Legendary History Prior to 1st Century BC
Beli Mawr and Llyr Llediath in Welsh Pedigrees
The Bartrum "Welsh Genealogies"
Bartrum's "Pedigrees of the Welsh Tribal Patriarchs"
A study in charting medieval citations
The Evolution of the "Padriarc Brenin" Pedigree
Generational Gaps and the Welsh Laws
Minimum Age for Welsh Kingship in the Eleventh Century
The Lands of the Silures
Catel Durnluc aka Cadell Ddyrnllwg
Ancient Powys
The Royal Family of Powys
The Royal Family of Gwynedd
The 5 Plebian Tribes of Wales
Maxen Wledig of Welsh Legend
Maxen Wledig and the Welsh Genealogies
Anwn Dynod ap Maxen Wledig
Constans I and his 343 Visit to Britain
Glast and the Glastening
Composite Lives of St Beuno
Rethinking the Gwent Pedigrees
The Father of Tewdrig of Gwent
Another Look at Teithfallt of Gwent
Ynyr Gwent and Caradog Freich Fras
Llowarch ap Bran, Lord of Menai
Rulers of Brycheiniog - The Unanswered Questions
Lluan ferch Brychan
The Herbert Family Pedigree
Edwin of Tegeingl and his Family
Angharad, Heiress of Mostyn
Ithel of Bryn in Powys
Idnerth Benfras of Maesbrook
Henry, the Forgotten Son of Cadwgan ap Bleddyn
The Muddled Pedigree of Sir John Wynn of Gwydir
The Mysterious Peverel Family
The Clan of Tudor Trevor
The Other "Sir Roger of Powys"
Ancestry of Ieuaf ap Adda ap Awr of Trevor
The Retaking of Northeast Wales
Hedd Molwynog or Hedd ap Alunog of Llanfair Talhearn
"Meuter Fawr" son of Hedd ap Alunog
The Medieval "redating" of Braint Hir
Aaron Paen ap Y Paen Hen
Welsh Claims to Ceri after 1179
The Battle of Mynydd Carn
Trahaearn ap Caradog of Arwystli
Cadafael Ynfyd of Cydewain
Maredudd ap Robert, Lord of Cedewain
Cadwgan of Nannau
Maredudd ap Owain, King of Deheubarth
What Really Happened in Deheubarth in 1022?
Two Families headed by a Rhydderch ap Iestyn
The Era of Llewelyn ap Seisyll
Cynfyn ap Gwerystan, the Interim King
The Consorts and Children of Gruffudd ap Llewelyn
The 1039 Battle at Rhyd y Groes
The First Wife of Bleddyn ap Cynfyn
Hywel ap Gronwy of Deheubarth
The Brief Life of Gruffudd ap Maredudd
Owain Brogyntyn and his Family
The Other Gwenwynwyn
Eunydd son of Gwenllian
Sandde Hardd of Mortyn
The Floruit of Einion ap Seisyllt
The Enigmatic Elystan Glodrydd
The Unofficial "History" of Elystan of Powys
Cowryd ap Cadfan of Dyffryn Clwyd
Owain ap Cadwgan and Nest ferch Rhys - An Historic Fiction?
The "sons" of Owain ap Cadwgan ap Bleddyn
The Betrayal by Meirion Goch Revisited
Gwyn Ddistain, seneschal for Llewelyn Fawr
The Men of Lleyn - How They Got There
Trahaearn Goch of Lleyn
Einion vs Iestyn ap Gwrgan - The Conquest of Glamorgan
The Royal Family of Glamorgan
Dafydd Goch ap Dafydd - His Real Ancestry
Thomas ap Rhodri - Father of Owain "Lawgoch"
The "Malpas" Family in Cheshire
Einion ap Celynin of Llwydiarth
Marchweithian, Lord of Is Aled, Rhufoniog
Osbwrn Wyddel of Cors Gedol
Bradwen of Llys Bradwen in Meirionydd
Ednowain ap Bradwen
Sorting out the Gwaithfoeds
Three Men called Iorwerth Goch "ap Maredudd"
The Caradog of Gwynedd With 3 Fathers
Who Was Sir Robert Pounderling?
Eidio Wyllt - What Was His Birthname?
The Legendary Kingdom of Seisyllwg
The Royal Family of Ceredigion
Llewelyn ap Hoedliw, Lord of Is Cerdin
The Ancestry of Owain Glyndwr
Welsh Ancestry of the Tudor Dynasty
Gruffudd ap Rhys, the Homeless Prince
The Children of Lord Rhys
Maredudd Gethin ap Lord Rhys
The 'Next Heir' of Morgan of Caerleon
Pedigree of the ancient Lords of Ial
The Shropshire Walcot Family
Pedigree of "Ednowain Bendew II"
Pedigree of Cynddelw Gam
       Bartrum offered two different pedigrees under the above heading:
       (1) "Peredur peisswyn arglwydd Kredigion ap Ednyfed Meirionydd ap Einudd bach"
       (2) "Predur peisswerdd arglwydd Keredigion uchaf ap Einion ap Evydd ap Pill ap Sanddef ap Gwyddno garanhir arglwydd Keredigion"
        In his notes to the pedigrees, he states:
        "Peredur Beiswyn and Peredur Beiswyrdd were probably brothers, perhaps twins, but if so, they have been so thoroughly confused that it would be hard now to distinguish them.  Note that older texts generally treat pais as masculine.  The dates of Gwaithfoed of Ceredigion, Rhys Chwith and Cadwgan Fantach poinht to a date of about 970 for the birth of Peredur.  In Lhuyd's Parochialia 1. 7 we find:
       'Predyr Peiswyrdh, Ld of higher Cardigan, had a place or Pallace called Kayro, viz: Lhys Predyr ynghayro'
        "According to E, Phillimore in Owen's Pembrokeshire ii, 603 this must have been at or near Aber Caero in Llanfihangel, Geneu'r Glyn.
        "In [pedigree (2)] Evydd is probably a corrupt form of Einudd"
        In his later work Welsh Genealogies AD 300-1400, Bartrum abandons his belief about two brothers named Peredur and attaches all the ensuing families to a composite Peredur.  We think there were two brothers which we separate by the lands held by the descendants of each.  Men said to descend from Peredur Beisgwyn were all found in Ceredigion, while the immediate descendants of Peredur Beiswrydd remained in Meirionydd where his ancestors had lived for centuries.
        We would reject pedigree (1) above since Eunydd Bach (without the nickname) appears in the ancestry of the first Einion ap Seisyllt as "Seisyllt ap Ednowain ap Eunydd ap Brochwel" etc.[1]  This is another family of Meirionydd, but a cousin line of the Peredur brothers whose closest common ancestor was Gwyddno ap Cadwaladr ap Cynan of c. 830
         Pedigree (2) above agrees exactly (if we delete "garanhir" after Gwyddno) with our charts; the brothers were sons of Einion ap Eunydd ap Pyll ap Sandde ap Gwyddno.  Their father, Einion ap Eunydd, had inherited lands in far north Ceredigion from his mother Morfydd ferch Odwin[2].  We believe Peredur Beiswrydd was the youngest sibling and inherited the paternal manor in Meirionydd, while Peredur Beisgwyn received the Ceredigion lands. A third son of Einion ap Eunydd (and perhaps the eldest) was, we think, Cynddelw ap Einion who is treated separately in this series of papers on "Patriarchs".
          Bartrum dates the Peredur brothers a generation too early.  We assign them birthdates c. 995 and 1000 and suggest the older of the two was Peredur Beisgwyn.  He was the ancestor of Rhys Chwith and Cadwgan Fantach, while we think both Gwaithfoed of Merionydd and Gwaithfoed of Ceredigion descended from Peredur Beiswrydd. 
          The nicknames born by the Peredur brothers are probably misspelled, being neither "peis" nor "beis" but originally "pais" or "bais" meaning coat.  It may not have applied to clothing, but to a coat of arms...that is, to the principal color on the shields they carried into battle: one white and one red.
          We would assign Cadifor[3], a Meirionydd man, as the only son of Peredur Beiswrydd while Edelfrych[4], Pyll[5] and Gwylfyw[6] were men of Ceredigion and sons of Peredur Beisgwyn.

[1] There are separate papers in this "Patriarchs" series for Eunydd Bach and Seisyll of Meirionydd
[2] See the paper "Sorting out the Gwaithfoeds"elsewhere on this site for this marriage
[3] This Cadifor was the ancestor of both Gwaithfoed of Meirionydd and Gwaithfoed of Ceredigion
[4] Edelfrych was the ancestor of the first Cadwgan Fantach
[5] Pyll was the ancestor of Cadwgan Fantach II
[6] Gwylfyw was the ancestor of Rhys Chwith