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Legendary History Prior to 1st Century BC
Beli Mawr and Llyr Llediath in Welsh Pedigrees
The Bartrum "Welsh Genealogies"
Bartrum's "Pedigrees of the Welsh Tribal Patriarchs"
A study in charting medieval citations
The Evolution of the "Padriarc Brenin" Pedigree
Generational Gaps and the Welsh Laws
Minimum Age for Welsh Kingship in the Eleventh Century
The Lands of the Silures
Catel Durnluc aka Cadell Ddyrnllwg
Ancient Powys
The Royal Family of Powys
The Royal Family of Gwynedd
The 5 Plebian Tribes of Wales
Maxen Wledig of Welsh Legend
Maxen Wledig and the Welsh Genealogies
Anwn Dynod ap Maxen Wledig
Constans I and his 343 Visit to Britain
Glast and the Glastening
Composite Lives of St Beuno
Rethinking the Gwent Pedigrees
The Father of Tewdrig of Gwent
Another Look at Teithfallt of Gwent
Ynyr Gwent and Caradog Freich Fras
Llowarch ap Bran, Lord of Menai
Rulers of Brycheiniog - The Unanswered Questions
Lluan ferch Brychan
The Herbert Family Pedigree
Edwin of Tegeingl and his Family
Angharad, Heiress of Mostyn
Ithel of Bryn in Powys
Idnerth Benfras of Maesbrook
Henry, the Forgotten Son of Cadwgan ap Bleddyn
The Muddled Pedigree of Sir John Wynn of Gwydir
The Mysterious Peverel Family
The Clan of Tudor Trevor
The Other "Sir Roger of Powys"
Ancestry of Ieuaf ap Adda ap Awr of Trevor
The Retaking of Northeast Wales
Hedd Molwynog or Hedd ap Alunog of Llanfair Talhearn
"Meuter Fawr" son of Hedd ap Alunog
The Medieval "redating" of Braint Hir
Aaron Paen ap Y Paen Hen
Welsh Claims to Ceri after 1179
The Battle of Mynydd Carn
Trahaearn ap Caradog of Arwystli
Cadafael Ynfyd of Cydewain
Maredudd ap Robert, Lord of Cedewain
Cadwgan of Nannau
Maredudd ap Owain, King of Deheubarth
What Really Happened in Deheubarth in 1022?
Two Families headed by a Rhydderch ap Iestyn
The Era of Llewelyn ap Seisyll
Cynfyn ap Gwerystan, the Interim King
The Consorts and Children of Gruffudd ap Llewelyn
The 1039 Battle at Rhyd y Groes
The First Wife of Bleddyn ap Cynfyn
Hywel ap Gronwy of Deheubarth
The Brief Life of Gruffudd ap Maredudd
The Other Gwenwynwyn
Eunydd son of Gwenllian
Sandde Hardd of Mortyn
The Floruit of Einion ap Seisyllt
The Enigmatic Elystan Glodrydd
Cowryd ap Cadfan of Dyffryn Clwyd
Owain ap Cadwgan and Nest ferch Rhys - An Historic Fiction?
The "sons" of Owain ap Cadwgan ap Bleddyn
The Betrayal by Meirion Goch Revisited
Gwyn Ddistain, seneschal for Llewelyn Fawr
The Men of Lleyn - How They Got There
Trahaearn Goch of Lleyn
Einion vs Iestyn ap Gwrgan - The Conquest of Glamorgan
Dafydd Goch ap Dafydd - His Real Ancestry
Thomas ap Rhodri - Father of Owain "Lawgoch"
The "Malpas" Family in Cheshire
Einion ap Celynin of Llwydiarth
Marchweithian, Lord of Is Aled, Rhufoniog
Osbwrn Wyddel of Cors Gedol
Bradwen of Llys Bradwen in Meirionydd
Ednowain ap Bradwen
Sorting out the Gwaithfoeds
Three Men called Iorwerth Goch "ap Maredudd"
The Caradog of Gwynedd With 3 Fathers
Who Was Sir Robert Pounderling?
Eidio Wyllt - What Was His Birthname?
The Legendary Kingdom of Seisyllwg
The Royal Family of Ceredigion
Llewelyn ap Hoedliw, Lord of Is Cerdin
The Ancestry of Owain Glyndwr
Gruffudd ap Rhys, the Homeless Prince
The Children of Lord Rhys
Maredudd Gethin ap Lord Rhys
The 'Next Heir' of Morgan of Caerleon
Pedigree of the ancient Lords of Ial
The Shropshire Walcot Family
Pedigree of "Ednowain Bendew II"
Pedigree of Cynddelw Gam

                     LLOWARCH AP BRAN - A PEDIGREE WITH PROBLEMS
                                          By Darrell Wolcott
 
          Many leading families of Anglesey trace their descent to this early twelfth century nobleman but the pedigrees they cast contain an abundance of misinformation.  Most of the errors and omissions stem from like-named men who have been confused with each other, and this is true even for his ancestry from Tudwal Gloff ap Rhodri Mawr.  Both our work and that of noted Welsh genealogist Peter Bartrum point to a birthdate near 1120 for Llowarch.
 
PROBLEM # 1 - The ancestry of Llowarch: 
 
          Tudwal Gloff was perhaps the youngest son of Rhodri Mawr, too young to have taken part in the battle when his father was killed in 878, but received the leg wound which accounts for his nickname "the lame" in the 881 "revenge of Rhodri" battle of Conwy.[1]  A birthdate near 865 is indicated since no boys younger than 15 were sent into battle.  If Llowarch ap Bran were born 255 years later, he would be in the 8th following generation, not the 6th as shown by many pedigrees.[2]  We believe the descent was as follows:
 
                                   865  Tudwal Gloff
                                   895  Alser
                                   925  Dyfnwal
                                   960  Alser *
                                   990  Aelan
                                 1020  Eunydd
                                 1055  Dyfnwal
                                 1085  Bran
                                 1120  Llowarch
 
        *Most extant pedigrees skip from this Alser directly to Tudwal Gloff
 
        Our insertion of Dyfnwal ap Alser in the pedigree is based on citations which say Gronwy ap Tudor Trefor married Tanglwst ferch Dyfnwal of the line of Tudwal Gloff[3].  One calls her "ferch Dyfnwal ap Aelan ap Alser ap Tudwal" but that would date the lady 50 years later than Gronwy ap Tudor Trefor who was born c. 940.  Making Dyfnwal a grandson of Tudwal Gloff dates her to c. 955; thus we believe the missing generations in the pedigree of Llowarch ap Bran are those shown in our chart above. EDITED 8/20/2012 to add:  However, Pen. 142, 101 mentions a brother of Dyfnwal named Aelan ap Alser ap Tudwal Gloff who had a son, Llawr.  It is thus possible that the Eunydd in our chart was "ap Aelan ap Alser ap Aelan ap Alser ap Tudwal" and that his pedigrees simply omit one pair of "Aelan ap Alser" by scribes who assumed it was a duplication.
 
PROBLEM #2 - The wife of Llowarch:
 
            The early manuscript Hen Lwythau Gwynedd a'r Mars says the mother of Llowarch's sons was Rhael ferch Gronwy ap Owain ap Edwin of Tegeingl.[4]  Such a lady could not have been born later than 1126 since Gronwy was slain in 1125.[5]  While this Rhael may have been a second wife of Llowarch, it is unlikely she was the mother of his sons Cadwgan and Iorwerth. Those men were born c. 1150/55 and normally we should expect both their mother, and a wife for Llowarch, to have been born nearer 1135.  A granddaughter of Gronwy would be a better fit; perhaps her pedigree is missing a generation. The timeline is shown by the following chart:
 
                                      1017  Edwin of Tegeingl [6]
                                      1050  Owain
                                      1080  Gronwy (obit 1125)
                                      1110     x
                                      1135  Rhael 
 
(The Trevor pedigree in the Cae Cyriog Ms, while not mentioning Rhael, shows a Gronwy ap Owain ap UCHDRYD ap Edwin; a daughter of that Gronwy would date from c. 1140 and fit better as the wife of Llowarch ap Bran) 
 
          The pedigrees in HLG go on to say that Cadwgan ap Llowarch married Gwenllian ferch Cynan ap Owain Gwynedd, while Iorwerth ap Llowarch married Gwenllian ferch Hywel ap Ieuaf ap Owain ap Trahaearn ap Caradog.  Both these ladies would date from 1160/70 and fit well with those claimed marriages. No other children of Llowarch are mentioned in this early manuscript, but the late 16th century pedigree of John Griffith of Llanbeblig[7] says one wife of Ednyfed Fychan was Tanglwyst ferch Llowarch ap Bran.  Most authorities date Ednyfed Fychan to c. 1165 and while a daughter of Llowarch ap Bran would be too old (she would be roughly the same age as Ednyfed Fychan, if not older) to be his first wife, most sources say she was a second wife.  We shall defer further comments on this lady until we complete our work on the family of Ednyfed Fychan, but she could chronologically be a very young sister of Cadwgan and Iorwerth ap Llowarch.
 
          It is certain that Llowarch ap Bran had a third son, Madog.  He appears in only a couple medieval pedigrees, one of which incorrectly calls him the son of Iorwerth ap Llowarch.[8]  But in the 1352 "Extent of Anglesey", we find three tracts of land which were known, respectively, as Gwely Cadwgan ap Llowarch, Gwely Iorwerth ap Llowarch and Gwely Madog ap Llowarch.[9] While missing from the pedigrees, there may have been a fourth son, Bleddyn.  The 1352 Extent for the commote of Talybolion identifies the hamlet of Bodwigan in Trelywarch township as containing a Gwely Bleddyn ap Llowarch. 
 
PROBLEM #3 - Gruffudd ap Llowarch:
 
         A number of pedigrees list Gruffudd as another son of Llowarch[10] but there was no Gwely in 1352 bearing that designation; indeed, based on his descendants shown in those pedigrees, he occurred two generations after Llowarch.[11]  The 16th century families in those pedigrees resided mainly in Merioneth, one in Caernarfon and none in Anglesey.  The one signed in 1588 by descendant Robert Lloyd[12] and that cast by descendant Humphrey Meredyth[13] about the same time both derive their families from a Gruffudd ap Ieuan ap Rhys ap Tudor, and identify this Tudor as a son of Maredudd ap Llewelyn ap Gruffudd Lloyd ap Llewelyn ap Gruffudd ap Llowarch.  Unsigned pedigrees gathered by Lewys Dwnn near the turn of the 17th century identify that Tudor as a son of Hywel ap Tudor ap Gruffudd ap Maredudd ap Iorwerth ap Llowarch[14] but such a connection lacks a full generation to reach the era of Llowarch.  Unlike the editor of Dwnn's manuscripts[15], we find those signed by the descendants to be more credible but believe they also are flawed. The conflicting pedigrees look like this: 
 
                       Dwnn's "correction"              Family records
 
                  1120  Llowarch ap Bran
                               l
                  1155  Iorwerth                       1150      ?
                               l
                  1190  Maredudd                     1185  Gruffudd
                               l                                          l
                  1225  Gruffudd                       1215  Llewelyn
                               l                                          l
                  1255   Tudor                         1245  Gruffudd Lloyd
                               l                                          l
                  1285   Hywel                         1280  Llewelyn
                               l                                          l
                  1315   Tudor                       1310  Maredudd
                               l                                          l
                  1345    Rhys                          1340  Tudor
                                                                         l
                                                             1370   Rhys
                                                                         l
                                                             1405  Ieuan
                                                                         l
                                                             1440  Gruffudd
 
       *different wives are cited for the two men named Rhys ap Tudor.[16]
 
           Perhaps the correct pedigree can be found from data reported in the 1352 Extent of Anglesey.  The hamlet of Caergybi in the township of Trelywarch and commote of Talybolion contained several tracts of land held by various descendants of Llowarch ap Bran. Gwely Cadwgan ap Llywarch was held by, among others, a Tudor ap Hywel ap Tudor.  But more interestingly, a vacant plot in that gwely is described as "escheat" land from Maredudd ap Llewelyn.  Such escheat occurs when an owner dies without heirs and we believe that the circa 1340 Tudor in the family charts was appended to Maredudd ap Llewelyn in error.  If this man was actually Tudor ap Hywel ap Tudor, it might explain why the Dwnn editor insisted on a correction but then erred by using the wrong Tudor ap Hywel ap Tudor.[17]
 
          Since he was a descendant of Cadwgan ap Llowarch, not of Iorwerth ap Llowarch, we suspect the correct pedigree looks like this:
 
                           1120  Llowarch ap Bran
                                         l
                           1150   Cadwgan
                                         l
                           1180   Gruffudd
                                         l
                           1210  Llewelyn
                                         l
                         1240  Gruffudd Lloyd
                       ___________l____________
                       l                                    l
           1270  Tudor                    1275  Llewelyn
                       l                                    l
           1300  Hywel                    1305  Maredudd
                       l                                   d.s.p.
           1330  Tudor
                      
 
        The 1914 compilation of Anglesey pedigrees assembled by John Griffith also give Llowarch sons named Llowarch Fychan and John[18]; no families are shown for those men nor is any source cited.  We doubt any such sons existed, but if they did they must have pre-deceased their father and thus no gwely bore their names in 1352. We must note, however, that there were 4 additional tracts of land in the parish of Porthamel which joined the three named for sons of Llowarch: Gwely Menew ap Moreiddig, Gwely Isaac ap Moreiddig, Gwely Ieuaf ap Moreiddig and Gwely Tegerin ap Moreiddig.  This Moreiddig is not positively identified, but the location of that land certainly argues for his being of the same stock as Llowarch.[19] 
 
PROBLEM #4 - Cadwgan of Plas Goch
 
          As the family pedigrees progress downward from Cadwgan ap Llowarch, many of them skip directly to a son of a Cadwgan of Plas Goch named Iorwerth.  But that Iorwerth can be closely dated to c. 1245[20] so the Cadwgan that was his father must date from about 1215 or two full generations later than Cadwgan ap Llowarch.  One son of that Iorwerth ap Cadwgan was Gywn ap Iorwerth.  This man sold a plot of land[21] to a kinsman in 1317, but was dead before 1352 when his sons were named as land owners in Gwely Cadwgan ap Llowarch[22].  A birthdate for Gwyn near 1275 (and his sons, Hywel and Llewelyn, near 1310) would put him in the fifth generation after Llowarch and his sons who were alive in 1352 would represent the sixth generation.  Another son of the same Iorwerth ap Cadwgan was Llewelyn, whose son Ieuan ap Llewelyn owned the land called Myfyrion; that Ieuan was also living in 1352 and served on the jury which oversaw the Extent.[23]  We suspect his father was slightly older than Gwyn and that he himself was perhaps 5/10 years older than his cousins.  The timeline down from Llowarch seems to permit of only two generations which could have been alive in 1352; the 5th and 6th[24].  The following chart will illustrate:
 
                                  1120  Llowarch
                                               l
                                  1150  Cadwgan
                                               l
                                  1180  Iorwerth (omitted from pedigrees)
                                               l
                                  1215  Cadwgan of Plas Goch (also omitted)
                                               l
                                  1245  Iorwerth
                     ________________l_______________
                     l                                                 l
       1275  Llewelyn                                1275  Gywn*
                     l                                                 l
       1305   Ieuan                   1305/1310  Hywel and Llewelyn
 
     *In other lines of descent from Llowarch, men in the fifth generation might have been born as late as 1285/90 and, if living in 1352, been men in their 60's.  But men of the 7th generation were but teens in 1352; the 6th generation Ieuan ap Llewelyn was childless.
 
PROBLEM #5 - Philip ap Iorwerth
 
        Henry Rowlands thought Iorwerth ap Cadwgan of Plas Goch had a third son, Philip[25].  Two pedigrees from Lewys Dwnn cite a Madog ap Philip ap Iorwerth ap Cadwgan[26] while two of the 1352 jurors for the Extent of Anglesey were named Ieuan ap Madog ap Philip and Llewelyn ap Madog ap Philip[27].  But if Philip was a member of the fifth generation after Llowarch, his grandsons Ieuan and Llewelyn would belong to the seventh generation and would scarcely have been adults by 1352, perhaps born near 1335.  While their father Madog, if born c. 1305, might have died prior to 1352[28], it does not seem reasonable that mere teenagers would have sat on the Extent jury. But when we place those men in the sixth generation where they fit more reasonably with their 1352 role, we are compelled to place Philip in the same generation as Iorwerth ap Cadwgan Goch.  We suspect the pedigrees have more omissions than the two missing from Cadwgan Goch; our guess would be Philip [ap Cadwgan] ap Iorwerth ap Cadwgan ap Llowarch rather than Philip ap Iorwerth ap Cadwgan ap Llowarch as cited.  Our chart for this line of the family looks like this:
 
                                       1120  Llowarch
                                                    l
                                       1150  Cadwgan
                                                    l
                                       1180  Iorwerth
                                                    l
                                       1215  Cadwgan 
                                                    l
                                       1250   Philip 
                                                    l
                                       1285   Madog
                              ______________l______________
                              l                                            l
                  1315  Ieuan                                    Llewelyn  1320
                                                                           l
                                                               Dafydd Gethyn* 1355
 
     *This man joined the rebellion of Owain Glendower and was apparently captured and held in the castle at Carnarvon.  In 1405, he deeded certain lands to the Constable of that castle, not as a way of buying a pardon from King Henry IV, but as an apparent bribe to obtain his freedom.[29]
              
                                        
 
            
                                         
                                                           

PROBLEM #6 - Maredudd Ddu ap Gronwy ap Maredudd
 
         Most genealogists claim this man had an elder son, Cynwrig, by a first wife and a younger son, Ieuan Wydddel by a second wife.[30]  Historian Henry Rowlands makes the same claim[31] and tries to explain why Ieuan Wyddel but not Cynwrig was named as an owner of Gwely Iorwerth ap Llowarch in the 1352 Extent of Anglesey.  When a workable timeline is applied to the "brothers", it becomes clear....while both men were sons of a Maredudd Ddu, Ieuan Wyddel was a full generation older than Cynwrig.  In 1352, the former was a representative of the senior branch of the family descended from Iorwerth ap Llowarch while Cynwrig was a junior member of a lesser branch of that family.  Cynwrig's uncle, Gruffudd ap Gronwy, was cited as the representative of that branch. 
 
         Both Cynwrig and his sister, Arddun, married spouses which date them to c. 1325 while Ieuan Wyddel was born closer to 1290[32].The Maredudd Ddu who was father to Ieuan served as Rhaglaw of Menai in 1306/08 at a time when the Maredudd Ddu who fathered Cynwrig could not have been yet an adult.[33]  Dafydd, the son of Ieuan Wyddel held the same office in 1359/60[34] 
 
        In a deed dated 1317, Gwyn ap Iorwerth ap Cadwgan sold a plot of land to Maredudd Ddu ap Gronwy ap Maredudd.[35]  Since a subsequent marriage is cited between the son of Gwyn and the daughter of Maredudd Ddu[36], it seems clear this buyer must have been the Maredudd Ddu of c. 1295 and not the same-named man of c. 1255.  Our chart of the families looks like this:
                                         
                                              1120  Llowarch ap Bran
                                       _____________l_____________
                                       l                                         l
                          1155  Iorwerth                            Cadwgan 1150
               _______________l_________                           l
               l                                      l                           l
1185  Maredudd                             Adda*  1190        Iorwerth 1185
               l                                      l                           l
1220    Gronwy                           Maredudd  1225     Cadwgan 1215 
               l                                      l                           l
1255  Maredudd Ddu                      Gronwy  1260        Iorwerth 1245
               l                                      l                           l
1290   Ieuan Wyddel                   Maredudd Ddu 1295      Gwyn 1275
                                   ____________l______                 l
                                   l                             l                l
                       1325 Cynwrig            1325  Arddun====Hywel  1310
                                                                                             
  *This branch of the family is found in Dii,268 which follows the descendants of Iorwerth ap Maredudd ap Adda; since none of that line is named in the 1352 Extent of Anglesey, we believe the Adda branch of the family was represented by Gruffudd ap Gronwy (who is named) and suspect he was the elder brother of the Maredudd Ddu of 1295.  That Gruffudd could not have been a son of the Gronwy of 1220.
        

Notes:
[1] Brut y Tywysogyon, entries for 878 and 881
[2] Dwnn ii, 307 does not name the father of Dyfnwal.  The pedigree which appears to include an extra generation is found in History of Powys Fadog by J.Y.W. Lloyd (1881) in volume I, pp 308
[3] HLG 4a; Dwnn i, 16  Noted historian Henry Rowlands, whose work "Antiquitates Parochiales" published in Archaeologia Cambrensis in 1849, cited Llowarch as sixth in descent from Tudwal Gloff.  However, the editor of Philip Yorke's  1887 work "The Royal Tribes of Wales" notes that Llowarch was eighth in descent from Tudwal, but does not name the intervening generations.
[4] HLG 4a does not specifically say that Rhael was the wife of Llowarch, but that she was the mother of Cadwgan and Iorwerth, sons of Llowarch.
[5] Brut y Tywysogyon, entry for 1125
[6] Our dating of Edwin of Tegeingl to 1017 is based on the fact that his mother, a Saxon princess, had briefly been married to King Edmund Ironsides who was slain in 1016.  Whoever she then married (the Welsh pedigrees say she married Gronwy ap Owain ap Einion from the family of Hywel Dda, but there are reasons to believe that was fabricated) likely fathered Edwin shortly thereafter.
[7] Dwnn ii, 154
[8] Dwnn ii, 257/258 and 264
[9] The Extent of Anglesey translated by A.D. Carr in Transactions of the Anglesey Antiquarian Society and Field Club, 1971/72, pp 255
[10] Dwnn ii, 89, 224/225, 232, 234 and 251
[11] The various pedigrees of men descended from this Gruffudd point to a birthdate for him near 1185.
[12] Dwnn ii, 232  Robert Lloyd of Rhiw Goch of Trawsfynydd parish in Merionydd was High Sheriff of that Shire in 1596 and later dates
[13] Dwnn ii, 234  Humphrey ap Maredudd of Clynnog Fawr was High Sheriff of Carnorvonshire in 1614
[14] Dii, 89 but see Dwnn ii, 224/225 for comparison
[15] The editor of Dwnn's manuscripts claimed Robert Lloyd was mistaken, that his Rhys ap Tudor should be attached to Hywel ap Tudor ap Gruffudd.  We think the editor was mistaken.
[16] Dwnn ii, 89 says the Rhys ap Tudor ap Hywel married Marged ferch Ieuan ap Gruffudd Lloyd ap Maredudd ap Llewelyn ap Ynyr of Ial; this lady would occur circa 1355.  Dwnn ii, 251 says the Rhys ap Tudor ap Maredudd married Marged ferch Ieuan ap Llewelyn ap Gruffudd ap Sir Ieuan Lloyd.  That family is unknown to this writer; her floruit is likewise not known.
[17] The man of that name wrongly inserted by the Dwnn editor was descended from Iorwerth ap Llowarch and in the 1352 Extent, was an owner of land in Ysgeifiog, Menai which was part of Gwely Maredudd ap Iorwerth.
[18] The work is "Pedigrees of Anglesey & Carnarvonshire Families", 1914, pp 390 It is merely a compilation of extant pedigrees found by the author, who did no work to test their chronological stability.
[19]  One good possibility is Moreiddig ap Blegoryd ap Dyfnwal, a first cousin of Llowarch ap Bran ap Dyfnwal.  All the land in Porthamel might well have been once called Gwely Dyfnwal ap Eunydd before it was divided into the 7 Gwelys which existed in 1352.
[20] His son, Gwyn, was an adult in 1317 and dead before 1352.  Three of his grandsons served on the jury for the 1352 Extent of Anglesey.  Iorwerth must have been in the fourth generation after Llowarch; thus 4 x 32 = 128 + 1120 = 1248
[21] By a deed dated in 1317, he sold some land to a kinsman, Maredudd Ddu ap Gronwy ap Maredudd.  The deed is reproduced in Archaeologia Cambrensis, 1849, pp 105.  He stated his name as Gwyn ap Iorwerth ap Cadwgan.
[22] ibid Note 9, pp 255 for Hywel ap Gwyn and pp 247 for Llewelyn ap Gwyn
[23] ibid Note 9, pp 247
[24] 32 x 5 = 160 + 1120 = 1280; thus men in the fifth generation were 65+ years old in 1352.  Men in the sixth generation were in their 40's while those in the seventh generation were still children.  We would think all the owners named in the Extent were born between 1285 and 1325.
[25] Archaelogia Cambrensis, 1849, pp 104
[26] Dwnn ii, 252 and 265
[27] ibid Note 9, pp 247
[28] History records an epidemic of Bubonic Plague hit Anglesey in 1349 killing half the population in some areas while barely touching others
[29] The constable was Thomas Barneby, a man said to have used his position for personal profit.  In 1414, a royal commission was appointed to investigate his activities.
[30] No single pedigree we have seen includes both Ieuan Wyddel and Cynwrig but Dii,194 cites the mother of Cynwrig as Gwenllian ferch Ithel Fychan ap Ithel Lloyd while Dii, 208 says the mother of Ieuan Wyddel was Cathryn, daughter of an Irish nobleman.  The incorrect conclusion they were brothers comes from same-named ancestors cited for both: Maredudd Ddu ap Gronwy ap Maredudd; in addition, both men named Gronwy are assigned the same wife.  This seems to indicate the drafters of both pedigrees believed the same Maredudd Ddu was father of both men. However, that wife was a granddaughter of Ednyfed Fychan and would date to c. 1230/35 which fits her only with the Gronwy of 1220.
[31] Rowland's "Antiquitates Parochiales" published in Archaeologia Cambrensis, 1849, pp 43
[32] He occurs in the 5th generation after Llowarch or c. 1280 but was still active in 1352 when named foreman of the Menai jury formed to assess land for the Extent of Anglesey.  
[33] Public Record Office SC6/1170/5
[34] Public Record Office SC/1149/9
[35] See Note 20
[36] Dii,143