioniol (765) ap Eifion (735) ap Brochwel (705) ap Eifion (670) ap Pobddelw (640) ap Pobien (610) ap Isaac (575) ap Eifion (545) ap Meurig (515) ap Dyngad (480) ap Eifion (450) ap Dunod (420) ap Cunedda (385)

[a] This is the only family known to have descended from Dunod ap Cunedda; it held the lands now called Eifionydd and Ardudwy in Gwynedd.  The family probably became extinct in the male line with Cuhelyn ap Bleddyn; at least a portion of its lands were held in the early 10th century by a family maternally descended from Merfyn ap Rhodri Mawr and it is possible Merfyn married a sister of Cuhelyn.

18 - Meirionydd

Guurgint barmb truch

Narrative form:

Cynan (770) ap Brochwel (735) ap Ednyfed (705) ap Eunydd (675) ap Brochwel (640) ap Iswallt (610) ap Idris (580) ap Gwyddno (545) ap Clydno (515) ap Gwrgant Barbtruch (485) ap Cadwaladr (450) ap Meirion (420) ap Cunedda (385)

[a] Meirion was the youngest son of Cunedda and this is the only known family which descended from him.  The grandson of Cynan, Gwyddno ap Cadwaladr, had two known sons: Cynyr, from whom descended Einion ap Seisyll of Mathafarn; and Sandde, from whom descended Gwaithfoed of Meirionydd, Gwaithfoed of Ceredigion, and others.
[b] Idris ap Gwyddno of this family is probably the "Iudris" whom Annales Cambriae cites as having his throat cut in 632.
19- Unattributed

[C]atguallau liu
Samuil penissel
Pappo p priten
Gyl hen

Narrative form:

Cadwallon (575) ap Gwydgwn (540) ap Sawl Penuchel (510) ap Pabo Post Prydain (480) [ap Athrwys (450) ap Mar (415)]ap Ceneu (380) ap Coel Hen (340)

[a] See Pedigree #11 above for the insertion of two missing generations into this family.
[b] Although Bartrum considers "Samuel Penissel" the same person as "Sawl Penuchel" who is found in other early pedigrees as a son of Pabo, these are two wholly different men,
[c]  The family was among the Men of the North and this pedigree seems misplaced within the manuscript.  Perhaps a copyist inadvertently omitted it earlier in his work and, when realizing the omission, simply added it at the place he was working when he discovered his omission.

20 - Rhufoniog


Narrative form:

Ifor (950) ap Marut (920) ap Aeddan (885) ap Mor (855) ap Brochwel (820)

[a] It is uncertain what family is being cited here; for dating, we have equated it with the "Mor ap Marut ap Elaeth ap Yfor" found in the pedigree of Tandreg ferch Rhys ap Seisyllt ap Selyf ap Mor ap Marut who was mother to the noted bard, Gwalchmai ap Meilyr.  While nowhere cited, we suggest this Brochwel was a son of Hywel Farf Finiog ap Caradog of Rhos; however, the brevity of the pedigree here cited prohibits any positive identification of its ancestry or dating.

21 - Penllyn


Narrative form:

Meirion ap Llenoddeu


[a]  Bartrum equates these men with men of that name descended from Pebid Penllyn.  No one knows when Pebid lived and data about his family is too scanty to offer a reasonable estimate.  One author has Pebid founding a kingdom in Penllyn shortly after the Romans left Britain, but if we date Pebid c. 385 the Meirion ap Llenoddeu in his pedigree would have been born c. 980 or after the time when Harleian Ms 3859 is thought to have been written.
[b] Llyfr John Wynn (16th century?) claims the Meirion descended from Pebid Penllyn is actually Blaidd Rhudd, a man of the 11th century.  If that were true, he clearly could not be the man mentioned in this 10th century manuscript. 
[c]  These two names standing alone are of no value to either Welsh history or genealogy, and we decline to assign any dates to them.

22 - Powys

Catte girn
Catel dunlurc

Narrative form:

Selyf (575) ap Cynan Garwyn (545) ap Brochwel Ysgithrog (510) ap Cyngen Glodrydd (475) ap Mawn (440) ap Pasgen (410) ap Cadell Ddyrnllwg (380) ap Caderyn (350)

[a]  We would reverse the position of the oldest two men in this pedigree, both on chronological grounds and because other early sources name the father of Cadell as Cadeyrn.  Selyf can be dated reasonably close since he was killed at the 616 Battle of Chester.  Cadell Ddyrnllwg was contemporary with Vortigern and Ninnius mentions him as a man with 9 sons at the time Germanus visited Britain c. 427.  He could not have been born as early as 350 and our timeline of his ancestry back to the 1st century BC suggests a birthdate near 380.
[b] This, of course, is a partial pedigree of the First Powys Royal Dynasty which ruled until 1063 when the kingship was usurped by Rhiwallon and Bleddyn ap Cynfyn.


23 - Powys

[ ]esselis
gur haiernu

Narrative form:
_essilis (605) ap Gurhaiernu (570) ap Elbodgu (540) ap Cynan (510) ap Millo (475) ap Camuir (445) ap Brydw (415) ap Cadell (380) ap Cadeyrn (350)

[a] Repeating the previous pedigree, the names Caderyn and Cadell are inverted.  Cadell did have a son named Brydw, who's daughter Thewer married Cassanauth Wledig.  We think it was that marriage which celebrated the joining of the kingdoms of Cadell and Cassanauth to form Powys.  At the same time, we posit that a prince of Cadell's family also married a princess from Cassanauth's family. Cadell's lands lay north of the Severn centered around Chester, while Cassanauth's kingdom formed the fertile Severn plains then centered near Shrewsbury and extended west as far as the Wye. 
[b] History has nothing to say about this branch of the Powys family and it is not known where it resided.


24 - Powys

Guit gen

Narrative form: 

Selyf (700) ap Ieuaf (665) ap Gwyddien (630) ap Bywdec (600)

Caranfael ap Cerennior ap Erbic ap Egryn

[a]  As a single family, this string of men is unknown to other sources.  But if two families as we suggest, they probably were among those descended from Cassanauth Wledig of Powys.  
[b]  Our dating of the first segment posits that Gwyddien ap Bywdec was a brother of Bywry Llew ap Bywdec ap Rhudd Baladr
[c] If Canantinail = Caranfael, that male name also occurs in the family of Cynddylan ap Cyndrwyn of Powys, but as a son of Cynddylan.  We can find no reasonable basis to date the Caranfael in this citation


25 - Glastening

Glast unu ft glastenic qui vener q vocat loyt coyt

Narrative form:

Idnerth (830) ap Morgan (800) ap Cadgwr (770) ap Cadifor (740) ap Merwydd (705) ap Morfynydd (675) ap Morydd (645) ap Morien (610) ap Botan (580) ap Morgan (550) ap Morfael (515) ap Glast (485) whence the Glastening from Llwyd Coed

[a] We identify this family as one whose home was called "gray woods" in Dogfeiling in the Clwyd valley.  The given name of Morfael's father was probably Cyndrwyn ap Elno ap Dogfael ap Cunedda, the "Glast" being an epithet meaning "green".
[b] An old tradition holds that this family of the Cunedda line were rivals of the nearby kingdom of Ddrynllwg (later called Powys). 
[c] The 2 men called Morgan in this pedigree, are called Morien in ABT 19 
[d] Another branch of this family, we suspect, was the Elaeth ap Eiludd ap Glas found in Hengwrt Ms 33.  Its lands near Denbigh were called "Pengwern" and we think the early 7th century Prince Cynddylan ap Cyndrwyn was a grandson of this Elaeth who had relocated to the east where he called his lands Pengwern. One would assume those lands were acquired by a favorable marriage into the Powys family who ruled there.


26 - Ceredigion


Narrative form:

Gwgan (830) ap Meurig (800) ap Dyfnwallon (770) ap Arthgen (735) ap Seisyllt (700) ap Clydog (665) ap Artgloys (630) ap Artboddgu (600) ap Boddgu (570) [ap Serwl (540) ap Usai (510)] ap Serguil (480) ap Iusay (450) ap Ceredig (415) ap Cunedda (385)

[a]  Two generations are omitted at some point in this family between 415 and 700 and cannot be supplied by any later manuscripts which mention the family. For space-holders, we posit a second set of the two names which immediately follow Ceredig.  The obit of Gwgan ap Meurig appears in 871 and his sister, Angharad, is cited as the wife of Rhodri Mawr.  Rhodri was born c. 820 so our dating of Gwgan cannot be far off the mark.  The earliest list of the progeny of Ceredig ap Cunedda (written c. 1200) does not mention Iusay and he may have been a great-grandson of Ceredig.
[b] The only other family descended from Ceredig which is known to have been extant in the ninth century is traced to an Eiddun Ddu, born c. 630.  He was probably a brother of Artgloys, and his line became extinct with Odwin ap Teithwalch.  Odwin had only a daughter, Morfydd, who married Eunydd ap Pyll of Meirionydd.


27 - Powys


Narrative form:

Cyngen (775) ap Cadell (745) ap Brochwel (715) ap Eliseg (685) ap Gwylog (655) ap Beli (620) ap Eiluddd (585) ap Cynan Garwyn (545) ap Brochwel Ysgithrog (510) ap Cyngen Glodrydd (475) ap Maun (440) ap Pasgen (410) ap Cadell Ddyrnllwg (380) ap Selyfiaun (365)

[a] This citation follows Pedigrees #22 and #23 in reversing what we think is the correct order of the two oldest men.  It also is at variance with Pedigree #22 in that the names of Cynan and Cyngen, the father and the son of Brochwel Ysgithrog, are transposed.  The correct sequence is that in #22; Brochwel's father was Cyngen and his son was Cynan.
[b] The first-mentioned Cyngen is the man who erected the Pillar of Eliseg early in the ninth century, which honors the achievements of his great-grandfather Eliseg ap Gwylog.
[c] Selyf ap Cynan Garwyn born c. 575 followed his father as king of Powys, but was slain at the Battle of Chester c. 616.  His brother Eiludd succeeded him and the sons of Selyf were excluded from rule.
[d] We posit the "Maucant" in the pedigree was derived from the inscription on the Pillar of Eliseg which reads "Mau annan", but which we believe meant "Maun + Annan", the parents of Cyngen Glodrydd.  (at which point, the Pillar pedigree follows the maternal ancestry of Cyngen to reach Vortigern)
[e]  Since several ancient sources name Cadeyrn as the father of Cadell Ddyrnllwg, we suggest this "Selemiaun" was his mother, a daughter of Selyf ap Gradlon ap Cynan Meriadog.

28 - Glywysing

I]ud hail

Narrative form: 

Ithel (690) ap Athrwys (660) ap Ffernmail (630) ap Ithel (600) ap Morgan (570) ap Athrwys (540) ap Tewdrig (505)

[a]  Both Egerton Phillimore and Peter Bartrum would emend this pedigree by inserting Meurig between Athrwys and Tewdrig.  Our reading of the charters from the Book of Llan Dav indicates the original pedigree is correct.  Meurig ap Tewdrig was the elder brother of Athrwys and Morgan was Meurig's nephew, not his grandson.  Meurig did have a son named Athrwys, but he died before his father and without heirs. Morgan seized the kingship by killing the only surviving son of his uncle Meurig.


29 - Gwent


Narrative form:

Brochwel (730) ap Meurig (695) ap Arthfael (665) ap Rhys (635) ap Ithel (600) ap Morgan (570)

[a] Rhys ap Ithel was a brother of Ffernmail in Pedigree #28.  Bartrum's emendment which inserted two names (Gwriad ap Brochwel) between Arthfael and Rhys is unwarranted and based solely on similar strings of names found in this family.  There was also a Brochwel ap Meurig ap Arthfael born c. 835, who is not mentioned in this pedigree.

30 - Powys

[M]aun artan iouab
meic filii grippi filli elized

Narrative form:

Maun, Artan, Ieuaf and Meic (750/755) were sons of Gruffudd (720) ap Eliseg (685)

[a]  This pedigree names 4 sons of Gruffudd ap Eliseg, a brother of Brochwel ap Eliseg from Pedigree #27 above
[b] Phillimore and Bartrum would emend the pedigree to insert "ap Cyngen ap Cadell ap Brochwel" between Gruffudd and Eliseg.  There is no independent evidence that Cyngen ap Cadell (of Pedigree #27) had any issue, and no reason why #27 would begin with Cyngen if he had a son Gruffudd.  We reject the emendation as wholly unwarranted.

31 - Powys

[E]lized ioab aedan filii cencin filii brochmail filii elized

Narrative form:

Elisedd, Job and Aeddan (780/785) were sons of Cyngen (750) ap Brochwel (715) ap Eliseg (685)

[a] This is another branch of the family descended from Brochwel ap Eliseg; this Cyngen was a brother of Cadell ap Brochwel ap Eliseg.
[b] Aeddan ap Cyngen ap Brochwel was the father of Brochwel ap Aeddan, who succeeded to the kingship of Powys after his father's first-cousin, Cyngen ap Cadell, died without issue.  It was through that line the Powys dynasty continued until the kingship was usurped in the 11th century by the sons of Cynfyn...a man descended from a wholly different Powys family.
[c]  Phillimore and Bartrum would emend this pedigree by inserting "ap Cadell" between Cyngen and Brochwel, giving the sons to the Cyngen ap Cadell from Pedigree #27.  They supposed the Gruffudd of Pedigree #30 was a brother of the 3 men cited in this pedigree, but the reasons given are nonsense.  The Brut entry for 814 says that an Elise ap Cyngen killed his brother Gruffudd, but if those men were the Gruffudd and Elisedd of Pedigrees #30 and #31 and were sons of Cyngen in Pedigree #27, such brothers would be under 12 years old in 814.  And the slain Gruffudd would have 4 sons.  Neither Phillimore nor Bartrum considered the timeline and their emendations should be rejected as absurd.  Whoever was the father of the men mentioned in 814, it could not have been the Cyngen ap Cadell ap Brochwel of Pedigree #27.


32 - This is not a pedigree per se, but a narrative listing of the sons of Cunedda.  Refer to the paper "Meirion Meirionydd 'Grandson' of Cunedda" for the Latin text and our reading of it, at the link below:


The remainder of the manuscript contains no pedigrees and no name lists and we shall ignore it as superfluous text.