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Maredudd ap Owain, King of Deheubarth
Sandde Hardd of Mortyn
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Who Was Sir Robert Pounderling?
Sir Aaron ap Rhys
Eidio Wyllt - What Was His Birthname?
Ifor Bach, Lord of Senghenydd
Ancestors and Children of the Lord Rhys

#1 - CYNDDELW ab EINION of Widigada
         Bartrum's "preferred" pedigree of this family reads:
         "Llywelyn ddu ap Dafydd ap Ieuan vychan ap Ieuan ap Gwion ap Einion (ap Ieuan ap Gwion ap Einion) ap Karadog vychan ap Kradoc ap Kynddelw ap Einion ap Elffin ap Gwyddno garanir"
         His notes for the pedigree reads:
        "Cynddelw ap Einion was ancestor of a few families in Widigada.  Llywelyn Ddu was born c. 1370.  For his few descendants, see Dwnn i, 27, 207, ii, 25, 30, 33.  Omitting the duplicated names 'Ieuan ap Gwion ap Einion' we get a date of birth of about 1100 for Cynddelw ab Einion, but the evidence is insufficient.  Another line from Cynddelw ab Einion, also in Widigada, is found in Pen 140 p 115.  This would put the birth of Cynddelw in about 1200.
        "According to a tract on the family of the Lord Rhys in Dwnn ii, 99, the mother of Morgan ap Rhys was Nest ferch Caradog Fychan ap Caradog.  These may well be the Caradog Fychan ap Caradog of this pedigree, in which case the birth of Cynddelw would be c. 1070".
        Our first question concerns where this family lived and when they lived there.  Widigada is a commote in Cantref Mawr of Ystrad Tywy (Carmarthenshire) located centrally but immediately north of the Tywy river, and includes the ancient seat of Hywel Dda at Dinefwr.  While we do find some 14th century descendants of Cynddelw ap Einion who married ladies of Widigada, they themselves lived in the commote of Cetheiniog located immediately to the east.  Other descendants, and their spouses, cluster around the commote of Is Cennen immediately south of Widigada and Cetheiniog but in Cantref Bychan.
         Secondly, we identify two different men called 'Llewelyn Ddu ap Dafydd ap Ieuan Fychan ap Ieuan', one born c. 1345 and another born c. 1370.  The earlier Llewelyn Ddu had a single daughter, Gwenllian[1], born c. 1375 while the later man had a son John[2] and two unnamed daughters [3]...these children born c. 1405/10.
         Next, we find the sources which Bartrum cited are in substantial agreement that there were, in fact, repeating strings of men named 'Ieuan ap Gwion ap Einion' and we cannot justify the deletion of one such group.  Thus, we would date the birth of Cynddelw ap Einion to c. 1000 and agree that Bartrum's pedigree, without emendation, is correct for the Llewelyn Ddu born c. 1345.  Our chart for both men of this name will be presented below.
          Finally, we suggest that the Morgan ap Lord Rhys found in Dwnn ii, 99 was the son of a Nest ferch an unknown Caradog Fychan ap Caradog, a lady born near 1155. [4]   This Morgan died of old age in 1251 and was thus born c. 1170/80. [5]  Bartrum's guess that Nest was a great-granddaughter of Cynddelw ap Einion fails chronologically.
          We, of course, reject the 'ap Elffin ap Gwyddno Garanhir' which the majority of citations append to Cynddelw ap Einion; no credible sources confirm the existence of such a man.  But the mythical Gwyddno ruled legendary lands on the coast of Ceredigion which were supposedly inundated by Cardigan Bay in the days of Taliesin the Bard (mid-6th century).  Current scholars believe the tale was created in reference to a Gwyddno ap Clydno[6] of the same time period, a man who descended from Meirion ap Cunedda and whose lands also border Cardigan Bay, but farther north in Meirionydd.  Descended from that Gwyddno was a later Gwyddno ap Cadwaladr[7] born c. 830.
          It is our conclusion that Cynddelw was actually "ap Einion ap Eunydd ap Pyll ap Sandde ap Gwyddno ap Cadwalader[8].  This Eunydd, a man of Meirionydd born c. 935, married the heiress of northern Ceredigion[9] which adjoins Meirionydd.  They had a son, Einion, who we suggest married a lady of Is Cennen: a daughter of Rhiryd ap Mor ap Ynyr ap Pasgen[10].  Einion had sons (a) Peredur Beisgwyn[11], born c. 995, who inherited his grandmother's lands in Ceredigion; (b) Peredur Beiswyrdd[12], born c. 1000, who was the youngest and inherited his father's manor in Meirionydd; and (c) Cynddelw, born c. 997, who settled upon lands provided by his mother's family in Ystrad Tywy.  None of his descendants are found in either Meirionydd or Ceredigion, evidence that he held no lands there.  His brothers may have, for reasons unknown, forced him to flee from Meirionydd and confiscated his share of the inheritance.
         If she were the mother of Cynddelw, the daughter of Rhiryd ap Mor would be a lady of Is Cennen whose father held the early Lordship of Gower which some historians called "Rheged".[13]  In the lifetime of Cynddelw, this was within the kingdom of Deheubarth ruled by the descendants of Hywel Dda. 
         The two principal families descended from Cynddelw ap Einion appear as:

                                       997  Cynddelw
                                      1030  Caradog
                                  1060  Caradog Fychan
                                       1095  Einion
                                       1125  Gwion
                                       1155  Ieuan
                                       1185  Einion
                                       1215  Gwion
                           l                                                l
               1250  Ieuan                         1250  Gwion Fychan (a)
                           l                                                l
           1280  Ieuan Fychan                       1280  Ieuan
                           l                                                l
              1315  Dafydd (b)                   1310  Ieuan Fychan
                           l                                               l
           1345  Llewelyn Ddu (c)                 1340  Dafydd
                           l                                               l
             1375  Gwenllian (d)                 1370  Llewelyn Ddu (e)
                                                             1405  John (f)
           (a)  Some pedigrees of the family of John ap Llewelyn Ddu include a Gwion Fychan in his ancestry, including Dwnn i, 27 and Dwnn i, 207; these follow Dafydd ap Ieuan Fychan ap Ieuan with "Gwion ap Gwion Fychan" which are reversed from the order in which a Fychan normally follows a same-named father, so we would correct that to "Gwion Fychan ap Gwion".
             (b)  Dwnn i, 94 and Mostyn Ms 114, 19 cite "Lleuci ferch Gwilym ap Ieuan ap Hywel" married "Dafydd ap Ieuan Fychan ap Ieuan".  Dwnn 1, 94 extends the ancestry of Lleuci to "Ieuan ap Hywel ap Gwgan Sais of Widigada ap Einion ap Llywarch".  That Einion ap Llywarch was born c. 1165[14] dating Lleuci to c. 1325
             (c)  Dwnn i, 94 cites "Llewelyn Ddu ap Dafydd ap Ieuan Fychan" married "Elen ferch Philip ap Dafydd ap Iorwerth ap Rhys ap Maredudd ap Hywel ap Rhanallt".  We identify Rhanallt as the wife of Llywarch ap Cynhaethwy, the same Llywarch mentioned in item (b) immediately above, so Hywel would be a brother of the Einion ap Llywarch born c. 1165.  Accordingly, Elen would date from 1355 or one generation later than the Lleuci mentioned above.
            (d)  Pen 132, 253; Pen 133, 84; and Pen 131, 299 cite "Gwenllian ferch
Llewelyn Ddu ap Dafydd ap Ieuan Fychan" married "John (Ieuan) ap Gruffudd ap Llewelyn Foethus".  Llewelyn Foethus ap Llewelyn Ddu ap Owain was a well-known man descended from Elystan Glodrydd, and was born c. 1300.  Thus, John ap Gruffudd was born c. 1365
            (e)  Pen 133, 61 cites "Meddefys ferch Gruffudd ap Maredudd Ddu" married Llewelyn Ddu ap Dafydd ap Ieuan".  In the pedigree of Einion ap Cynfelyn of Maesmawr, there are two men named Gruffudd ap Maredudd Ddu ap Gruffudd ap Maredudd ap Einion ap Cynfelyn...one born c. 1295 and the other c. 1355.  If each had a daughter named Meddefys, the ladies would be born c. 1330 and c. 1385.  Pen 133, 61 says Meddefys also married "Ieuan ap Madog ap Gwenwys"; Ieuan ap Madog was the grandfather of the celebrated Sir Gruffudd Fychan of Garth and was born c. 1320.  The Meddefys of c. 1330 would fit as the wife of Ieuan ap Madog, while the Meddefys of c. 1385 must have married the Llewelyn Ddu ap Dafydd born c. 1370.  Neither lady could have married the Llewelyn Ddu ap Dafydd born c. 1345
          (f)  Dwnn ii, 59 cites "the mother of Gwilym ap John ap Llewelyn Ddu was Lleuci Llwyd ferch Walter ap Ieuan ap Llewelyn"  Dwnn 1, 207 calls the wife of John ap Llewelyn Ddu and mother of Gwilym "Marged ferch Walter ap Ieuan ap Llewelyn ap Rhydderch Ddu ap Owain ap Arod".  Descended from Rhys ap Tewdwr, this lady (whether called Lleuci or Marged) was born c. 1415 and must have married a John ap Llewelyn Ddu born c. 1405
         To further show there were two men named Llewelyn Ddu ap Dafydd ap Ieuan who lived a generation apart, we present a chart showing marriage connections to the family of Llewelyn Foethus:
                  1300  Llewelyn Foethus
                       1330  Gruffudd        Llewelyn Ddu  1345
                                    l                      l
                     1365  Ieuan/John=====Gwenllian  1375
                                   1395  Gwilym                Llewelyn Ddu  1370
                                                l                             l
                                     1425  Rhys                       John  1405
                                                l                             l
                                    1455  Lleuci*===========Gwilym  1440
                               * This marriage is cited in Dwnn 1, 207

[1] Pen. 131, 299; Pen. 132, 253; Pen. 138, 84
[2] Pen. 132, 254; Dwnn i, 27, 207; Dwnn ii, 25, 30, 59
[3] Dwnn i, 226; Dwnn ii, 49; both ladies married men from Dyfed, born c. 1395 and c. 1400, respectively
[4] Pen 131, 209 says Morgan's mother was a mistress of Lord Rhys but does not name her
[5] ByT 1251 records his obit
[6] Harl. 3859, 18 cites Gwyddno ap Clydno ap Gwrgant Barbtruch ap Cadwaladr ap Meirion ap Cunedda
[7] Dwnn i, 95; Harl. 3859, 18 continues his ancestry as "Cynan ap Brochwel ap Ednyfed ap Eunydd ap Brochwel ap Iswallt ap Idris ap Gwyddno ap Clydno" thence as in Note 6 above
[8] Einion ap Pyll is found in Dwnn i, 95
[9] Pen. 140, 348/9 calls her "Morfydd ferch Odwin ap Teithwalch ap Owain ap Einion ap Meurig ap Caradog ap Cloddien Frych ap Llowarch ap Seisyllt ap Eiddon Ddu.  This Eiddon Ddu was born c. 630 and descended from Ceredig ap Cunedda
[10] Refer to the paper "Einion ap Llywarch of Carmathenshire" at the link below:
[11] He was ancestor of several Ceredigion men, including Cadwgan Fantach and Rhys Chwith who have their own entries in Bartrum's "Patriarchs" list.
[12] He was the ancestor of Gwaithfoed of Meirionydd
[13] This family descended from a Rhos man called Pasgen ap Urien.  Its 14th century family styled itself "fitz Urien" and incorrectly identified their ancestor as the 6th century Urien Rheged ap Cynfarch Oer.  Early historians called the Gower lordship "Rheged" based on this misconception.
[14] This is the Einion ap Llywarch which is designated (3) in the paper "Einion ap Llywarch of Carmarthenshire" under "The Royal Family of Gwynedd" at the link below
He also the Einion whose brother was the c. 1160 Sir Elidyr Ddu.