Legendary History Prior to 1st Century BC
Beli Mawr and Llyr Llediath in Welsh Pedigrees
The Bartrum "Welsh Genealogies"
Bartrum's "Pedigrees of the Welsh Tribal Patriarchs"
A study in charting medieval citations
The Evolution of the "Padriarc Brenin" Pedigree
Generational Gaps and the Welsh Laws
Minimum Age for Welsh Kingship in the Eleventh Century
The Lands of the Silures
Catel Durnluc aka Cadell Ddyrnllwg
Ancient Powys
The Royal Family of Powys
The Royal Family of Gwynedd
The 5 Plebian Tribes of Wales
Maxen Wledig of Welsh Legend
Maxen Wledig and the Welsh Genealogies
Anwn Dynod ap Maxen Wledig
Constans I and his 343 Visit to Britain
Glast and the Glastening
Composite Lives of St Beuno
Rethinking the Gwent Pedigrees
The Father of Tewdrig of Gwent
Another Look at Teithfallt of Gwent
Ynyr Gwent and Caradog Freich Fras
Llowarch ap Bran, Lord of Menai
Rulers of Brycheiniog - The Unanswered Questions
Lluan ferch Brychan
The Herbert Family Pedigree
Edwin of Tegeingl and his Family
Angharad, Heiress of Mostyn
Ithel of Bryn in Powys
Idnerth Benfras of Maesbrook
Henry, the Forgotten Son of Cadwgan ap Bleddyn
The Muddled Pedigree of Sir John Wynn of Gwydir
The Mysterious Peverel Family
The Clan of Tudor Trevor
The Other "Sir Roger of Powys"
Ancestry of Ieuaf ap Adda ap Awr of Trevor
The Retaking of Northeast Wales
Hedd Molwynog or Hedd ap Alunog of Llanfair Talhearn
"Meuter Fawr" son of Hedd ap Alunog
The Medieval "redating" of Braint Hir
Aaron Paen ap Y Paen Hen
Welsh Claims to Ceri after 1179
The Battle of Mynydd Carn
Trahaearn ap Caradog of Arwystli
Cadafael Ynfyd of Cydewain
Maredudd ap Robert, Lord of Cedewain
Cadwgan of Nannau
Maredudd ap Owain, King of Deheubarth
What Really Happened in Deheubarth in 1022?
Two Families headed by a Rhydderch ap Iestyn
The Era of Llewelyn ap Seisyll
Cynfyn ap Gwerystan, the Interim King
The Consorts and Children of Gruffudd ap Llewelyn
The 1039 Battle at Rhyd y Groes
The First Wife of Bleddyn ap Cynfyn
Hywel ap Gronwy of Deheubarth
The Brief Life of Gruffudd ap Maredudd
Owain Brogyntyn and his Family
The Other Gwenwynwyn
Eunydd son of Gwenllian
Sandde Hardd of Mortyn
The Floruit of Einion ap Seisyllt
The Enigmatic Elystan Glodrydd
The Unofficial "History" of Elystan of Powys
Cowryd ap Cadfan of Dyffryn Clwyd
Owain ap Cadwgan and Nest ferch Rhys - An Historic Fiction?
The "sons" of Owain ap Cadwgan ap Bleddyn
The Betrayal by Meirion Goch Revisited
Gwyn Ddistain, seneschal for Llewelyn Fawr
The Men of Lleyn - How They Got There
Trahaearn Goch of Lleyn
Einion vs Iestyn ap Gwrgan - The Conquest of Glamorgan
The Royal Family of Glamorgan
Dafydd Goch ap Dafydd - His Real Ancestry
Thomas ap Rhodri - Father of Owain "Lawgoch"
The "Malpas" Family in Cheshire
Einion ap Celynin of Llwydiarth
Marchweithian, Lord of Is Aled, Rhufoniog
Osbwrn Wyddel of Cors Gedol
Bradwen of Llys Bradwen in Meirionydd
Ednowain ap Bradwen
Sorting out the Gwaithfoeds
Three Men called Iorwerth Goch "ap Maredudd"
The Caradog of Gwynedd With 3 Fathers
Who Was Sir Robert Pounderling?
Eidio Wyllt - What Was His Birthname?
The Legendary Kingdom of Seisyllwg
The Royal Family of Ceredigion
Llewelyn ap Hoedliw, Lord of Is Cerdin
The Ancestry of Owain Glyndwr
Welsh Ancestry of the Tudor Dynasty
Gruffudd ap Rhys, the Homeless Prince
The Children of Lord Rhys
Maredudd Gethin ap Lord Rhys
The 'Next Heir' of Morgan of Caerleon
Pedigree of the ancient Lords of Ial
The Shropshire Walcot Family
Pedigree of "Ednowain Bendew II"
Pedigree of Cynddelw Gam

         Bartrum suggests the pedigree of this man as:
         "Helic ap Glannoc ap Gwgon gleddyfrudd ap Caradoc vreichvras"
         In his notes to the pedigree, he says:
         "Helig ap Glannog is traditionally associated with lands inundated by the sea, see TYP p. xci and Bonedd y Saint #42. He appears as the ancestor of several saints in Arllechwedd.  Preistholm or Puffin Island was known as Ynys Lannog as early as c. 1100.  See Annales Cambriae s.a. 629For the development of the legend, see F.J. North, Sunken Cities.  The pedigree given here does not occur in Bonedd y Saint as suggested by North"
        "The tribe of Helic ap Kelynnoc appears in Ieuan Brechfa's list of the Pymtheg Llwyth Gwynedd. See NLW Journal XII p. 232.  This perhaps refers to the tribe of Llywarch Howlbwrch"
        "Gwgon Gleddyfrudd was associated with Gwaith Perllan Fangor. i.e. the battle of Chester, 616, in TYP #60.  An earlier pedigree derives him from Ceredig ap Cunedda and he was traditionally associated with Ceredigion."
        Had Bartrum constructed a workable timeline for Heilig ap Glannog and the families which descended from him, he would have realized his suggested pedigree was too short[1].  Other equally credible pedigrees[2] insert "Gwaithfoed" between Glannog and Gwgan Gleddyfrudd, which makes the pedigree chronologically stable.  
        The probably-legendary Gwgan Gleddyfrudd associated with the 613 Battle of Chester might have been cast as a character of Ceredigion in the lore to which Bartrum and the Triads refer; he is clearly NOT the Gwgan found in the pedigrees of Heilig ap Glannog.[3]
        In the latter part of the 10th century, Heilig ap Glannog was the Lord all the lands which formed the north coast of mainland Gwynedd, extending from the Menai straits (then merely a river) to the Clwyd[4].  This included Arllechwedd Uchaf and Isaf, Nant Conwy, Creuddyn, Rhos, and Rhufoniog.  About 990, a seaquake raised the level of the adjoining Irish Sea which inundated the low coastal lands, leaving the high rocky peninsula of Creuddyn jutting alone into the sea.  The Menai was widened at the north and its junction with the sea was turned into a large shallow bay.  
        This extensive lordship was divided among the sons of Heilig:
        a.  Gwrydr Goch born c. 980 received the lordship of Rhos/Rhufoniog and was the father of Llywarch Hwlbwrch and, we believe, the Cadwgan who was ancestor to Cynfelyn ap Dolffyn of Maesmawr in Arwystli and the Cadwgan ap Bleddyn better known as Cadwgan of Mannau.
       b.  Pasgen born c. 985 received the lordship of Arllechwedd Uchaf/Isaf and Creuddyn; his descendants included Iarddur ap Cynddelw, Maelog Crwm and Madog Gloddiarth,
       c.  Rychwyn born c. 985 received the lordship of Nant Conwy and was the ancestor of Nefydd Hardd.
        The complete ancestry of Heilig ap Glannog back to Cunedda is given in the discussion of #12 - Braint Hir in this series on Patriarchs. 

[1]  The Caradog Freich Fras in the ancestry of Heilig ap Glannog can be dated to c. 820 by other early marriage connections; see the paper "Ynyr Gwent and Caradog Freich Fras" elsewhere on this site
[2]  Pen. 181, 391; Pen. 134, 86
[3]  For a discussion on the Gwgan whom legend places at the Battle of Chester, see "In Search of Gwgan Gleddyfrudd" elsewhere on this site
[4]  The 9th century ancestor of Heilig ap Glannog held lands which extended east to include Tegeingl and Dyffryn Clwyd.  A tribe of Danes had invaded and settled on those lands, and the lands were granted to men of Powys who volunteered to expel the squatters.  See "The Retaking of Northeast Wales" elsewhere on this site