Guest-written Papers
Reference Abbreviations
Guidance Articles for Researchers
Single Family Analysis
Families of Mixed Origin
Family Pedigrees
Mis-identified Same-Named People in Wales
Battles and Historical Events
Ancient Welsh Territories
Welshmen in Llydaw, Brittany
The Men of the North
Legendary History Prior to 1st Century BC
Beli Mawr and Llyr Llediath in Welsh Pedigrees
Papers Related to Maxen Wledig
Bartrum's "Pedigrees of the Welsh Tribal Patriarchs"
Britain's Royal Roman Family
The Royal Family of Powys
2nd Powys Royal Dynasty
The Royal Family of Gwynedd
Men Descended from Tudwal Gloff
Royal Family of Gwent/ Glamorgan
Royal Family of Brycheiniog
15 Noble Tribes of Gwynedd
The 5 Plebian Tribes of Wales
Glast and the Glastening
Papers about Rhiryd Flaidd and Penllyn
The Men of Collwyn ap Tangno of Lleyn
Edwin of Tegeingl and his Family
Ednowain Bendew in Welsh pedigrees
Ithel of Bryn in Powys
Idnerth Benfras of Maesbrook
Tudor Trefor and his Family
Trahaearn ap Caradog of Arwystli
The Family of Trahaearn ap Caradog
Cadafael Ynfyd of Cydewain
Maredudd ap Owain, King of Deheubarth
Sandde Hardd of Mortyn
The Floruit of Einion ap Seisyllt
The 5 Dafydd Llwyds of Llanwrin Parish
Cowryd ap Cadfan of Dyffryn Clwyd
Osbwrn Wyddel of Cors Gedol
Bradwen of Llys Bradwen in Meirionydd
Who Was Sir Robert Pounderling?
Sir Aaron ap Rhys
Eidio Wyllt - What Was His Birthname?
Ifor Bach, Lord of Senghenydd
Ancestors and Children of the Lord Rhys

         Bartrum suggests the pedigree of this man as:
         "Helic ap Glannoc ap Gwgon gleddyfrudd ap Caradoc vreichvras"
         In his notes to the pedigree, he says:
         "Helig ap Glannog is traditionally associated with lands inundated by the sea, see TYP p. xci and Bonedd y Saint #42. He appears as the ancestor of several saints in Arllechwedd.  Preistholm or Puffin Island was known as Ynys Lannog as early as c. 1100.  See Annales Cambriae s.a. 629For the development of the legend, see F.J. North, Sunken Cities.  The pedigree given here does not occur in Bonedd y Saint as suggested by North"
        "The tribe of Helic ap Kelynnoc appears in Ieuan Brechfa's list of the Pymtheg Llwyth Gwynedd. See NLW Journal XII p. 232.  This perhaps refers to the tribe of Llywarch Howlbwrch"
        "Gwgon Gleddyfrudd was associated with Gwaith Perllan Fangor. i.e. the battle of Chester, 616, in TYP #60.  An earlier pedigree derives him from Ceredig ap Cunedda and he was traditionally associated with Ceredigion."
        Had Bartrum constructed a workable timeline for Heilig ap Glannog and the families which descended from him, he would have realized his suggested pedigree was too short[1].  Other equally credible pedigrees[2] insert "Gwaithfoed" between Glannog and Gwgan Gleddyfrudd, which makes the pedigree chronologically stable.  
        The probably-legendary Gwgan Gleddyfrudd associated with the 613 Battle of Chester might have been cast as a character of Ceredigion in the lore to which Bartrum and the Triads refer; he is clearly NOT the Gwgan found in the pedigrees of Heilig ap Glannog.[3]
        In the latter part of the 10th century, Heilig ap Glannog was the Lord all the lands which formed the north coast of mainland Gwynedd, extending from the Menai straits (then merely a river) to the Clwyd[4].  This included Arllechwedd Uchaf and Isaf, Nant Conwy, Creuddyn, Rhos, and Rhufoniog.  About 990, a seaquake raised the level of the adjoining Irish Sea which inundated the low coastal lands, leaving the high rocky peninsula of Creuddyn jutting alone into the sea.  The Menai was widened at the north and its junction with the sea was turned into a large shallow bay.  
        This extensive lordship was divided among the sons of Heilig:
        a.  Gwrydr Goch born c. 980 received the lordship of Rhos/Rhufoniog and was the father of Llywarch Hwlbwrch and, we believe, the Cadwgan who was ancestor to Cynfelyn ap Dolffyn of Maesmawr in Arwystli and the Cadwgan ap Bleddyn better known as Cadwgan of Mannau.
       b.  Pasgen born c. 985 received the lordship of Arllechwedd Uchaf/Isaf and Creuddyn; his descendants included Iarddur ap Cynddelw, Maelog Crwm and Madog Gloddiarth,
       c.  Rychwyn born c. 985 received the lordship of Nant Conwy and was the ancestor of Nefydd Hardd.
        The complete ancestry of Heilig ap Glannog back to Cunedda is given in the discussion of #12 - Braint Hir in this series on Patriarchs. 

[1]  The Caradog Freich Fras in the ancestry of Heilig ap Glannog can be dated to c. 820 by other early marriage connections; see the paper "Ynyr Gwent and Caradog Freich Fras" at the link below:
[2]  Pen. 181, 391; Pen. 134, 86
[3]  For a discussion on the Gwgan whom legend places at the Battle of Chester, see "In Search of Gwgan Gleddyfrudd" at the link below:
[4]  The 9th century ancestor of Heilig ap Glannog held lands which extended east to include Tegeingl and Dyffryn Clwyd.  A tribe of Danes had invaded and settled on those lands, and the lands were granted to men of Powys who volunteered to expel the squatters.  See "The Retaking of Northeast Wales" at the link below: