Legendary History Prior to 1st Century BC
Beli Mawr and Llyr Llediath in Welsh Pedigrees
The Bartrum "Welsh Genealogies"
Bartrum's "Pedigrees of the Welsh Tribal Patriarchs"
A study in charting medieval citations
The Evolution of the "Padriarc Brenin" Pedigree
Generational Gaps and the Welsh Laws
Minimum Age for Welsh Kingship in the Eleventh Century
The Lands of the Silures
Catel Durnluc aka Cadell Ddyrnllwg
Ancient Powys
The Royal Family of Powys
The Royal Family of Gwynedd
The 5 Plebian Tribes of Wales
Maxen Wledig of Welsh Legend
Maxen Wledig and the Welsh Genealogies
Anwn Dynod ap Maxen Wledig
Constans I and his 343 Visit to Britain
Glast and the Glastening
Composite Lives of St Beuno
Rethinking the Gwent Pedigrees
The Father of Tewdrig of Gwent
Another Look at Teithfallt of Gwent
Ynyr Gwent and Caradog Freich Fras
Llowarch ap Bran, Lord of Menai
Rulers of Brycheiniog - The Unanswered Questions
Lluan ferch Brychan
The Herbert Family Pedigree
Edwin of Tegeingl and his Family
Angharad, Heiress of Mostyn
Ithel of Bryn in Powys
Idnerth Benfras of Maesbrook
Henry, the Forgotten Son of Cadwgan ap Bleddyn
The Muddled Pedigree of Sir John Wynn of Gwydir
The Mysterious Peverel Family
The Clan of Tudor Trevor
The Other "Sir Roger of Powys"
Ancestry of Ieuaf ap Adda ap Awr of Trevor
The Retaking of Northeast Wales
Hedd Molwynog or Hedd ap Alunog of Llanfair Talhearn
"Meuter Fawr" son of Hedd ap Alunog
The Medieval "redating" of Braint Hir
Aaron Paen ap Y Paen Hen
Welsh Claims to Ceri after 1179
The Battle of Mynydd Carn
Trahaearn ap Caradog of Arwystli
Cadafael Ynfyd of Cydewain
Maredudd ap Robert, Lord of Cedewain
Cadwgan of Nannau
Maredudd ap Owain, King of Deheubarth
What Really Happened in Deheubarth in 1022?
Two Families headed by a Rhydderch ap Iestyn
The Era of Llewelyn ap Seisyll
Cynfyn ap Gwerystan, the Interim King
The Consorts and Children of Gruffudd ap Llewelyn
The 1039 Battle at Rhyd y Groes
The First Wife of Bleddyn ap Cynfyn
Hywel ap Gronwy of Deheubarth
The Brief Life of Gruffudd ap Maredudd
Owain Brogyntyn and his Family
The Other Gwenwynwyn
Eunydd son of Gwenllian
Sandde Hardd of Mortyn
The Floruit of Einion ap Seisyllt
The Enigmatic Elystan Glodrydd
The Unofficial "History" of Elystan of Powys
Cowryd ap Cadfan of Dyffryn Clwyd
Owain ap Cadwgan and Nest ferch Rhys - An Historic Fiction?
The "sons" of Owain ap Cadwgan ap Bleddyn
The Betrayal by Meirion Goch Revisited
Gwyn Ddistain, seneschal for Llewelyn Fawr
The Men of Lleyn - How They Got There
Trahaearn Goch of Lleyn
Einion vs Iestyn ap Gwrgan - The Conquest of Glamorgan
The Royal Family of Glamorgan
Dafydd Goch ap Dafydd - His Real Ancestry
Thomas ap Rhodri - Father of Owain "Lawgoch"
The "Malpas" Family in Cheshire
Einion ap Celynin of Llwydiarth
Marchweithian, Lord of Is Aled, Rhufoniog
Osbwrn Wyddel of Cors Gedol
Bradwen of Llys Bradwen in Meirionydd
Ednowain ap Bradwen
Sorting out the Gwaithfoeds
Three Men called Iorwerth Goch "ap Maredudd"
The Caradog of Gwynedd With 3 Fathers
Who Was Sir Robert Pounderling?
Eidio Wyllt - What Was His Birthname?
The Legendary Kingdom of Seisyllwg
The Royal Family of Ceredigion
Llewelyn ap Hoedliw, Lord of Is Cerdin
The Ancestry of Owain Glyndwr
Welsh Ancestry of the Tudor Dynasty
Gruffudd ap Rhys, the Homeless Prince
The Children of Lord Rhys
Maredudd Gethin ap Lord Rhys
The 'Next Heir' of Morgan of Caerleon
Pedigree of the ancient Lords of Ial
The Shropshire Walcot Family
Pedigree of "Ednowain Bendew II"
Pedigree of Cynddelw Gam

                                  YNYR GWENT AND CARADOG FREICH FRAS
                                                 By Darrell Wolcott
           Many modern family pedigrees trace their lineage back to Caradog Freich Fras and identify him as a son of Ynyr Gwent.  No ancient sources confirm this relationship between those men and no Welsh scholars known to this writer repeat that claim.  A single manuscript, the Life of St Tatheus,[1] speaks of a "king of both Gwents" named Caradog, son of Ynyr "the most noble".  If the events related in this manucript are historical, St Tatheus came to Gwent from Ireland about the time St. Cadog was born (c.505).  While this is consistent with the floruit of the sixth century Caradog Freich Fras, the father of that man is invariably cited as Llyr Merini.  Some assume that to be a descriptive nickname denoting a connection with the sea and believe his actual name was Ynyr.  On no more evidence than so far produced, we would not accept that conjecture; in fact some authorities have suggested that the Ynyr in St Tatheus' Life was actually Caradog's son.[2]  In any event, he is nowhere called Ynyr Gwent.
           The notoriously suspect Iolo Manuscripts[3] give St Tatheus a pedigree which dates him to c. 580 in order to be able to identify his Ynyr with the Ynyr Gwent born near the middle of the sixth century who occurs in the Life of St Bueno.[4]  But if St Tatheus first met St Cadog as a child as stated by his biographer, this identification fails badly; St Cadog would have been a very old man in 580 if, indeed, he was even still living.  The bogus Iolo pedigree also makes St Tatheus a brother of St Sampson, a man who is said to be contempory with St Dubricius[5] (c. 460-540). 
          The only ancient pedigree which seems to say there even was a Ynyr Gwent living in that era is found in Bonedd y Saint, where two pedigrees are listed consecutively, given below in familiar forms of spelling:
44.  St Ceido ap Ynyr Gwent
45.  St Madrun ferch Vortimer...
          Some recensions of this manuscript join those citations to make it appear that Madrun was the mother of St Ceido and thus the wife of Ynyr Gwent.  Since the daughter of Vortimer can be closely dated to c. 440/450, by joining two unrelated pedigrees we appear to produce a Ynyr Gwent of the mid-fifth century.  But those recensions continue by giving St Ceido a brother named Iddon and a sister named Thegiwc of the same parents.  Both Iddon and Tigiwg occur in the life of St Bueno as children of the sixth-century Ynyr Gwent, who were living during the reign of Gwynedd king Cadwallon ap Cadfan (c. 620-634). Furthermore, if St Ceido is the "St Cetiau" mentioned in the Life of St. Oudoceus[6] he was living c. 575/585 when Oudoceus succeeded St. Teilo to the Diocese of Llandaff.  Thus the Ynyr Gwent cited as the father of St Ceido could not have married a daughter of Vortimer and the two pedigrees should not be combined.
            We conclude, therefore, there never was a Ynyr Gwent living in the fifth century and the evidence is not compelling that the "noble Ynyr" found in the Life of Tatheus was an historical figure; in any event his Caradog was never called Freich Fras.  The only historical Ynyr Gwent was born in the mid-sixth century and was father to the three children named earlier.  No extant manuscipts identify either his wife nor his ancestry.  Modern attempts have been made to connect him with the descendants of Anwn Dynod[7] but only through wild conjecture; our dating of the latter makes that hypothesis untenable.  Unless he should be identified as some man better known by another name, there is little information available to show a relationship with those families known to rule in Gwent during his era. 
          When we turn our attention to Caradog Freich Fras, most people associate that name with the Arthurian Era.  The legendary history has this to say about him:
"Caradog Freich Fras, which means Caradog with the strong arm, was lord of Gloucester in right of his father and was a grandson of Brychan, Prince and Lord of Brychieniog.  He was contemporary with King Arthur, who lived about the year 490, and was one of the Knights of the Round Table and Lord Keeper of the Dolorous Tower.  Caradog was Lord of Brychieniog after the death of all the sons of Brychan his grandfather.  He was also Lord of Fferlys which lies between the Severn and Wye; he obtained it by conquest.  Caradog was the son of Llyr Merini, Lord of Gloucester, by Gwenllian daughter of Brychan.  He was succeeded by his eldest son, Cawrdaff."[8]
          A number of obvious fictions are contained in this account.  His nickname does not mean "strong arm", but "large arm". He suffered some kind of injury which resulted in one arm being larger than the other.[9] His patrimony was probably Ewias north of Gwent and no sources place his father in Gloucester.  None of the early Brychan manuscripts cite either a daughter named Gwenllian nor one that married Caradog's father. One medieval tract names the mother of Caradog as "Dywedd verch Aflaw wledig" which, if accurate, would make him a first cousin of King Arthur.[10] Another, however, says that lady was married to Awstl Gloff of Dyfed.[11]  His descendants are found in Fferlys and Brecknock, and while he did live in the era assigned to the legendary King Arthur, only the medieval romances clearly place them together. 
          The pedigrees of Caradog Freich Fras generally comprise three groups; those which make Llyr Merini a son of Einion Yrth ap Cunedda and thus place him in Gwynedd; those which say Llyr Merini was a son of Meirchion Gul and thus make Caradog a first cousin of Urien Rheged and Llywarch Hen of the Men of the North; and those which place his ancestors in Ewias in southeast Wales and among the descendants of Bran ap Llyr Llediath.  The first group should be rejected since they were drafted in reference to another man also called Caradog Freich Fras whom we shall meet later.  The second group appear to have arisen by mistaking a Meirchion in other pedigrees with the better known man of that name in far north Britain.[12]  Since the final batch at least place the man in the area most associated with him, we shall attempt to reconcile the differences between the manuscripts of this group.  These citations appear as:
1.  Kariadoc freichfras ap Llyr merini ap y Keiliog myngrudd ap Marinwy ap Ethrys ap Eidion darianlas...[13]
2.  Caradog vreichfras ap Llyr ap Merini ap Echrys ap Iddon darianlas ap Meirchion...[14]  
3.  Kradoc vraichvras ap Llyr merini ap Merinwch[15]
4.  Kariadoc freichfras ap y Kelioc myngrudd ap Eidol darianlas...[16]
         One possible consolidation of the data gleaned from these citations, keeping the names in the sequence which occurs most often, might be:
                                  290  Meirchion
                                  325  Iddon Darianlas (blue shield)
                                  355  Ethyrs
                                  385  Merinwch
                                  415  Y Ceiliog Mynrudd (the red-maned cock)
                                  445  Llyr Merini
                                  475  Caradog Freich Fras (large arm)
         The estimated birthdate of Caradog puts him in about the same generation usually claimed for King Arthur and is within 5 years of those estimates made by other scholars.[17]  Such a Caradog would be contemporary with the man cited in the Life of St Tathieu and has led to the speculation that Llyr Merini's real name was Ynyr, but there nothing to indicate Caradog Freich Fras actually ruled the whole of Gwent around the beginning of the sixth century.  In fact the ancestors of Meurig ap Tewdrig and the families descended from Eudaf Hen appear to be better candidates for such a role. 
          But his association with Ewias, Fferlys and Brychieniog place him in close proximity to Gwent and we can see him as a member of another branch of the old family of Silures.   To test the chronological possibility of such an identification, we have made a composite chart of those families thought to have their base in or near Gwent:
                                      160  Gwrddwyfn
                                       190   Einudd  
                                       230  Arthfael
                                    260  Grwgan Frych
                                     290   Meirchion
                          l                                            l
               320  Meurig                           325  Iddon darinlas 
                          l                                            l
              355  Creirwy                              355  Ethrys
                          l                                            l
                385  Edric                             385  Meirnwch 
                         l                                             l
                415  Erb                         415  Y Ceiliog myngrudd 
                         l                                             l
              445  Ninniaw                           445  Llyr Merini
                         l                                             l
             475  Llywarch                      475  Caradog Freich Fras
             505  Tewdrig
             535  Meurig
         The family on the left is that which produced Morgan Hen of the ninth century, who ruled most of southeast Wales which by then was called Morgannwg. The ancestry earlier than shown in our chart goes back to Bran ap Llyr Llediath.[18]  With our assumption that the man named Meirchion found earlier in the pedigrees of Caradog Freich Fras is the same Meirchion who occurs in the Gwent family, we at least find the chronology does fit.  Since no better efforts are to be seen elsewhere, we offer this pedigree as a good possibility.

            We now return to the earlier mention of a second man called Caradog Freich Fras, a man of the ninth century wholly unrelated to the familiar man of that name.  He occurs in the medieval pedigrees as the father of Llyddocca, whose daughter Rienigar married Ynyr ap Cadfarch and gave birth to Tudor Trevor.[19]  And despite various medieval pedigrees to the contrary, this Caradog was the father of the Gwgan Gleddyfrydd who appears in the pedigrees of Llywarch Hwlbwrch, Braint Hir and Iarddur ap Cynddelw.[20]  Perhaps there was also a sixth-century Gwgan Gleddyfrydd, but not as a son of the earlier Caradog Freich Fras.[21]
            Most modern pedigrees identify both Caradogs as the same man, but as far back as the early sixteenth century, the Life of St Collen[22] made it clear there were two men called Caradog Freich Fras; the one to which the ancestry of St. Collen is traced was "not Caradog Freich Fras who broke his arm doing battle at Hiradduc and the break made one arm larger than the other, but Caradog Freich Fras ap Llyr Merini, the king".  Separate coats of arms have been assigned to each of these men; in southeast Wales, the arms of the sixth-century Caradog are "sable, a chevron between two spearheads erect argent, embrued gules".  But the arms of the Caradog of north Wales are "azure, a lion rampant per fess or and argent within a border argent charged with eight annulets sable".
         The descendants named for the Gwynedd Caradog place him in the area of Tegeingl; while a Battle of Hiradduc is not mentioned in the chronicles, there was an area called Hiraddug in what is now the commote of Rhuddlan.[23] Some would identify him as the Caradog ap Meirion of Rhos[24] who was killed by the Saxons in 798 but this man lived at least a couple generations earlier than the Caradog found in pedigrees of his descendants.  A chart will illustrate:
                        815  Caradog Freich Fras
              l                                             l
   850  Gwgan                            850  Llyddocca              Cadfarch
              l                                             l                         l
 885  Gwaethfoed                         885  Rienigar==========Ynyr
              l                                                           l
  920  Glannog                                           900 Tudor Trevor
    955  Helig
 985  Gwyryd Goch
  Llywarch Hwlbwrch  1015
          Most authorities identify Llywarch Hwlbwrch as an officer at the court of Gruffudd ap Llewelyn; the reign of the latter began in 1039 and ended in 1063.  Dating Llywarch to 1015 cannot be wrong by as much as a generation; perhaps 1000/1030 should be the extreme ranges.  Our placing Tudor Trevor at c. 900 is consistent with his having married a daughter of Hywel Dda and again cannot be as much as a full generation wrong.  Thus, the dating of both these men points to c. 815 for the birth of the Caradog Freich Fras in their pedigrees.
          The early Gwynedd genealogists, having evidence that a man of this name did, in fact, rule some territory in north Wales sought to connect him with the family of Cunedda.  But by confusing him with the earlier Caradog, they cast pedigrees which dated their Caradog to c. 475.  Believing him to be the son of Llyr Merini, their pedigrees make the latter a son of Einion Yrth ap Cunedda.  In fact, the ancestry of the c. 815 Caradog Freich Fras is nowhere recorded.  But we suspect those modern scholars who place him in the Rhos family which included Caradog ap Meirion of the eighth century are on the right track.  One manuscript[25] includes the following language:
         "Gwgan Gleddyfrydd ap iarll Gwnnllewedd brenin Tegeingl ap brennin Manaw"   
          A translation of this might read "Gwgan red sword, son of the Earl of the white host and king of Tegeingl, son of the king of Man".  Our rendering of "white host" (gwynllueodd) may have simply distinguished his army from that of the "black host" or Danes who attacked Tegeingl from the sea.  If we should identify this king of Tegeingl as the man also called Caradog Freich Fras, we must next offer some evidence that his father was a king of the Isle of Man.  Our choice for that role is Hywel ap Caradog, the king of Rhos who battled Cynan Tyndaethwy for Mon (Anglesey) in 813/816.  One version of the chronicles calls him, incorrectly, "of Manaw"[26] but it is clear that he held rule in Mon for about three years.  If that same error was made in this pedigree by reference to that version of the Brut, then Hywel ap Caradog ap Meirion fits in every respect.  Thus, the ninth-century Caradog Freich Fras could be a son of the same Hywel ap Caradog:
                                       745  Caradog  obit 798
                                       780   Hywel   obit 825
                                  815  Caradog Freich Fras 
          It is unfortunate that the Rhos pedigree from Harleian Ms 3859 terminated with Hywel or the confusion which still exists between two men named Caradog Freich Fras might never have arisen.
[1] Cotton Ms Vespasian A xiv
[2] George Owens "The Description of Pembrokshire", London, 1906, Part iii, pp 285.  The argument is offered in notes to this work made by Egerton Phillimore
[3] A collection of manuscripts made by Edward Williams aka Iolo Morgannwg, many of which appeared here for the first time and may well have been composed by Iolo himself.  His pedigree makes St Tatheus a son of Anna ferch Meurig ap Tewdrig; such a lady would not occur until c. 570
[4] See the paper entitled "Composite Lives of St Beuno" elsewhere on this site
[5] The compilers of "Lives of the British Saints" date St Dubricius to c. 450
[6] ibid, St Oudoceus is dated to c. 545
[7] See the paper entitled "Anwn Dynod ap Maxen Wledig" elsewhere on this site
[8] John Burke "Extinct and Dormant Baronetcies", London, 1844, pp 566/567
[9] In the King Arthur romances, it is claimed his arm was injured by a snake which was entwined around it; the true reason he was called "large arm" is not known
[10] Bonedd y Arwyr, 31 cites the mother of Arthur as a sister of this lady
[11] Jones, Williams & Pughe "The Myvyrian Archaiology of Wales", Denbigh, 1870, pp 427, 431
[12] Peniarth Ms 128 and 152 make Llyr Merini a son Meirchion Gul ap Gwrwst Ledlwm ap Ceneu ap Coel Hen; that Meirchion was born c. 450
[13] Peniarth Ms 132, 133, 134, 140, 176
[14] Mostyn Ms 113
[15] Peniarth Ms 131
[16] Peniarth Ms 132  also see National Library of Wales Journal, vol xiii, part 2, pp 107/108 for various other pedigrees assigned to Caradog Freich Fras
[17] P C Bartrum "A Classical Welsh Dictionary", 1993, pp 102 estimates his birthdate as c. 470
[18] The full pedigree appears in "Rethinking the Gwent Pedigrees" elsewhere on this site
[19] Dwnn ii, 307
[20] Pedigrees of these three men can be found on pp 102/104 of the National Library of Wales Journal, vol xiii, part 2
[21] For a discussion of a possible sixth century man of this name, see "In Search of Gwgan Gleddyfrudd" elsewhere on this site
[22] Hafod Ms 119 and Llanstephen Ms 34
[23] Melville Richards "Welsh Administrative and Territorial Units", Cardiff, 1969, pp 91
[24] Harleian Ms 3859, 3 cites his pedigree; Bartrum suggests this identification in his "Classical Welsh Dictionary", pp 103
[25] Dwnn ii, 61; Peniarth Ms 133
[26] The confusion of Manaw for Mon in the description of Hywel is discussed in "The Governance of Gwynedd, 754-825" elsewhere on this site