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Legendary History Prior to 1st Century BC
Beli Mawr and Llyr Llediath in Welsh Pedigrees
The Bartrum "Welsh Genealogies"
Bartrum's "Pedigrees of the Welsh Tribal Patriarchs"
A study in charting medieval citations
The Evolution of the "Padriarc Brenin" Pedigree
Generational Gaps and the Welsh Laws
Minimum Age for Welsh Kingship in the Eleventh Century
The Lands of the Silures
Catel Durnluc aka Cadell Ddyrnllwg
Ancient Powys
The Royal Family of Powys
The Royal Family of Gwynedd
The 5 Plebian Tribes of Wales
Maxen Wledig of Welsh Legend
Maxen Wledig and the Welsh Genealogies
Anwn Dynod ap Maxen Wledig
Constans I and his 343 Visit to Britain
Glast and the Glastening
Composite Lives of St Beuno
Rethinking the Gwent Pedigrees
The Father of Tewdrig of Gwent
Another Look at Teithfallt of Gwent
Ynyr Gwent and Caradog Freich Fras
Llowarch ap Bran, Lord of Menai
Rulers of Brycheiniog - The Unanswered Questions
Lluan ferch Brychan
The Herbert Family Pedigree
Edwin of Tegeingl and his Family
Angharad, Heiress of Mostyn
Ithel of Bryn in Powys
Idnerth Benfras of Maesbrook
Henry, the Forgotten Son of Cadwgan ap Bleddyn
The Muddled Pedigree of Sir John Wynn of Gwydir
The Mysterious Peverel Family
The Clan of Tudor Trevor
The Other "Sir Roger of Powys"
Ancestry of Ieuaf ap Adda ap Awr of Trevor
The Retaking of Northeast Wales
Hedd Molwynog or Hedd ap Alunog of Llanfair Talhearn
"Meuter Fawr" son of Hedd ap Alunog
The Medieval "redating" of Braint Hir
Aaron Paen ap Y Paen Hen
Welsh Claims to Ceri after 1179
The Battle of Mynydd Carn
Trahaearn ap Caradog of Arwystli
Cadafael Ynfyd of Cydewain
Maredudd ap Robert, Lord of Cedewain
Cadwgan of Nannau
Maredudd ap Owain, King of Deheubarth
What Really Happened in Deheubarth in 1022?
Two Families headed by a Rhydderch ap Iestyn
The Era of Llewelyn ap Seisyll
Cynfyn ap Gwerystan, the Interim King
The Consorts and Children of Gruffudd ap Llewelyn
The 1039 Battle at Rhyd y Groes
The First Wife of Bleddyn ap Cynfyn
Hywel ap Gronwy of Deheubarth
The Brief Life of Gruffudd ap Maredudd
The Other Gwenwynwyn
Eunydd son of Gwenllian
Sandde Hardd of Mortyn
The Floruit of Einion ap Seisyllt
The Enigmatic Elystan Glodrydd
Cowryd ap Cadfan of Dyffryn Clwyd
Owain ap Cadwgan and Nest ferch Rhys - An Historic Fiction?
The "sons" of Owain ap Cadwgan ap Bleddyn
The Betrayal by Meirion Goch Revisited
Gwyn Ddistain, seneschal for Llewelyn Fawr
The Men of Lleyn - How They Got There
Trahaearn Goch of Lleyn
Einion vs Iestyn ap Gwrgan - The Conquest of Glamorgan
Dafydd Goch ap Dafydd - His Real Ancestry
Thomas ap Rhodri - Father of Owain "Lawgoch"
The "Malpas" Family in Cheshire
Einion ap Celynin of Llwydiarth
Marchweithian, Lord of Is Aled, Rhufoniog
Osbwrn Wyddel of Cors Gedol
Bradwen of Llys Bradwen in Meirionydd
Ednowain ap Bradwen
Sorting out the Gwaithfoeds
Three Men called Iorwerth Goch "ap Maredudd"
The Caradog of Gwynedd With 3 Fathers
Who Was Sir Robert Pounderling?
Eidio Wyllt - What Was His Birthname?
The Legendary Kingdom of Seisyllwg
The Royal Family of Ceredigion
Llewelyn ap Hoedliw, Lord of Is Cerdin
The Ancestry of Owain Glyndwr
Gruffudd ap Rhys, the Homeless Prince
The Children of Lord Rhys
Maredudd Gethin ap Lord Rhys
The 'Next Heir' of Morgan of Caerleon
Pedigree of the ancient Lords of Ial
The Shropshire Walcot Family
Pedigree of "Ednowain Bendew II"
Pedigree of Cynddelw Gam

                                 EINION AP CELYNIN OF LLWYDIARTH
                                            By Darrell Wolcott
 
         The ancestor of the Lloyd family of Dolobran and the now-extinct Vaughan family of Llwydiarth Hall in Mechain, Einion ap Celynin has a pedigree which traces back to Aleth of Dyfed.  However, many of the claims made concerning the 13th century Celynin and his settlement in Powys are probably false.  The Welsh Herald, Lewys Dwnn, says this Celynin "killed the Mayor of Carmarthen" [1] and other writers added "and fled into Montgomeryshire" [2] probably on no more evidence than the fact that his son Einion lived at Llwydiarth.
 
        While earlier generations of this family probably did live in Ystrad Tywy (modern Carmarthenshire), a look at the marriages made by the father and grandfather of Celynin indicates they may have relocated to south Powys (Powys Gwenwynwyn) before Celynin was born. Celynin was living in 1292[3] and his son Einion occurs in 1340[4], so the Aleth from which they descended was born c. 1080 and was not the same man as "Aleth, king of Dyfed".[5] The early citations agree with this chart [6]:
 
                       1080  Aleth
                                  l
                     1115  Uchdryd
                                  l
                    1150  Gwrgeneu
                                  l
                     1180  Iorwerth
                                  l
                     1210  Cynddelw
                                  l
                      1240  Rhiryd
                                  l
                      1270  Celynin
                                  l
                      1300  Einion
 
        We suggest the earlier generations back to Aleth ap Bleddri (who was merely brother to Hyfaidd ap Bleddri, king of Dyfed) were:
 
                     820  Rhodri Mawr       Aleth  840
                                 l                    l
                     865  Tudwal Gloff====Elen  875
                                               l
                                     895  Alser
                                               l
                                     930  Aelan (or Alyn or Aelaw)
                                               l
                                     960  Llawr
                                               l
                                     990  Aleth             
                                               l
                                  1020  Uchdyrd
                                               l
                                 1050  Gwrgeneu
                                               l
                                    1080  Aleth
                          (continuing as the first chart)
 
         We can date the generations which immediately followed Einion ap Celynin from a 1420 document in which Edward de Charlton, Lord of Powys, granted a pardon to Gruffudd ap Jenkin ap Llewelyn ap Einion ap Celynin.  In that document[7], family lands once held by the grandfather of Gruffudd (Llewelyn ap Einion ap Celynin) at Llwydiarth and elsewhere in upper and lower Mechain were confirmed to Gruffudd.  Some historians assume the crimes for which Gruffudd ap Jenkin was pardoned involved his participation in the Owain Glendwr rebellion, but this Gruffudd would have barely been a teenager in the Glendwr era.  More likely, he had been among the roving outlaws of the early 1400's which had included other young men of Powys.[8]  In 1420, his grandfather Llewelyn was dead but was survived by his wife (Gruffudd's grandmother) "Lleucu filia Gruffuth ap Eden Loid".  The document does not say if Jenkin ap Llewelyn was still alive, but that man would have been the right age to have joined the Glendwr rebellion and it may have been his lands which had been confiscated and were now being confirmed to his son.  To extend our pedigree chart 3 more generations, we find:
 
                1270   Celynin         Ednyfed Llwyd  1280
                              l                     l
                  1300  Einion            Gruffudd  1315    Madog Cyffin 1300
                              l                     l                         l
                1330  Llewelyn(a)=====Lleuci  1345     Ieuan Gethyn 1335
                                          l                                   l
                             1360  Jenkin(b)============Gwenhwyfar 1370
                                                            l
                                              1390  Gruffudd(c) 
 
       (a)  This marriage is mentioned in the 1420 charter; Dwnn i, 294 and Dwnn ii, 277 call Lleuci a daughter of Ednyfed Llwyd ap Gruffudd ap Ieuan ap Iorwerth Goch descended from Tudor Trevor, but the contemporary source calls her father "Gruffudd ap Ednyfed Llwyd" with no further ancestry cited.  It isn't chronologically possible for her to have descended from the Ednyfed Lloyd mentioned by Lewys Dwnn, a man who would not occur until c. 1345.  Lleuci would have been about 75 years old in 1420
        (b)  Dwnn i, 294 and Dwnn ii, 277 cite this marriage which does fit chronologically. Madog Cyffin occurs 6 generation after Madog ap Maredudd ap Bleddyn ap Cynfyn(born c. 1095), being descended from Madog's base son Einion Efell.
        (c)  Dwnn i, 294 says he married Mallt ferch Hywel Sele ap Meurig, a man born c. 1375 of the Nannau family, again confirming that Gruffudd was a generation too young to have been in the Glendwr rebellion.  Hywel Sele was killed by Owain Glendwr when Hywel tried to assassinate him during a hunting trip together; Owain had thought Hywel an ally and didn't know he was loyal to King Henry IV.
 
         Now that we have closely dated Einion ap Celynin of Llwydiarth to c. 1300, we must account for a second citation found in Dwnn ii, 277.  The first pedigree on that page concerns a family descended from Rhys ap Llowdden living at Plas Cammeirch in the Parish of Llanfachreth, Meirionydd. (Nannau was also in this parish)  The third pedigree on the page is headed "Plwyv Eto" or "the same parish a second time".  There we find a "Celynin ap Rhiryd ap Cynddelw ap Iorwerth ap Gwrgeneu ap Uchdryd ap Aleth".  This man is said to have married "Gwladys daughter and heiress of Rhiryd ap Cynwrig Efell".  Dwnn continues by saying "from whom he obtained Llwydiarth", but he obviously has confused this Merionydd family with the Celynin ap Rhiryd of Llwydiarth in Mechain, Powys.  That there were two branches of the family descended from Aleth who repeated a long string of male names can be seen from Dwnn's next statement.  He says the mother of this Gwladys was Arddun ferch Ithel Goch ap Dafydd ap Maredudd ap Bleddyn.  Charting this Meirionydd family shows these approximate birth dates:
 
                     990  Aleth
                              l                         Bleddyn  1025
                 1020  Uchdryd                        l
                              l                        Maredudd 1065
               1050  Gwrgeneu              ______l___________     
                              l                   l                            l
                1085  Iorwerth(a)       Madog 1095            Dafydd 1105
                              l                   l                            l
               1115  Cynddelw      Cynwrig Efell 1135     Ithel Goch 1140
                              l                   l                            l
                  1150  Rhiryd    1165 Rhiryd============Arddun 1175
                              l                                l
                1185  Celynin=============Gwladys  1200
 
        (a) It was a brother of this man, Aleth, who repeated the male naming sequence leading to the c. 1270 Celynin ap Rhiryd.  That family is shown on the first chart displayed in this paper.
 
         Dwnn finishes this citation(vol ii, p. 277) by saying that Celynin's children by this Gwladys were Madog, Einion, Rhiryd, Iorwerth Dwy, Arddun and Gwladys Fychan.  We suspect the first three named children actually belonged to the Celynin of Llwydiarth, Powys because the very next pedigree which Dwnn presents DOES refer solely to the Powys family; in it we are told that the mother of Einion ap Celynin was Gwenllian ferch Rhydderch ap Tewdwr and that she was also the mother of sons Madog and Rhiryd.   That there was a Celynin ap Rhiryd living nearly 100 years earlier than the man of that name at Llwydiarth can also be seen by a second marriage attributed to him.  Dwnn i, 307 says a Celynin (whom he incorrectly thought to be the grandfather of Llewelyn ap Einion) married "Alison ferch Cynfelyn ap Dolffyn" and that her mother was Julia Mortimer.  This citation occurs within the pedigree of a family actually descended from the Powys Celynin, but identifies a Celynin who would occur c. 1185.  Elsewhere[9], we have dated that Cynfelyn ap Dolffyn to c. 1140, so his daughter must have been a second wife to the Celynin of 1185 and not the Celynin of 1270.
              
        Beginning now at the top of the pedigree, we shall try to date the men by reference to the marriages cited for them:
                                      
        The only marriage cited for a "Uchdryd ap Aleth" is with Marged ferch Cadifor Fawr[10].  Descended from the Irish Deisi tribe which settled in Dyfed in the mid-fourth century, Cadifor Fawr was born c. 1030.  A daughter of his would date from c. 1065/1070 and could not have married either Uchdryd in our chart. We assign the marriage to a man in this cousin line:
 
                                     960  Llawr
                        ______________l________________
                        l                                                l
           990  Greddf Tymer                            990  Aleth
                  ____l____________                     (to Celynin)
                  l                         l
      1020  Alunog         1025  Aleth    Cadifor Fawr  1030
                  l                         l             l
       1050  Hedd         1060  Uchdryd==Marged  1070
                              ______________l__________
                              l                                      l
                 1090  Iorwerth                         Gwrgeneu(a) 1095
                              l                                  (abbot)
               1125  Llowdden(a,b)
 
            (a)  The Brut entry for 1168 says "Gwrgeneu, abbot of Llythlawr[11], and Llawdden his nephew, were slain by Cynan ap Owain".  One wonders why a holy man past age 70 would have been killed, but another Brut version reports it was only "a nephew of abbot Gwrgeneu" who was slain.
            (b)  Dwnn i, 26 & 47 cite "Llowdden ap Iorwerth ap Uchdryd ap Aleth". 
 
         There are many citations for a "Gwrgeneu ap Uchdryd ap Aleth", and we find, in addition to Abbot Gwrgeneu, two men in the ancestry of Celynin bearing that same name born 100 years apart...neither of whom could have been uncle to Llowdden.
 
         The only wife cited for Gwrgeneu ap Uchdryd ap Aleth is Alis ferch Gronwy ap Einion[12].  Descended from Pasgen of Gower[13], we date her birth to c. 1165 and match her with the Grwgeneu born c. 1150.  She was clearly a lady of Carmarthenshire and indicates to us this family branch had not yet strayed far from it early base in Dyfed.
 
        Iorwerth ap Gwrgeneu ap Uchdryd is another name which occurs twice in this family, the earliest as the father of Einion Ddistain.  That Einion, born c. 1115, married Marged ferch Gruffudd ap Maredudd ap Bleddyn ap Cynfyn[14], a lady who was born c. 1125 and sister to Owain Cyfeiliog.  But the only marriage cited for an Iorwerth ap Gwrgeneu ap Uchdryd is Efa ferch Aaron ap Rhys ap Bleddri ap Cadifor Fawr.[15]  That Rhys ap Bleddri did not have a son named Aaron.  There was an Aaron ap Rhys ap Bleddri ap Rhys ap Bleddri ap Cadifor Fawr whom we believe is the source of the confusion, but Efa was probably a daughter of Aaron ap Bleddri ap Rhys ap Belddri.  That Aaron was a Knight of the Sepulchre who followed Richard the Lionhearted on his crusade in 1191.  Born c. 1165, his daughter Efa would have been born c. 1195 and married the Iorwerth ap Gwrgeneu born c. 1180.  The earlier same-named man represents a cousin line as shown in this chart:
 
                                   960  Llawr
                                            l
                                  990  Aleth
                                            l
                               1020  Uchdryd
                                            l
                              1050  Gwrgeneu
                   ________________l______________
                   l                                                l
       1080  Aleth                                1085  Iorwerth
                   l                                                l
      1115  Uchdryd                           1115  Einion Ddistain
                  l                                                 =
    1150  Gwrgeneu              1125  Marged f. Gruffudd ap Maredudd
                  l
     1180  Iorwerth===Efa f. Aaron 1195
 
                      (to Celynin)
 
         Cynddelw ap Iorwerth ap Gwrgeneu, born c. 1210, married Sian ferch Gwrwared ap Gwilym ap Gwrwared ap Cuhelyn Fardd ap Gwynfardd Dyfed[16].  We date Sian to c. 1220 based on two factors: her mother was Gwenllian ferch Ednyfed Fychan[17], a lady born c. 1195/1205; her brother Gwilym was keeper of Cardigan Castle in 1262.  That family had its roots in Dyfed and this branch may have relocated a bit north by the date of this marriage, but was yet wholly within southwest Wales.  It is the next generation where a marriage was contracted far outside of Deheubarth.
 
         Rhiryd ap Cynddelw ap Iorwerth, born c. 1240, married Gwladys ferch Richard, Lord of Dinas Certhin[18]. The ancestry of this man is uncertain, but Dinas Certhin was in the commote of Mawddwy and parish of Llanymawddwy.[19]  Originally a part of northwest Meirionydd, this commote borders Cyfeiliog, Caereinion and Mochnant in Powys and was annexed to Powys in 1116[20] and became a part of Powys Gwenwynwyn after the death of Maredudd ap Bleddyn in 1132[21].  It was made one of the hundreds of Merioneth in the 1536 Act of Union, when much of the remainder of Powys Gwenwynwyn was renamed Montgomeryshire.  Rhiryd ap Cynddelw might well have relocated to Mawddwy following this marriage, and his son Celynin actually born in Powys.
 
          We should note here that the noted Welsh genealogist, Peter Bartrum, makes the wife of Rhiryd ap Cynddelw a different lady: Gwladys ferch Rhiryd ap Cynwrig. He cites his sources as Dwnn ii, 277 and Dwnn i, 294.  But his first source actually says it was Celynin ap Rhiryd who married a daughter of Rhiyrd ap Cynwrig, while his second source calls the wife of Rhiryd ap Cynddelw "Gwladys, daughter of Richard, Lord of Dinas Certhin".  One must assume Bartrum thought the two ladies called Gwladys were identical, and that "Richard" was an error for "Rhiryd".
 
         Quite likely, the Richard who was Lord of Dinas Certhin in the mid 1200's was a son of Madog ap Gwenwynwyn.  That Madog was a base son of Gwenwynwyn born c. 1190 before his father was married, and is described as "of Mawddwy" by Peter Bartrum[22].  The legitimate son of Gwenwynwyn was Gruffudd, who was called Lord of Mawddwy during the life of his father.
 
         We have already mentioned two wives cited for Celynin ap Rhiryd, one being a lady born 2 generations prior to the c. 1270 Celynin of Powys and probably married to the c. 1185 Celynin of Meirionydd.  The second lady, Gwenllian ferch Rhydderch ap Tewdwr cannot be dated. A third cited lady, Gwenllian ferch Adda ap Meurig ap Pasgen ap Gwyn ap Gruffudd, is said by one group of sources to have married Celynin ap Rhiryd, but another group of sources says she married Einion ap Celynin.  We think this last lady named Gwenllian is two different women, the second lady having an ancestry very similiar to the first:
 
                               1115  Gruffudd(a)
                                            l
                                 1150  Gwyn
                                            l
                                1180  Pasgen
                        ____________l________________
                        l                                             l
           1210  Meurig                                    Cynwrig  1210
                        l                                             l
            1240  Adda                                      Meurig  1245
                        l                                             l
          1275  Gwenllian(b)===Celynin(c) 1270       Adda  1275
                                           l                          l
                               1300  Einion(d)=======Gwenllian(e) 1310
 
      (a) Gruffudd III ap Beli III ap Selyf III ap Brochwel III ap Aeddan III ap Selyf II ap Brochwel II ap Aeddan II ap Selyf ap Brochwel ap Aeddan ap Cyngen ap Brochwel ap Eliseg ap Gwylog.
       (b)  Pen. 127, 35 & 100; Pen. 128, 732a; Pen. 176, 130 and Pen. 177, 36 cite this marriage
       (c)  As mentioned earlier, a different wife of Celynin is cited as the mother of Einion; the lady in our chart was probably a second wife.
      (d) Pen. 128, 808b, 822b & 847a; and Pen. 135, 393 cite this marriage, but omit Cynwrig from the lady's ancestry.
      (e)  She had a sister who married Gruffudd ap Alo, another man born c. 1300. Pen. 131, 138; Pen. 129, 90; and Pen. 127, 35 all cite an Adda ap Meurig ap Cynwrig who has been confused with Adda ap Meurig ap Pasgen of the same family.

       We return for a moment to the Gwenllian ferch Rhydderch ap Tewdwr cited as the wife of Celynin and mother of Einion.  The lady should be expected to have been born c. 1285 and the assumption that she descended from 11th century Deheubarth royal family is wholly unproven.  Clearly the Rhydderch who was the brother of Rhys ap Tewdwr lived much too early; a daughter of his would occur c. 1085.  Merely adding a generation to her ancestry to make her Gwenllian ferch Maredudd ap Rhydderch ap Tewdwr would not help make the connection[23].  Neither Rhydderch nor Tudor were rare male names in the 13th century, so this lady's ancestry and residence cannot be determined. Those who repeat the tale about Celynin fleeing from Carmarthen to Powys offer the two marriages as proof, saying his first wife was a Deheubarth lady and his second wife was from Powys.  We don't know whether or not his first wife was from south Wales, but we do know that his father married a Powys lady and his grandfather married a lady from a Mawddwy family.  We think Celynin was born in Mawddwy and inherited Llwydiarth from his grandmother.  As to Dwnn's statement saying Llwydiarth was obtained by the marriage with a granddaughter of Cynwrig Efell, there is no record that Cynwrig Efell held any land in Mechain; his lands were farther north in Powys Fadog[24].

         An unverified but ancient tradition in this family is that the home of Rhiryd ap Cynddelw was torched at a time when his wife was heavy with child.  She was obliged to find shelter under a holly bush (celynnen) where she delivered her child.  This tale accounts for the child being named "Celynin" and for the family arms to be a goat browsing on a holly bush[25].  It is known that in 1274, Llewelyn ap Gruffudd of Gwynedd subdued the territory of Gruffudd ap Gwenwynwyn; while we have estimated Celynin's birth as c. 1270, it is possible he was born during this invasion and that his mother's home might well have been burnt.  We earlier conjectured that Gruffudd ap Gwenwynwyn was her great-uncle and she (Gwladys ferch Richard) would have been under 20 years of age in 1274.

        Following our review of this family, we dismiss the medieval claim that Celynin "fled from Carmarthen into Powys" since it is highly probably he was born in Powys.  If he killed the Mayor of Carmarthen as Lewys Dwnn said, it had nothing to do with the reason for his branch of the family to locate in Powys.  That occurred a generation before he was born, and the family may have left south Wales two generations earlier than Celynin.  The entire tale appears no more than someone's conjectural scenerio to explain how an earlier Dyfed family came to be settled in Powys by the year 1300.

NOTES:
[1] Dwnn i, 294
[2] Montgomeryshire Collections, vol ix, p. 218; Dictionary of Welsh Biography, p. 570 are two examples
[3] Kelennyn ap Ririd appears on a jury list for Mechain Uchcoed in 1292
[4] John de Charlton, Lord of Powys, granted Weston in the ville of Pennayrth in Glasmeynoc to Anian ap Kelynnin in 1340
[5] While many pedigrees mention Uchdryd ap Aleth and style Aleth as "King of Dyfed, the first man of that name in the ruling family of Dyfed was the brother of Hyfaidd ap Bleddri.  There is no record he became king when his nephew, Llywarch ap Hyfaidd, died in 904.  For more on this Dyfedd family, see our paper "The Legendary Kingdom of Seisyllwg" elsewhere on this site.
[6] Dwnn i, 294; Pen. 127, 9 & 99; Pen. 176, 129; and Pen. 135, 391 all cite this ancestry for Einion ap Celynin ap Rhiryd
[7] This document is reproduced in full in Montgomeryshire Collections, vol iv, pp. 343/344
[8] Following the rebellion of Owen Glendwr, Henry IV issued many laws to disarm, dispossess and harass Welshmen.  Many youngsters of noble families rebelled by taking up illegal arms and preying upon traveling Englishmen as common robbers; these included Ieuan ap Gruffudd ap Ieuan ap Madog ap Gwenwys and his brother, Gruffudd Fychan (later to be known as Sir Gruffudd Fychan).  Those brothers were also pardoned of their crimes by Edward de Charlton in 1419, and their paternal lands confirmed to them.
[9] See our paper "Cadwgan of Nannau" elsewhere on this site
[10] Dwnn i, 294
[11] See the Pen. 20 version of ByT and notes on p. 183 where its editor seeks to make "Llwythlawr" into a place name.  In fact, "llwyth lawr" means "of the tribe of Llawr" and refers to Llawr ap Aelan in his pedigree
[12] Dwnn i, 294
[13] See Gronwy ap Einion ap Rhys ap Gronwy ap Einion in our paper "Pasgen ap 'Urien Rheged' Lord of Gower
[14] Pen. 131, 103; Pen. 129, 50 & 93; Pen. Pen. 127, 99 & 146
[15] Dwnn i, 294
[16] Dwnn i, 294
[17] Dwnn i, 123 and Dwnn ii, 53 say the wife of Gwrwared ap Gwilym was Gwenllian ferch Ednyfed Fychan ap Cynwrig
[18] Dwnn i, 294
[19] The Meirionydd Quarter Sessions, July 16, 1779, describes the accuser in an assault complaint as "Thomas John Ellis of Certhin in the parish of Llanymawddwy". The commote of Mawddwy was detached from Powys in 1536 and returned to Meirionydd where it had been prior to 1116.
[20] ByT for 1116 reports that Gruffudd ap Maredudd of Powys helped Einion ap Cadwgan (his first cousin) seize the lands once held by Uchdryd ap Edwin; the portion kept by Gruffudd included Mawddwy which had been a part of Meirionydd in Gwynedd
[21] When King of Powys Maredudd ap Bleddyn died in 1132, he divided Powys so that each of his sons (Gruffudd and Madog) would have a kingdom to rule.  While Gruffudd had died in 1128, his son Owain Cyfeiliog assumed rule over the southern part of Powys when he reached adulthood.  It was called Powys Gwenwynwyn after Owain's son of that name.
[22] P.C. Bartrum "Welsh Genealogies AD 300-1400" on Bleddyn ap Cynfyn-29
[23] Dwnn i, 294 differs from Dwnn ii, 277 by calling the lady a daughter of Maredudd ap Rhydderch ap Tewdwr Mawr.
[24] Cynwrig Efell was lord of Eglwysegl in the commote of Nanheudwy and his descendants are found in Ystrad Alun and Maelor, all parts of Powys Fadog which was ruled by his father, Madog ap Maredudd. 
[25] Montgomeryshire Collections, vol xiv, p. 362 relates this tale