Legendary History Prior to 1st Century BC
Beli Mawr and Llyr Llediath in Welsh Pedigrees
The Bartrum "Welsh Genealogies"
Bartrum's "Pedigrees of the Welsh Tribal Patriarchs"
A study in charting medieval citations
The Evolution of the "Padriarc Brenin" Pedigree
Generational Gaps and the Welsh Laws
Minimum Age for Welsh Kingship in the Eleventh Century
The Lands of the Silures
Catel Durnluc aka Cadell Ddyrnllwg
Ancient Powys
The Royal Family of Powys
The Royal Family of Gwynedd
The 5 Plebian Tribes of Wales
Maxen Wledig of Welsh Legend
Maxen Wledig and the Welsh Genealogies
Anwn Dynod ap Maxen Wledig
Constans I and his 343 Visit to Britain
Glast and the Glastening
Composite Lives of St Beuno
Rethinking the Gwent Pedigrees
The Father of Tewdrig of Gwent
Another Look at Teithfallt of Gwent
Ynyr Gwent and Caradog Freich Fras
Llowarch ap Bran, Lord of Menai
Rulers of Brycheiniog - The Unanswered Questions
Lluan ferch Brychan
The Herbert Family Pedigree
Edwin of Tegeingl and his Family
Angharad, Heiress of Mostyn
Ithel of Bryn in Powys
Idnerth Benfras of Maesbrook
Henry, the Forgotten Son of Cadwgan ap Bleddyn
The Muddled Pedigree of Sir John Wynn of Gwydir
The Mysterious Peverel Family
The Clan of Tudor Trevor
The Other "Sir Roger of Powys"
Ancestry of Ieuaf ap Adda ap Awr of Trevor
The Retaking of Northeast Wales
Hedd Molwynog or Hedd ap Alunog of Llanfair Talhearn
"Meuter Fawr" son of Hedd ap Alunog
The Medieval "redating" of Braint Hir
Aaron Paen ap Y Paen Hen
Welsh Claims to Ceri after 1179
The Battle of Mynydd Carn
Trahaearn ap Caradog of Arwystli
Cadafael Ynfyd of Cydewain
Maredudd ap Robert, Lord of Cedewain
Cadwgan of Nannau
Maredudd ap Owain, King of Deheubarth
What Really Happened in Deheubarth in 1022?
Two Families headed by a Rhydderch ap Iestyn
The Era of Llewelyn ap Seisyll
Cynfyn ap Gwerystan, the Interim King
The Consorts and Children of Gruffudd ap Llewelyn
The 1039 Battle at Rhyd y Groes
The First Wife of Bleddyn ap Cynfyn
Hywel ap Gronwy of Deheubarth
The Brief Life of Gruffudd ap Maredudd
Owain Brogyntyn and his Family
The Other Gwenwynwyn
Eunydd son of Gwenllian
Sandde Hardd of Mortyn
The Floruit of Einion ap Seisyllt
The Enigmatic Elystan Glodrydd
The Unofficial "History" of Elystan of Powys
Cowryd ap Cadfan of Dyffryn Clwyd
Owain ap Cadwgan and Nest ferch Rhys - An Historic Fiction?
The "sons" of Owain ap Cadwgan ap Bleddyn
The Betrayal by Meirion Goch Revisited
Gwyn Ddistain, seneschal for Llewelyn Fawr
The Men of Lleyn - How They Got There
Trahaearn Goch of Lleyn
Einion vs Iestyn ap Gwrgan - The Conquest of Glamorgan
The Royal Family of Glamorgan
Dafydd Goch ap Dafydd - His Real Ancestry
Thomas ap Rhodri - Father of Owain "Lawgoch"
The "Malpas" Family in Cheshire
Einion ap Celynin of Llwydiarth
Marchweithian, Lord of Is Aled, Rhufoniog
Osbwrn Wyddel of Cors Gedol
Bradwen of Llys Bradwen in Meirionydd
Ednowain ap Bradwen
Sorting out the Gwaithfoeds
Three Men called Iorwerth Goch "ap Maredudd"
The Caradog of Gwynedd With 3 Fathers
Who Was Sir Robert Pounderling?
Eidio Wyllt - What Was His Birthname?
The Legendary Kingdom of Seisyllwg
The Royal Family of Ceredigion
Llewelyn ap Hoedliw, Lord of Is Cerdin
The Ancestry of Owain Glyndwr
Welsh Ancestry of the Tudor Dynasty
Gruffudd ap Rhys, the Homeless Prince
The Children of Lord Rhys
Maredudd Gethin ap Lord Rhys
The 'Next Heir' of Morgan of Caerleon
Pedigree of the ancient Lords of Ial
The Shropshire Walcot Family
Pedigree of "Ednowain Bendew II"
Pedigree of Cynddelw Gam

#1 - CYNDDELW ab EINION of Widigada
         Bartrum's "preferred" pedigree of this family reads:
         "Llywelyn ddu ap Dafydd ap Ieuan vychan ap Ieuan ap Gwion ap Einion (ap Ieuan ap Gwion ap Einion) ap Karadog vychan ap Kradoc ap Kynddelw ap Einion ap Elffin ap Gwyddno garanir"
         His notes for the pedigree reads:
        "Cynddelw ap Einion was ancestor of a few families in Widigada.  Llywelyn Ddu was born c. 1370.  For his few descendants, see Dwnn i, 27, 207, ii, 25, 30, 33.  Omitting the duplicated names 'Ieuan ap Gwion ap Einion' we get a date of birth of about 1100 for Cynddelw ab Einion, but the evidence is insufficient.  Another line from Cynddelw ab Einion, also in Widigada, is found in Pen 140 p 115.  This would put the birth of Cynddelw in about 1200.
        "According to a tract on the family of the Lord Rhys in Dwnn ii, 99, the mother of Morgan ap Rhys was Nest ferch Caradog Fychan ap Caradog.  These may well be the Caradog Fychan ap Caradog of this pedigree, in which case the birth of Cynddelw would be c. 1070".
        Our first question concerns where this family lived and when they lived there.  Widigada is a commote in Cantref Mawr of Ystrad Tywy (Carmarthenshire) located centrally but immediately north of the Tywy river, and includes the ancient seat of Hywel Dda at Dinefwr.  While we do find some 14th century descendants of Cynddelw ap Einion who married ladies of Widigada, they themselves lived in the commote of Cetheiniog located immediately to the east.  Other descendants, and their spouses, cluster around the commote of Is Cennen immediately south of Widigada and Cetheiniog but in Cantref Bychan.
         Secondly, we identify two different men called 'Llewelyn Ddu ap Dafydd ap Ieuan Fychan ap Ieuan', one born c. 1345 and another born c. 1370.  The earlier Llewelyn Ddu had a single daughter, Gwenllian[1], born c. 1375 while the later man had a son John[2] and two unnamed daughters [3]...these children born c. 1405/10.
         Next, we find the sources which Bartrum cited are in substantial agreement that there were, in fact, repeating strings of men named 'Ieuan ap Gwion ap Einion' and we cannot justify the deletion of one such group.  Thus, we would date the birth of Cynddelw ap Einion to c. 1000 and agree that Bartrum's pedigree, without emendation, is correct for the Llewelyn Ddu born c. 1345.  Our chart for both men of this name will be presented below.
          Finally, we suggest that the Morgan ap Lord Rhys found in Dwnn ii, 99 was the son of a Nest ferch an unknown Caradog Fychan ap Caradog, a lady born near 1155. [4]   This Morgan died of old age in 1251 and was thus born c. 1170/80. [5]  Bartrum's guess that Nest was a great-granddaughter of Cynddelw ap Einion fails chronologically.
          We, of course, reject the 'ap Elffin ap Gwyddno Garanhir' which the majority of citations append to Cynddelw ap Einion; no credible sources confirm the existence of such a man.  But the mythical Gwyddno ruled legendary lands on the coast of Ceredigion which were supposedly inundated by Cardigan Bay in the days of Taliesin the Bard (mid-6th century).  Current scholars believe the tale was created in reference to a Gwyddno ap Clydno[6] of the same time period, a man who descended from Meirion ap Cunedda and whose lands also border Cardigan Bay, but farther north in Meirionydd.  Descended from that Gwyddno was a later Gwyddno ap Cadwaladr[7] born c. 830.
          It is our conclusion that Cynddelw was actually "ap Einion ap Eunydd ap Pyll ap Sandde ap Gwyddno ap Cadwalader[8].  This Eunydd, a man of Meirionydd born c. 935, married the heiress of northern Ceredigion[9] which adjoins Meirionydd.  They had a son, Einion, who we suggest married a lady of Is Cennen: a daughter of Rhiryd ap Mor ap Ynyr ap Pasgen[10].  Einion had sons (a) Peredur Beisgwyn[11], born c. 995, who inherited his grandmother's lands in Ceredigion; (b) Peredur Beiswyrdd[12], born c. 1000, who was the youngest and inherited his father's manor in Meirionydd; and (c) Cynddelw, born c. 997, who settled upon lands provided by his mother's family in Ystrad Tywy.  None of his descendants are found in either Meirionydd or Ceredigion, evidence that he held no lands there.  His brothers may have, for reasons unknown, forced him to flee from Meirionydd and confiscated his share of the inheritance.
         If she were the mother of Cynddelw, the daughter of Rhiryd ap Mor would be a lady of Is Cennen whose father held the early Lordship of Gower which some historians called "Rheged".[13]  In the lifetime of Cynddelw, this was within the kingdom of Deheubarth ruled by the descendants of Hywel Dda. 
         The two principal families descended from Cynddelw ap Einion appear as:

                                       997  Cynddelw
                                      1030  Caradog
                                  1060  Caradog Fychan
                                       1095  Einion
                                       1125  Gwion
                                       1155  Ieuan
                                       1185  Einion
                                       1215  Gwion
                           l                                           l
               1250  Ieuan                      1245  Gwion Fychan (a)
                           l                                           l
           1280  Ieuan Fychan                      1280  Ieuan
                           l                                           l
              1315  Dafydd (b)                   1310  Ieuan Fychan
                           l                                           l
           1345  Llewelyn Ddu (c)                 1340  Dafydd
                           l                                           l
             1375  Gwenllian (d)                 1370  Llewelyn Ddu (e)
                                                            1405  John (f)
           (a)  Some pedigrees of the family of John ap Llewelyn Ddu include a Gwion Fychan in his ancestry, including Dwnn i, 27 and Dwnn i, 207; these follow Dafydd ap Ieuan Fychan ap Ieuan with "Gwion ap Gwion Fychan" which are reversed from the order in which a Fychan normally follows a same-named father, so we would correct that to "Gwion Fychan ap Gwion".
             (b)  Dwnn i, 94 and Mostyn Ms 114, 19 cite "Lleuci ferch Gwilym ap Ieuan ap Hywel" married "Dafydd ap Ieuan Fychan ap Ieuan".  Dwnn 1, 94 extends the ancestry of Lleuci to "Ieuan ap Hywel ap ap Gwgan Sais of Widigada ap Einion ap Llywarch".  That Einion ap Llywarch was born c. 1165[14] dating Lleuci to c. 1325
             (c)  Dwnn i, 94 cites "Llewelyn Ddu ap Dafydd ap Ieuan Fychan" married "Elen ferch Philip ap Dafydd ap Iorwerth ap Rhys ap Maredudd ap Hywel ap Rhanallt".  We identify Rhanallt as the wife of Llywarch ap Cynhaethwy, the same Llywarch mentioned in item (b) immediately above, so Hywel would be a brother of the Einion ap Llywarch born c. 1165.  Accordingly, Elen would date from 1355 or one generation later than the Lleuci mentioned above.
            (d)  Pen 132, 253; Pen 133, 84; and Pen 131, 299 cite "Gwenllian ferch
Llewelyn Ddu ap Dafydd ap Ieuan Fychan" married "John (Ieuan) ap Gruffudd ap Llewelyn Foethus".  Llewelyn Foethus ap Llewelyn Ddu ap Owain was a well-known man descended from Elystan Glodrydd, and was born c. 1300.  Thus, John ap Gruffudd was born c. 1365
            (e)  Pen 133, 61 cites "Meddefys ferch Gruffudd ap Maredudd Ddu" married Llewelyn Ddu ap Dafydd ap Ieuan".  In the pedigree of Einion ap Cynfelyn of Maesmawr, there are two men named Gruffudd ap Maredudd Ddu ap Gruffudd ap Maredudd ap Einion ap Cynfelyn...one born c. 1295 and the other c. 1355.  If each had a daughter named Meddefys, the ladies would be born c. 1330 and c. 1385.  Pen 133, 61 says Meddefys also married "Ieuan ap Madog ap Gwenwys"; Ieuan ap Madog was the grandfather of the celebrated Sir Gruffudd Fychan of Garth and was born c. 1320.  The Meddefys of c. 1330 would fit as the wife of Ieuan ap Madog, while the Meddefys of c. 1385 must have married the Llewelyn Ddu ap Dafydd born c. 1370.  Neither lady could have married the Llewelyn Ddu ap Dafydd born c. 1345
          (f)  Dwnn ii, 59 cites "the mother of Gwilym ap John ap Llewelyn Ddu was Lleuci Llwyd ferch Walter ap Ieuan ap Llewelyn"  Dwnn 1, 207 calls the wife of John ap Llewelyn Ddu and mother of Gwilym "Marged ferch Walter ap Ieuan ap Llewelyn ap Rhydderch Ddu ap Owain ap Arod".  Descended from Rhys ap Tewdwr, this lady (whether called Lleuci or Marged) was born c. 1410 and must have married a John ap Llewelyn Ddu born c. 1400
         To further show there were two men named Llewelyn Ddu ap Dafydd ap Ieuan who lived a generation apart, we present a chart showing marriage connections to the family of Llewelyn Foethus:
                  1300  Llewelyn Foethus
                       1330  Gruffudd        Llewelyn Ddu  1345
                                    l                      l
                     1365  Ieuan/John=====Gwenllian  1375
                                   1395  Gwilym                Llewelyn Ddu  1370
                                                l                             l
                                     1425  Rhys                       John  1405
                                                l                             l
                                    1455  Lleuci*===========Gwilym  1440
                               * This marriage is cited in Dwnn 1, 207

[1] Pen. 131, 299; Pen. 132, 253; Pen. 138, 84
[2] Pen. 132, 254; Dwnn i, 27, 207; Dwnn ii, 25, 30, 59
[3] Dwnn i, 226; Dwnn ii, 49; both ladies married men from Dyfed, born c. 1395 and c. 1400, respectively
[4] Pen 131, 209 says Morgan's mother was a mistress of Lord Rhys but does not name her
[5] ByT 1251 records his obit
[6] Harl. 3859, 18 cites Gwyddno ap Clydno ap Gwrgant Barbtruch ap Cadwaladr ap Meirion ap Cunedda
[7] Dwnn i, 95; Harl. 3859, 18 continues his ancestry as "Cynan ap Brochwel ap Ednyfed ap Eunydd ap Brochwel ap Iswallt ap Idris ap Gwyddno ap Clydno" thence as in Note 6 above
[8] Einion ap Pyll is found in Dwnn i, 95
[9] Pen. 140, 348/9 calls her "Morfydd ferch Odwin ap Teithwalch ap Owain ap Einion ap Meurig ap Caradog ap Cloddien Frych ap Llowarch ap Seisyllt ap Eiddon Ddu.  This Eiddon Ddu was born c. 630 and descended from Ceredig ap Cunedda
[10] Refer to the paper "Einion ap Llywarch of Carmathenshire" elsewhere on this site
[11] He was ancestor of several Ceredigion men, including Cadwgan Fantach and Rhys Chwith who have their own entries in Bartrum's "Patriarchs" list.
[12] He was the ancestor of Gwaithfoed of Meirionydd
[13] This family descended from a Rhos man called Pasgen ap Urien.  Its 14th century family styled itself "fitz Urien" and incorrectly identified their ancestor as the 6th century Urien Rheged ap Cynfarch Oer.  Early historians called the Gower lordship "Rheged" based on this misconception.