Legendary History Prior to 1st Century BC
Beli Mawr and Llyr Llediath in Welsh Pedigrees
The Bartrum "Welsh Genealogies"
Bartrum's "Pedigrees of the Welsh Tribal Patriarchs"
A study in charting medieval citations
The Evolution of the "Padriarc Brenin" Pedigree
Generational Gaps and the Welsh Laws
Minimum Age for Welsh Kingship in the Eleventh Century
The Lands of the Silures
Catel Durnluc aka Cadell Ddyrnllwg
Ancient Powys
The Royal Family of Powys
The Royal Family of Gwynedd
The 5 Plebian Tribes of Wales
Maxen Wledig of Welsh Legend
Maxen Wledig and the Welsh Genealogies
Anwn Dynod ap Maxen Wledig
Constans I and his 343 Visit to Britain
Glast and the Glastening
Composite Lives of St Beuno
Rethinking the Gwent Pedigrees
The Father of Tewdrig of Gwent
Another Look at Teithfallt of Gwent
Ynyr Gwent and Caradog Freich Fras
Llowarch ap Bran, Lord of Menai
Rulers of Brycheiniog - The Unanswered Questions
Lluan ferch Brychan
The Herbert Family Pedigree
Edwin of Tegeingl and his Family
Angharad, Heiress of Mostyn
Ithel of Bryn in Powys
Idnerth Benfras of Maesbrook
Henry, the Forgotten Son of Cadwgan ap Bleddyn
The Muddled Pedigree of Sir John Wynn of Gwydir
The Mysterious Peverel Family
The Clan of Tudor Trevor
The Other "Sir Roger of Powys"
Ancestry of Ieuaf ap Adda ap Awr of Trevor
The Retaking of Northeast Wales
Hedd Molwynog or Hedd ap Alunog of Llanfair Talhearn
"Meuter Fawr" son of Hedd ap Alunog
The Medieval "redating" of Braint Hir
Aaron Paen ap Y Paen Hen
Welsh Claims to Ceri after 1179
The Battle of Mynydd Carn
Trahaearn ap Caradog of Arwystli
Cadafael Ynfyd of Cydewain
Maredudd ap Robert, Lord of Cedewain
Cadwgan of Nannau
Maredudd ap Owain, King of Deheubarth
What Really Happened in Deheubarth in 1022?
Two Families headed by a Rhydderch ap Iestyn
The Era of Llewelyn ap Seisyll
Cynfyn ap Gwerystan, the Interim King
The Consorts and Children of Gruffudd ap Llewelyn
The 1039 Battle at Rhyd y Groes
The First Wife of Bleddyn ap Cynfyn
Hywel ap Gronwy of Deheubarth
The Brief Life of Gruffudd ap Maredudd
Owain Brogyntyn and his Family
The Other Gwenwynwyn
Eunydd son of Gwenllian
Sandde Hardd of Mortyn
The Floruit of Einion ap Seisyllt
The Enigmatic Elystan Glodrydd
The Unofficial "History" of Elystan of Powys
Cowryd ap Cadfan of Dyffryn Clwyd
Owain ap Cadwgan and Nest ferch Rhys - An Historic Fiction?
The "sons" of Owain ap Cadwgan ap Bleddyn
The Betrayal by Meirion Goch Revisited
Gwyn Ddistain, seneschal for Llewelyn Fawr
The Men of Lleyn - How They Got There
Trahaearn Goch of Lleyn
Einion vs Iestyn ap Gwrgan - The Conquest of Glamorgan
The Royal Family of Glamorgan
Dafydd Goch ap Dafydd - His Real Ancestry
Thomas ap Rhodri - Father of Owain "Lawgoch"
The "Malpas" Family in Cheshire
Einion ap Celynin of Llwydiarth
Marchweithian, Lord of Is Aled, Rhufoniog
Osbwrn Wyddel of Cors Gedol
Bradwen of Llys Bradwen in Meirionydd
Ednowain ap Bradwen
Sorting out the Gwaithfoeds
Three Men called Iorwerth Goch "ap Maredudd"
The Caradog of Gwynedd With 3 Fathers
Who Was Sir Robert Pounderling?
Eidio Wyllt - What Was His Birthname?
The Legendary Kingdom of Seisyllwg
The Royal Family of Ceredigion
Llewelyn ap Hoedliw, Lord of Is Cerdin
The Ancestry of Owain Glyndwr
Welsh Ancestry of the Tudor Dynasty
Gruffudd ap Rhys, the Homeless Prince
The Children of Lord Rhys
Maredudd Gethin ap Lord Rhys
The 'Next Heir' of Morgan of Caerleon
Pedigree of the ancient Lords of Ial
The Shropshire Walcot Family
Pedigree of "Ednowain Bendew II"
Pedigree of Cynddelw Gam

NOTE:  If you have accessed this page via web search, it is an incomplete draft of research still in progress and is subject to much revision.  It cannot be accessed from our website, but web search engines are unable to distinguish between "published" pages and those "off-site" notes stored by the site author for possible future use.
                                           HARLEIAN MS 3859
                                       Edited by Darrell Wolcott
        As the earliest known list of pedigrees of the Welsh Royal Families, this manuscript is also the one we believe contains the fewest chronological problems.  We have constructed a timeline into which virtually all the families mesh with each other when considering all the marriages mention in it and other ancient sources.  In this paper, we propose to share what we have concluded after many years studying the families contained in this manuscript.
       The original Latin text is reproduced in Y Cymmrodor, vol ix (1888) and we shall begin with that, followed by a narrative version which (a) uses our own preferred spelling orthography; (b) inserts those birth dates suggested by our entire body of work; and (c) emends the text only where required to adhere to a consistent timeline and when such emendations conform to other ancient manuscripts.  (Those insertions are underlined)  We follow each pedigree with comments which we hope will be helpful to those using the data.  While the manuscript itself is unnumbered and does not assign the families to any kingdom, we shall use those suggested by Egerton Phillimore simply for identification.
1 - Gwynedd
Cat man
Catgolau Iauhir
Eniau girt
Patn pefrut
Amalech q fuit beli magni
Narrative form:
Owain (910) ap Hywel Dda (880 ap Cadell (850) ap Rhodri Mawr (820) ap Merfyn Frych (790) ap Esyllt (770) ferch Cynan Tyndaethwy (735) ap Rhodri Molwynog (700) ap Idwal Ywrch (665) ap Blessed Cadwaladr (630) ap Cadwallon (600) ap Cadfan (570) ap Iago (540) ap Beli (505)
Beli (540) ap Rhun (510) ap Maelgwn Gwynedd (480) ap Cadwallon Lawhir (450) ap Einion Urdd (415) ap Cunedda Wledig (385) ap Edern (355) ap Padern Beisrudd (325) ap Tegid (295) [ap Iago (265) ap Gwyndog (235)] ap Cein (205) ap Doli (170) ap Dwfyn (140) ap Amgolydd (110) ap Anwerydd (80) ap Onwedd (50) ap Dubun (20) ap Bryddgwyn (10 BC) ap Owain (40 BC) ap Afallach (70 BC) ap Affleth (100 BC) ap Beli Mawr (130 BC)
[a]  The scribe who penned the manuscript left a space in front of the topmost name (which omitted the first letter of that name) so that it could be added in large callligraphy, a common flourish in old manuscript production.
[b]  It would appear the purpose of this pedigree was to show that Owain ap Hywel, at whose direction the entire manuscript was drafted, was descended from the ancient Royal Family of Gwynedd.  Rather than recite Owain's paternal ancestry, the pedigree is primarily that of his great-great-great grandmother Esyllt. A strictly paternal pedigree would continue after Merfyn Frych as "ap Gwriad (755) ap Elidyr (725) ap Sandde (695) ap Alcwn (660) ap Teged (630) ap Gweir (600) ap Dwc (565) ap Llywarch Hen (520) ap Elidyr Lydanwyn (485) ap Meirchion Gul (445) ap Gwrwst Ledlum (415) ap Cenen (380) ap Coel Hen (340) ap Tecfan (310) ap Deheuwaint (280) ap Telpwll (250) ap Urban (215) ap Gradd (185) ap Rhifedel (155) ap Rydeyrn (120) ap Endigant (90) ap Endeyrn (60) ap Eneid (25) ap Endos (5 BC) ap Enddolen (35 BC) ap Afallach (70 BC) and thus to Beli Mawr.[1]
[c]  Apparently an attempt was made to connect the Gwynedd Royal Family to Maelgwn Gwynedd by confusing Beli ap Rhun ap Maelgwn with Beli ap Einion ap Owain Ddantgwyn, but the chronology does not support that connection.  The family probably should continue after Beli (505) as "ap Einion (475) ap Owain Ddantgwyn (445) ap Einion Urdd (415)"[2]
[d]  The ancestry earlier than Tegid (495) shows the scribe who copied the extant manuscript from an earlier source did not understand that the list of names "Cein, Guorcein, Doli, Guordoli, Dumn, Gurdumn, Amguoloyt" should be read as "Cein; before Cein, Doli; before Doli, Dumn; before Dumn, Amguoloyt".  Thus 3 nonsense names should be deleted from the list.  Our insertion of Iago and Gwynnog as generations between Tegid and Cein is based on citations found in Jesus College Ms 20 and Hengwrt Ms 33 (the Achau Brenhinoedd a Thywysogion Cymru section) and are required to make the pedigree chronologically sound.[3]
[e] Both the chronology and the name "Affleth" (the spelling of Amalech in other manuscripts[4]) suggest this was Lludd, the brother of Cassivellaunus and father of Tascovianus mentioned by Roman historians in Julius Caesar's invasion of Britain in 55 BC
[f] We did not include the final part of the pedigree which claims the wife of Beli Mawr was Anna, mother of the Virgin Mary.  While such a claim may have been a part of ninth century lore and served to show the ancient ancestors were "civilized Christians", the chronology is wrong by at least a century.  It is further unlikely a lady of Palestine, born c. 35 BC, would have married anyone on the Isle of Britain.
[1] History of Gruffudd ap Cynan gives this pedigree
[2] See full discussion on the paper "Ancestry of Cynan Tyndaethwy" elsewhere on this site
[3] JC Ms 20, 6 and ABT 27
[4] ABT 1a, c, 9g
2 - Dyfed
marget iut
Maxi gulecic
Pincr misser
Constantini magni
helen luic dauc
Narrative form:
Owain (910) ap Elen (895) ferch Llywarch (860) ap Hyfaidd (830) ap Tangwystl (805) ferch Owain (770) ap Maredudd (735) ap Tewdos (700) ap Rhain (675) ap Cadwgan (650) ap Caten (625) ap Cloten (600) ap Noe (575) ap Arthur (545) ap Pedur (520) ap Cyngar (490) ap Vortepir (465) ap Aircol Lawhir (435) ap Triffyn (405) ap Clotri (390) ferch Clydwyn (360) ap Ednyfed (330) ap Anwn Dynod (300) ap Maxentius (279) ap Maximianus Herculus (249) son-in-law of Diocletian (240)
Ebynt (500) ap Elynt (470) ap Amloyd (435) ap Amweryd (405) ap Custennin (375) ap Maxen Wledig (345)] ap Constans (320) ap Constantine the Great (274) ap Constantinus Chlorus (250) whose wife was Helen Llyddog
[a] The pedigree of the mother of Owain ap Hywel Dda connects her maternally with first the Irish Deisi tribe of Dyfed and again maternally with Roman emperors. Note that generational gaps in Irish and Roman culture seem a bit shorter than we find in purely Welsh families, but it is also possible one name too many occurs in the Deisi part of the family.  The string "Cadwgan ap Caten ap Cloten" may have been only two men, perhaps a Cadwgan Cath "the cat" ap Cloten or perhaps Caten and Cloten are variant spellings of a single name. 
[a] The paternal ancestry of Elen ferch Llywarch is "Llywarch ap Hyfaidd ap Bleddri", a king of Dyfed not further identified.  Bleddri had married Tangwystl ferch Owain ap Maredudd, heiress of the Irish Deisi tribe which ruled Dyfed[1], but he probably was a man of Ceredigion.  We suggest he may have been a son of Dyfnwal ap Arthgen and brother of Meurig whose daughter married Rhodri Mawr.
[b] The pedigree makes a second maternal connection with Clotri ferch Clydwin in order to trace back to a Roman Emperor.  She was the mother of Triffyn, whose father was Aeda Brosc ap Corach and whose ancestors, the Deisi, had earlier migrated to Dyfed from Ireland.[2]
[c] The "Maxi gulecic" in the pedigree is clearly not the Maxen Wledig who was killed in 388, but the Roman who fathered the son Anwn Dynod by Elen ferch Eudaf Hen.  We suggest he was the son of Emperor Maximianus Herculius, the man called "Protect" who (when promoted by Emperor Diocletion) married a base daughter of Diocletian; thus we identify "Protector" as his "father" Diocletian.  Both of those emperors bore the honorific "Brittanicus Maximus" or Protector of Britain.
[d]  The unrelated family added to this pedigree seeks, but wholly fails, to tie Elen ferch Llywarch to Constantine the Great through Maxen Wledig.  The two names we insert into that family are taken from Hengwrt Ms 33.  Refer to the paper "Maxen Wledig and the Welsh Genealogies" elsewhere in this site.
[e] The "Helen Llyddog" who was the mother of Constantine the Great was NOT the same lady as Elen ferch Eudaf Hen, and was probably not even a lady of Britain.  It is known that Constans, son of Constantine, was in Britain about the time Maxen Wledig was born; those pedigrees which cite this ancestry for Maxen Wledig are at least chonologically possible.  Historians who call him a Spaniard, because Zosimus places him among the Menapii tribe, ignore the tribes also called Menapii who lived near Dublin, Ireland and at Menevia in Dyfed.
[f] The name Amloyd for "Stater" and Amweryd for "Pincr misser" are taken from Hengwrt Ms 33[3]; the job titles of these men are used here. A "stator" is a magistrate's attendant and "pincera" is a butler at the king's court.
[1] ABT 18a; Triad #68; Brut y Tywysogyon, years 893 & 904
[2] This line is discussed in the paper "Maxen Wledig and the Welsh Genealogies" elsewhere on this site
[3] Compare the parallel names in this list with those in ABT 18a
3- Rhos
Cat gual crisban
Eugein dant guin
Enniaun girt
Narrative form:
Hywel Farf Finiog (785) ap Caradog (745) ap Meirion (715) ap Rhufon (680) ap Einion (645) ap Idgwyn (615) ap Cadwallon Crisban (580) ap Cyngen (550) ap Meig (515) ap Cynglas (480) ap Owain Ddantgwyn (445) ap Einion Urdd (415) ap Cunedda (385)
[a] This Hywel is probably the man who contested Cynan Tyndaethwy for Anglesey when that man grew very old, had no sons, and refused to retire.  Their battles are recorded in the Brut during the years 813 and 816.  Cynan represented the senior line of the family, descended from Einion ap Owain Ddantgwyn; Hywel descended from Cynglas, younger brother of Einion ap Owain Ddantgwyn
[b] The positioning of this pedigree ahead of all families but his own probably indicates Owain ap Hywel Dda considered it most closely related to himself
4 - Ynys Manaw
Maxim guletic q occidit gratianu rege romanorum
Narrative form:
Idwal (710) ap Tudwal (680) ap Anarawd (650) ap Merfyn (620) ap Cynfyn (580) ap Anllech (545) ap Tudwal (515) ap Rhun (480) ap Neithon (450) ap Senyllt Hael (420) ap Dyngad (385) ap Tudwal (355) ap Ednyfed (330) ap Anwn Dynod (300) ap Maxentius (279)
[a]  While the words which follow "Maxim guletic" incorrectly identify him as the man who killed the Roman Emperor, Gratian, they were likely added by a copyist long after the 10th century.  The "Maxen" who fathered Anwn Dynod was at least two generations older than the one who killed Gratian in the 380's.
[b]  This family became extinct in the male line with Idwal ap Tudwal; his sister Celenion married Sandde ap Alcwn and their son was Elidyr.  The son of Elidyr was Gwriad who married Esyllt ferch Cynan Tyndathwy; their son was Merfyn Frych.[1]
[c] Tudwal ap Ednyfed was a brother of Clydwyn ap Ednyfed from Pedigree #2 above
[1] JC Ms 20, 19; ABT 6(l)
5 - Ystrad Clud (Strathclyde)
Du gual hen
Ceretic guletic
Narrative form: 
Rhun (860) ap Arthuel (830) ap Dyfnwal (800) ap Rhydderch (765) ap Owain (735) ap Dyfnwal (705) ap Tewdwr (670) ap Beli (640) ap Elfin (610) ap Owain (575) ap Beli (545) ap Neithon (515) ap Gwyddno (480) ap Dyfnwal Hen (450) ap Cinuit (420) ap Ceretic Wledig (390) ap Cynloyp (355) ap Cinfil (325) ap Cluim (295) ap Cursalem (260) ap Fer (230) ap Confer (200)
[a]  Probably descended from a Pict tribe near Glasgow, Ceretic Wledig was contemporary with St Patrick.  Dyfnwal Hen ap Cinuit is often confused with Dyfnwal Hen ap Ednyfed ap Anwn Dynod, but the two men lived 3 generations apart.[1]
[b] There is nothing to indicate this family ever was forced from its lands in far north Britain; Rome was unable to penetrate that far north and it is doubtful the Saxons did either.
[1]  These men are discussed in more depth in the paper "Anwn Dynod ap Maxen Wledig" elsewhere on this site
6 - Men of the North
[R]iderch hen
Dum gual hen
Narrative form:
Rhydderch Hen (545) ap Tudwal (515) ap Clinoch (485) ap Dyfnwal Hen (450)
[a] This is a branch of the family immediately above; Clinoch was a brother of Gwyddno.  Rhydderch Hen was a patron of St Kentigern (525-610) and is also the man who came south to attach Rhun Hir following the death of Maelgwn Gwynedd. A cousin of this Rhydderch's father was Elidyr Mwynfawr who had married Eurgain, a daughter of Maelgwn.  Claiming she should inherit Maelgwn's lands because Rhun Hir was illegitimate, Elidyr tried but failed to take those lands by force. Probably around 570, Rhydderch Hen came to Gwynedd to avenge his kinsman Elidyr.  One source which relates this expedition[1] confuses Rhydderch Hen with Rhydderch Hael of the Hael cousins, men descended from Dyfnwal Hen ap Ednyfed ap Anwn Dynod who lived about 100 years earlier and who would have died no later than the first quarter of the 6th century (thus contemporary with the father of Maelgwn Gwynedd).
[b] When one ignores chronology, it is easy to see why this family was confused with that of the earlier Dyfnwal Hen; Rhydderch Hael was the son of Tudwal Tudclyd ap Cedic ap Dyfnwal Hen[2] and those who insist on making him identical to Rhydderch Hen claim that Cedic and Clinoch are alternate spellings of the same name.
[1] Aneurin Owen's "Ancient Laws and Institutes of Wales", 1841, vol i, pp 105
[2] Bonedd Gwyr y Gogled, 8
7 - Men of the North
[C]linog eitin
Du gual hen
Narrative form:
Clinoch Eiddin (515) ap Cynfelyn (485) ap Dyfnwal Hen (450)
[1]  This is another branch of the family cited above; Cynfelyn was a brother of Gwyddno and Clinoch ap Dyfnwal Hen.
[2]  Some would rendered the name of the son of this Cynfelyn as "Clydno Eiddin" but the man of that name is elsewhere cited as a grandson of Cynfelyn ap Athrwys ap Mar ap Ceneu and would occur a full generation later than this Clinoch.
8 - Men of the North
[U]rb gen
Narrative form:
Urien Rheged (510) ap Cynfarch Oer (480) ap Meirchion Gul (445) ap Gwrwst Ledlum (415) [ap Ceneu (380)] ap Coel Hen (340)
[1] Both the family timeline and other early sources make Gwrwst Ledlum the son of Ceneu ap Coel; this is one of the few insertions made by Phillimore and Bartrum which appears warranted.  We suspect the name Ceneu did appear in the original manuscript and was omitted by the scribe who penned the extant copy.
9 - Men of the North
Masguic clop
Coyl hen
Narrative form:
Gwylog (485) ap Llynnog (450) ap Maeswig Gloff (415) ap Ceneu (380) ap Coel Hen (340)
[1] This Gwylog had no known sons, but two daughters.  Elen Gryg ferch Gwylog is cited as the wife of Meurig ap Idno ap Meirchion Gul, and mother of Elaeth brenin.
Dwywei ferch Gwylog is cited as the wife of Dunawt ap Pabo Post Prydain ap Athrwys ap Mar ap Ceneu ap Coel Hen, and the mother of Deinoel.  Both those marriages point to a birthdate near 520 for these ladies.
[2] Some early sources reverse the order of the first two men in this pedigree, and call Dwywei a daughter of Llynnog ap Gwylog.
10 - Men of the North
Morcant bulc
Cincar braut
Bran hen
dugual moilmut
Coyl hen
Guote p auc
Urb an
Beli et Anna
Narrative form:
Morgan (545) ap Clydog (510) ap Morgan Bwlch (480) ap Cyngar (450) brother of Bran Hen (445) ap Dyfnwal Moelmud (415) ap Garbanian (380) ap Coel Hen Gutepac (340) ap Tecfan (310) ap Deheuwaint (280) ap Telpwll (250) ap Urban (215) ap Gradd (185) ap Rhifedel (155) ap Rydeyrn (120) ap Endigant (90) ap Endeyrn (60) ap Eneid (25) ap Endos (5 BC) ap Enddolen (35 BC) ap Afallach (70 BC) [ap Affleth (100 BC)] ap Beli Mawr (130 BC)
[1] When we insert Affleth as the father of Afallach (from Hengwrt Ms 33), this is a cousin line to the family in Pedigree #1 above; Endollen ap Afallach was a brother of Owain ap Afallach.
[2] The scribe who inserted "maps" in front of the names got carried away when he found Coel Hen's epithet "Goutepauc" on the line beneath him, and made this two men "Coel Hen map Goutepauc"
[3] The Rydeyrn ap Endigant in this pedigree had a brother Deheuwaint who was the ancestor of Cadell Ddrynllwg (380) ap Cadeyrn (350) ap Pasgen (315) ap Brydw (285) ap Rhuddfedel Frych (250) ap Cadeyrn (220) ap Gwrtheyrn (185) ap Rydeyrn (155) ap Deheuwaint (125) ap Endigant (90).  Many have tried to identify the Gwrtheyrn in Cadell's pedigree as the Gwrtheyrn ap Gwydol who was better known as Vortigern.  Born 200 years later, Vortigern named sons Cadeyrn, Pasgen and Brydw but those were common male names and certainly not the same men found in Cadell's pedigree.
[4] One suspects that Bran Hen ap Dyfnwal Moelmud was a man of importance since he appears in the pedigree although the subsequent family is that of his brother, Cyngar.  Perhaps he had no sons himself, or no descendants of note.
[5] We previously commented on the wife, Anna, assigned to Beli Mawr.  But perhaps his wife WAS named Anna, just not the one described in Pedigree #1.
11 - Men of the North
Narrative form:
Dunawt (510) ap Pabo Post Prydain (480) [ap Athrwys (450) ap Mar (415)] ap Ceneu (380) ap Coel Hen (340)
[1] Other early manuscripts which cite Dunawt ap Pabo insert Athrwys ap Mar between Pabo and Ceneu, and the chronology requires it.  The wife of Dunawt was Dwywei ferch Gwylog ap Llynnog ap Maesgwig Gloff ap Ceneu, and we should expect Dunawt to also be 4 generations after Ceneu.
[2] Another indication that Pabo occurs 3 generations after Ceneu is provided by the cited marriage of his daughter Arddun to Brochwel Ysgithrog ap Cyngen of Powys.  Born c. 505, Brochwel would require a wife born c. 515
12 - Men of the North
[G]urci ha Pere me pion eleuther cas cord maur
let lum
Narrative form:
Gwrgi and Peredur (525) were mebion (sons) of Eliffer Gosgord Mawr (490) [ap Athrwys (450) ap Mar (415)] ap Ceneu (380) ap Coel Hen (340)
[1]  Other ancient sources insert Athrwys and Mar between Eliffer and Ceneu. In the family timeline, the mother of Gwrgi and Peredur was Efrddyl ferch Cynfarch Oer ap Meirchion Gul ap Gwrwst Ledlum at Ceneu ap Coel Hen and her birthdate would be c. 510; this Efrddyl was a twin sister of Urien Rheged.
[2] Gwrgi and Peredur are said to have been present at the 573 battle of Arfderydd and their obits appear at 580 in Annales Cambriae, both consistent with their birth c. 525
[3] Eliffer Gosgord Mawr is the Welsh spelling for "Oliver with the great warband"
13 - Dyfed
Narrative form:
Triffyn (800) ap Rhain (770) ap Maredudd (735) ap Tewdos (700) ap Rhain (675)
[1]  Rhain ap Maredudd in this pedigree was the brother of Owain ap Maredudd, whose daughter Tangwystl was the heiress of the Irish Deisi tribe who ruled Dyfed. She is cited in Pedigree #2 above as the mother of Hyfaidd ap Bleddri.  Triffyn ap Rhain is the last male cited in the Deisi Royal Family and likely had no sons to assume the kingship, that being claimed by the husband and son of Tangwystl.
[2] A junior branch of the Deisi family did survive in the male line and is represented in Ystrad Tywy in the mid-11th century by Cadifor Fawr ap Collwyn ap Gwyn.  It is not known if his ancestor, Dei ap Llywri (born c. 775), was passed over for kingship when Owain ap Maredudd died in 811.  But we think Bleddri could not have married Tangwystl before c. 820 so perhaps Bleddri took the kingdom by force; or even that Bleddri was never the king of Dafydd and it was his son, Hyfaidd, who usurped the crown c. 860 from Iob ap Dei.  Hyfaidd is described as a tyrant who oppressed the church at St. David and his son, Rhodri, was beheaded in 905 just one year after the death of Hyfaidd's eldest son, Llywarch.  The extinction of the lineage of Hyfaidd ap Bleddri cleared the way for Hywel Dda ap Cadell to usurp the kingdom after marrying Elen, heiress of Llywarch ap Hyfaidd.  If Hywel was contested by Arthafat ap Iob of the Deisi family, the latter was unsuccessful since Hywel Dda and his progeny ruled Deheubarth (Ystrad Tywy and Dyfed) for the next 200 or more years.
14 - Dyfed
Tres filii morgetiud st
Narrative form:
Rhain (770), Iudon (765) and Owain (765) were 3 sons of St. Maredudd (735)
[1] This is another mention of the last men descended from the Irish Deisi.  No sons are known for Iudon ap Maredudd but Rhain ap Maredudd had the son, Triffyn, cited immediately above.  Owain had only the daughter, Tangwystl, mentioned in Pedigrees #1 and our notes to Pedigree #13
[2]  The obit of the Maredudd in this pedigree is recorded in 797 by Annales Cambriae, and that of Owain ap Maredudd in 811
15 - Brychieniog
Tres st filii nougoy
sanant elized filia illor mat erat
regis pouis
Narrative form:
Gruffudd, Teudos and Caten (760/765) were 3 sons of Noe (730), and Sanant (745) ferch Elisse (720), was their mother by that king of Powys.
[1]  This citation is capable of several meanings, one of which we show above.  The lady Sanant is elsewhere called "ferch Elisse ap Tewdwr ap Rhain ap Cadwgan ap Caten" which would make her a second cousin of Owain ap Maredudd ap Tewdos ap Rhain ap Cadwgan of the Dyfed family. 
[2] Noe, king of Powys, is elsewhere cited as Noe (730) ap Madog (700) ap Sandde (665) ap Tudwal (630) ap Merin (600) ap Madog (570) ap Rhun (535) ap Cenelaph Drumrudd (505) ap Cynan (470) ap Cassanauth Wledig (440) of Powys.  Noe also had a son, Ceneu, but perhaps by a different lady. 
[3]  Other sources cite a Brychieniog family as "Tewdwr ap Gruffri ap Elisse ap Tewdwr ap Gruffudd" and identify that Gruffudd as a son of the King of Powys and Sanant ferch Elisse ap Tewdwr ap Rhain ap Cadwgan ap Caten ap Ceindrec ferch Rhiwallon ap Idwallon ap Llywarch ap Rigeneu ap Rein Dremrudd ap Brychan.  One would suspect that lands in Brychieniog were inherited by Caten from his mother and passed down the line to Sanant, whose son Gruffudd (one of her 3 sons named in this pedigree) received those lands.  His descendant, Tewdwr ap Gruffri, was born c. 890 and that family appears to have ended with that Tewdwr.  Those who would identify this family as rulers of Brychieniog are likely wrong; the kingly family in the 9th century appears to be one descended from Caradog Fraich Fras and which resulted in Bleddyn ap Maenyrch of the 11th century.
16 - Unattributed
Cinis seaplaut
Guid gen
Constantini magni
Diocletiani q p fecut eft xp'ianos toto mundo
Antun ddu & cleopatre
Deci mus
Mapmau cann
Narrative form:
Rhun (620) ap Neithon (590) ap Cathen (560) ap Cawrdaf (525) ap Serwan (495) ap Llawdden Llyddog (465) ap Cadleu (435) ap Cadell (400) ap Decion (370) ap Cinis Scaplaut (340) ap Llew Hen (305) ap Gwyddion (275)
Caraticus (5 AD) ap Cunobelin (30 BC) ap Teuhant (65 BC)
Constans (320) ap Constantine the Great (274) ap Constantius (250)
The remaining names in the table are various Roman Emperors, having no value to Welsh genealogy.
[1] The first family shown above was probably that of Llawdden Llydog of Edinburgh and its pedigree does not occur elsewhere.  However, there are citations showing marriages, or children, by 3 daughters of Llawdden: Thenoi, who married Dyngad ap Nudd Hael descended from Dyfnwal Hen ap Ednyfed ap Anwn Dynod; Perfferen, who married Bugi ap Gwynlliw ap Tegid ap Cadell Ddyrnllwg; and Denyw, who was the mother of St. Kentigern.  These daughters would have been born c. 500, our basis for dating other members of this family. While earlier members of this family are unknown, we suggest it may have have been a branch of the Glasgow family in Pedigree #5 above.
[2] The second grouping above appear to identify the Caraticus who opposed the landing of Emperor Claudius in 44 AD.  In Welsh orthography, this family was Caradog ap Cynfelyn ap Tacfan....in Latin, Caraticus filii Cunbelinus filii Taciovanus.  If the intention was to show that the first family cited descended from these primarily 1st century BC men, it fails by about 270 years.
[3] The third group is self-explanatory and represents the ancestry other manuscripts claim for Maxen Wledig.
[4]  The long list of Romans which constitute the majority of this pedigree appears to be an attempt to give a pedigree for Constantine the Great; we would reject it in its entirety as there are better and more contemporary sources for Roman genealogies.
17 - Dunoding
B ro mail
Narrative form:
Cuhelyn (860) ap Bleddyn (830) ap Caradog (800) ap Ioniol (765) ap Eifion (735) ap Brochwel (705) ap Eifion (670) ap Pobddelw (640) ap Pobien (610) ap Isaac (575) ap Eifion (545) ap Meurig (515) ap Dyngad (480) ap Eifion (450) ap Dunod (420) ap Cunedda (385)
[1] This is the only family known to have descended from Dunod ap Cunedda; it held the lands now called Eifionydd and Ardudwy in Gwynedd.  The family probably became extinct in the male line with Cuhelyn ap Bleddyn; at least a portion of its lands were held in the early 10th century by a family maternally descended from Merfyn ap Rhodri Mawr and it is possible Merfyn married a sister of Cuhelyn.
18 - Meirionydd
Guurgint barmb truch
Narrative form:
Cynan (770) ap Brochwel (735) ap Ednyfed (705) ap Eunydd (675) ap Brochwel (640) ap Iswallt (610) ap Idris (580) ap Gwyddno (545) ap Clydno (515) ap Gwrgant Barbtruch (485) ap Cadwaladr (450) ap Meirion (420) ap Cunedda (385)
[1] Meirion was the youngest son of Cunedda and this is the only known family which descended from him.  The grandson of Cynan, Gwyddno ap Cadwaladr, had two known sons: Cynyr, from whom descended Einion ap Seisyll of Mathafarn; and Sandde, from whom descended Gwaithfoed of Meirionydd, Gwaithfoed of Ceredigion, and others.
[2] Idris ap Gwyddno of this family is probably the "Iudris" whom Annales Cambriae cites as having his throat cut in 632.
19- Unattributed
[C]atguallau liu
Samuil penissel
Pappo p priten
Gyl hen
Narrative form:
Cadwallon (575) ap Gwydgwn (540) ap Sawl Penuchel (510) ap Pabo Post Prydain (480) ap Athrwys (450) ap Mar (415) at Cenen (380) ap Coel Hen (340)
[1] See Pedigree #11 above for the insertion of two missing generations into this family.
[2] Although Bartrum considers "Samuel Penissel" the same person as "Sawl Penuchel" who is found in other early pedigrees as a son of Pabo, it is possible they were two brothers and it is Samuel whose line is given in this pedigree.
[3]  The family was among the Men of the North and this pedigree seems misplaced within the manuscript.  Perhaps a copyist inadvertently omitted it earlier in his work and, when realizing the omission, simply added it at the place he was working when he discovered his omission.
20 - Rhufoniog
Narrative form:
Ifor (950) ap Marut (920) ap Aeddan (885) ap (865) Mor (855) ap Brochwel (820)
[1] It is uncertain what family is being cited here; for dating, we have equated it with the "Mor ap Marut ap Elaeth ap Yfor" found in the pedigree of Tandreg ferch Rhys ap Seisyllt ap Selyf ap Mor ap Marut who was mother to the noted bard, Gwalchmai ap Meilyr.  While nowhere cited, we suggest this Brochwel was a son of Hywel Farf Finiog ap Caradog of Rhos; however, the brevity of the pedigree here cited prohibits any positive identification of its ancestry or dating.
21 - Penllyn
Narrative form:
Meirion ap Llenoddeu
[1]  Bartrum equates these men with men of that name descended from Pebid Penllyn.  No one knows when Pebid lived and data about his family is too scanty to offer a reasonable estimate.  One author has Pebid founding a kingdom in Penllyn shortly after the Romans left Britain, but if we date Pebid c. 385 the Meirion ap Llenoddeu in his pedigree would have been born c. 980 or after the time when Harleian Ms 3859 is thought to have been written.
[2] Llyfr John Wynn (16th century?) claims the Meirion descended from Pebid Penllyn is actually Blaidd Rhudd, a man of the 11th century.  If that were true, he clearly could not be the man mentioned in this 10th century manuscript. 
[3]  These two names standing alone are of no value to either Welsh history or genealogy, and we decline to assign any dates to them.
22 - Powys
Catte girn
Catel dunlurc
Narrative form:
Selyf (575) ap Cynan Garwin (540) ap Brochwel Ysgithrog (510) ap Cyngen Glodrydd (475) ap Mawn (445) ap Pasgen (410) ap Cadell Ddyrnllwg (380) ap Caderyn (350)
[1]  We would reverse the position of the oldest two men in this pedigree, both on chronological grounds and because other early sources name the father of Cadell as Cadeyrn.  Selyf can be dated reasonably close since he was killed at the 616 Battle of Chester.  Cadell Ddyrnllwg was contemporary with Vortigern and Ninnius mentions him as a man with 9 sons at the time Germanus visited Britain c. 427.  He could not have been born as early as 350 and our timeline of his ancestry back to the 1st century BC suggests a birthdate near 380.
[2] This, of course, is a partial pedigree of the First Powys Royal Dynasty which ruled until 1063 when the kingship was usurped by Rhiwallon and Bleddyn ap Cynfyn.
23 - Powys
[ ]esselis
gur haiernu
Narrative form:
_essilis (605) ap Gurhaiernu (570) ap Elbodgu (540) ap Cynan (510) ap Millo (475) ap Camuir (445) ap Brydw (415) ap Cadell (380) ap Cadeyrn (350)
[1] Repeating the previous pedigree, the names Caderyn and Cadell are inverted.  Cadell did have a son named Brydw, who daughter Thewer married Cassanauth Wledig.  We think it was that marriage which celebrated the joining of the kingdoms of Cadell and Cassanauth to form Powys.  At the same time, we posit that a prince of Cadell's family also married a princess from Cassanauth's family. Cadell's lands lay north of the Severn centered around Chester, while Cassanauth's kingdom formed the fertile Severn plains then centered near Shrewsbury and extended west as far as the Wye. 
[2] History has nothing to say about this branch of the Powys family and it is not known where it resided.
24 - Powys
Guit gen
Narrative form: 
Selyf (535) ap Ieuaf (565) ap Gwyddien (630) ap Bywdec (600)
Caranfael ap Cerennior ap Erbic ap Egryn
[1]  As a single family, this string of men is unknown to other sources.  But if two families as we suggest, they probably were among those descended from Cassanauth Wledig of Powys.  
[2]  Our dating of the first segment posits that Gwyddien ap Bywdec was a brother of Bywry Llew ap Bywdec ap Rhudd Baladr
[3] If Canantinail = Caranfael, that male name also occurs in the family of Cynddylan ap Cyndrwyn of Powys, but as a son of Cynddylan.  We can find no reasonable basis to date the Caranfael in this citation
25 - Glastening
Glast unu ft glastenic qui vener q vocat loyt coyt
Narrative form:
Idnerth (800) ap Morgan (770) ap Cadgwr (735) ap Cadifor (705) ap Merwydd (675) ap Morfynydd (640) ap Morien (610) ap Botan (580) ap Morgan (545) ap Morfael (515) ap Glast (485) whence the Glastening from Llwyd Coed
[1] We identify this family as one whose home was called "gray woods" in Dogfeiling in the Clwyd valley.  The given name of Morfael's father was probably Cyndrwyn ap Elno ap Dogfael ap Cunedda, the "Glast" being an epithet meaning "green".
[3] An old tradition holds that this family of the Cunedda line were rivals of the nearby kingdom of Ddrynllwg (later called Powys).   
[2] Another branch of this family, we suspect, was the Elaeth ap Eiludd ap Glas found in Hengwrt Ms 33.  Its lands near Denbigh were called "Pengwern" and we think the early 7th century Prince Cynddylan ap Cyndrwyn was a grandson of this Elaeth who had relocated to the east where he called his lands Pengwern. One would assume those lands were acquired by a favorable marriage into the Powys family who ruled there.
26 - Ceredigion
Narrative form:
Gwgan (830) ap Meurig (800) ap Dyfnwallon (765) ap Arthgen (735) ap Seisyllt (700) ap Clydog (670) ap Artgloys (640) ap Artboddgu (605) ap Boddgu (575) ap Serguil (545) ap Iusay (510) ap ? (480) ap ? (450) ap Ceredig (415) ap Cunedda (385)
[1]  Two generations are omitted at some point in this family between 415 and 700 and cannot be supplied by any later manuscripts which mention the family.  The obit of Gwgan ap Meurig appears in 871 and his sister, Angharad, is cited as the wife of Rhodri Mawr.  Rhodri was born c. 820 so our dating of Gwgan cannot be far off the mark.  The earliest list of the progeny of Ceredig ap Cunedda (written c. 1200) does not mention Iusay and he may have been a great-grandson of Ceredig.
[2] The only other family descended from Ceredig which is known to have been extant in the ninth century is traced to an Eiddun Ddu, born c. 770.  He was probably a brother of Dyfnwallon, and his line became extinct with Odwin ap Teithwalch.  Odwin had only a daughter, Morfydd, who married Eunydd ap Cadifor of Meirionydd.
27 - Powys
Narrative form:
Cyngen (775) ap Cadell (745) ap Brochwel (715) ap Eliseg (685) ap Gwylog (655) ap Beli (620) ap Eiluddd (585) ap Cynan Garwyn (540) ap Brochwel Ysgithrog (510) ap Cyngen Glodrydd (475) ap Maun (445) ap Pasgen (410) ap Cadell Ddyrnllwg (380) ap Cadeyrn (350)
[1] This citation follows Pedigrees #22 and #23 in reversing what we think is the correct order of the two oldest men.  It also is at variance with Pedigree #22 in that the names of Cynan and Cyngen, the father and the son of Brochwel Ysgithrog, are transposed.  The correct sequence is that in #22; Brochwel's father was Cyngen and his son was Cynan.
[2] The first-mentioned Cyngen is the man who erected the Pillar of Eliseg early in the ninth century, which honors the achievements of his great-grandfather Eliseg ap Gwylog.
[3] Selyf ap Cynan Garwyn born c. 575 followed his father a king of Powys, but was slain at the Battle of Chester c. 616.  His brother Eiludd succeeded him and the sons of Selyf were excluded from rule.
[4] We posit the "Maucant" in the pedigree was derived from the inscription on the Pillar of Eliseg which reads "Mau annan", but which we believe meant "Maun + Annan" the parents of Pasgen.  (at which point, the Pillar pedigree follows the maternal ancestry of Pasgen to reach Vortigern)
28 - Glywysing
[I]ud hail
Narrative form: 
Ithel (690) ap Athrwys (660) ap Ffernmail (630) ap Ithel (600) ap Morgan (570) ap Athrwys (540) ap Tewdrig (505)
[1]  Both Egerton Phillimore and Peter Bartrum would emend this pedigree by inserting Meurig between Athrwys and Tewdrig.  Our reading of the charters from the Book of Llan Dav indicates the original pedigree is correct.  Meurig ap Tewdrig was the elder brother of Athrwys and Morgan was Meurig's nephew, not his grandson.  Meurig did have a son named Athrwys, but he died before his father without heirs. Morgan seized the kingship by killing the only surviving son of his uncle Meurig.
29 - Gwent
Narrative form:
Brochwel (730) ap Meurig (695) ap Arthfael (665) ap Rhys (635) ap Ithel (600) ap Morgan (570)
[1] Rhys ap Ithel was a brother of Ffernmail in Pedigree #28.  Bartrum's emendment which inserted two names (Gwriad ap Brochwel) between Arthfael and Rhys is unwarranted and based solely on similar strings of names found in this family.  There was also a Brochwel ap Meurig ap Arthfael born c. 830 and a Gwriad ap Brochwel ap Arthfael born c. 765, but neither of those men were mentioned in this pedigree.
30 - Powys
[M]aun artan iouab
meic filii grippi filli elized
Narrative form:
Maun, Artan, Ieuaf and Meic (750/755) were sons of Gruffudd (720) ap Eliseg (685)
[1]  This pedigree names 4 sons of Gruffudd ap Eliseg, a brother of Brochwel ap Eliseg from Pedigree #27 above
[2] Phillimore and Bartrum would emend the pedigree to insert "ap Cyngen ap Cadell ap Brochwel" between Gruffudd and Eliseg.  There is no independent evidence that Cyngen ap Cadell (of Pedigree #27) had any issue, and no reason why #27 would begin with Cyngen if he had a son Gruffudd.  We reject the emendation as wholly unwarranted.
31 - Powys
[E]lized ioab aedan filii cencin filii brochmail filii elized
Narrative form:
Elisedd, Job and Aeddan (780/785) were sons on Cyngen (750) ap Brochwel (715) ap Eliseg (685)
[1] This is another branch of the family descended from Brochwel ap Eliseg; this Cyngen was a brother of Cadell ap Brochwel ap Eliseg.
[2] Aeddan ap Cyngen ap Brochwel was probably the father of Brochwel ap Aeddan, who succeeded to the kingship of Powys after his father's first-cousin, Cyngen ap Cadell, died without issue.  It was through that line the Powys dynasty continued until the kingship was usurped in the 11th century by the sons of Cynfyn...a man descended from a wholly different Powys family.
[3]  Phillimore and Bartrum would emend this pedigree by inserting "ap Cadell" between Cyngen and Brochwel, giving the sons to the Cyngen ap Cadell from Pedigree #27.  They supposed the Gruffudd of Pedigree #30 was a brother of the 3 men cited in this pedigree, but the reasons given are nonsense.  The Brut entry for 814 says that an Elise ap Cyngen killed his brother Gruffudd, but if those men were the Gruffudd and Elisedd of Pedigrees #30 and #31 and were sons of the Cyngen in Pedigree #27, such brothers would be under 12 years old in 814.  And the slain Gruffudd would have 4 sons.  Neither Phillimore nor Bartrum considered the timeline and their emendations should be rejected as absurd.  Whoever was the father of the men mentioned in 814, it could not have been the Cyngen ap Cadell ap Brochwel of Pedigree #27.
32 - This is not a pedigree per se, but a narrative listing of the sons of Cunedda.  Refer to the paper "Meirion Meirionydd 'Grandson' of Cunedda" elsewhere on this site for the Latin text and our reading of it.
The remainder of the manuscript contains no pedigrees and no name lists and we shall ignore it as superflouous text.