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                                       CADWGAN OF NANNAU 
                                           By Darrell Wolcott 
        Of all the same-named men in early Wales, perhaps none have been so hopelessly confused as the man called "Cadwgan ap Bleddyn, Lord of Nannau".  That he was NOT the more familiar Cadwgan ap Bleddyn ap Cynfyn can be seen by the chronology.  That man was born c. 1055, one of the older sons of Bleddyn and who first occurs in the Brut in 1088.  But the Cadwgan who stands atop the Maesmawr and Nannau pedigrees must have been born near 1015, and our conclusion after years of research is that he was neither "ap Bleddyn" nor "of Nannau".  But he probably did have a great-grandson whose name was Cadwgan ap Bleddyn and who did live in Nannau.  The beginnings of this family can best be seen by its Maesmawr branch[1]:
                                                                Elystan  990
                              1015  Cadwgan            Cadwgan  1020
                                           l                  ____l_____
                                           l        1050   l               l
                              1045   Madog*      Idnerth       Ieuaf  1055
                                           l                 l                l
                          1075  Rhiwallon===Annes 1090  Hywel  1085
                                                    l                         l
                                      1110  Dolphyn=======Sian  1120
                                                    1140  Cynfelyn
                                                     1170  Einion
         *According to the Cae Cyriog Ms, his daughter, Marged, married Heilyn ap Eunydd of Dyffryn Clwyd a man who was born c. 1075
         The Cynfelyn in this chart witnessed the foundation charter of Strata Marcella Abbey in 1170 as "Chenvellin filio Dolfinin".  If the Cadwgan from whom he descended were a son of Bleddyn ap Cynfyn, this Cynfelyn would not have been born until 1175/80, while the marriage matches cited for his father and grandfather confirm our date estimates.  Contrast this branch of the family with that in the "Nannau" pedigrees[2]:
                              1170   Cadwgan
                               1200    Madog
                                1230   Meurig
                                 1255  Ynyr
                             1285  Ynyr Fychan
          The Ynyr in this chart sent a petition to King Edward I in 1295 asking to be named Raglot of Tal y Bont, the commote in which Nannau is located.  It was not granted, but clearly dates him to c. 1250/60.  His son, Ynyr Fychan, was charged in 1322 with attacking the castle at Ruthin and killing two men...consistent with him being born c. 1285/95.  Furthermore, the cited wives of Meurig, Ynyr and Ynyr Fychan are wholly consistent with our estimated dating.[3]  The great-grandsons of Ynyr Fychan were Hywel Sele[4] and Gruffudd Derwas, men clearly born c. 1375/1380. The Cadwgan at the top of this chart must have occurred c. 1170; while the pedigrees would make Meurig ap Madog a brother of the Rhiwallon ap Madog from the first chart, that is chronologically impossible. 
            The pedigrees cite three different wives for Madog ap Cadwgan, ladies who could not possibly have been contemporaries:
            1.  Sian ferch Cynwrig ap Rhiwallon of Maelor[5].  There were at least two men of that name in the Maelor family, the first a grandson of Dyngad ap Tudor Trevor and the later Cynwrig who fathered Nynnio, Hoedliw and Ednyfed.  A daughter of the first Cynwrig would occur c. 1030 while a daughter of the later Cynwrig would occur about 1100.  Neither lady could have married the Madog ap Cadwgan in either of the two charts presented above.
            2.  Efa ferch Einion ap Seisyllt of Mathafern[6].  This lady would occur c. 1145/50 and she also could not have married the Madog ap Cadwgan of either chart.
            3.  Efa ferch Madog ap Philip ap Uchdryd[7].  Our work shows this Uchdryd is likely the son of Madog Penllyn ap Uchdryd ap Edwin.  Such a lady would occur c. 1210 and probably married the Madog of c. 1200 who had the son, Meurig.
             We do think each of the ladies cited married a Madog ap Cadwgan, but three different men of that name.  The generations which are missing from the second chart, we believe, include another occurrence of "Madog ap Cadwgan" plus a third man to whom we trace the genealogical confusion: Bleddyn ap Madog, the brother of Rhiwallon.  Our revised family chart looks like this:
                                     1015  Cadwgan
                                      1045   Madog
               l                                                                 l
 1075  Rhiwallon                                                   Bleddyn  1075
               l                                                                 l
  1110  Dolphyn                                                   Cadwgan  1110
   (same as first chart)                                          Madog  1140
                                                                         Cadwgan  1170
                                                                          Madog  1200
                                                                          Meurig  1230
                                                                            Ynyr  1255
                                                                       Ynyr Fychan  1285
       The Madog of c. 1140 is probably the one who married Efa ferch Einion ap Seisyllt, she born c. 1150.  And whatever Madog ap Cadwgan married a daughter of either Cynwrig ap Rhiwallon of Maelor, it was probably not a man of this family.  There may have even been a third such lady, a daughter of Cynwrig ap Rhiwallon ap Gwyn (the first cousin of Trahaearn ap Caradog who shared rule in Gwynedd briefly but was slain in 1075).  Such a lady would occur c. 1060 and while not of Maelor, may have married the Madog ap Cadwgan of 1045[8].  
         More importantly, however, is the possible existence of a Cadwgan ap Bleddyn in this family whom both historians and genealogists have confused with the same-named son of Bleddyn ap Cynfyn.  We believe the earliest Madog ap Cadwgan, born c. 1045, served in the warbands of both Rhiwallon and Bleddyn ap Cynfyn and likely was present at Mechain when Rhiwallon fell in battle in 1069.  It is known that Eunydd ap Morien of Dyffryn Clwyd was among Bleddyn's men and is likely where he first became acquainted with Madog ap Cadwgan.  Later, the son of Eunydd married the daughter of Madog.  We conjecture that whoever Madog married (probably Sian ferch Cynwrig ap Rhiwallon of Arwystli), he named two of his sons Rhiwallon and Bleddyn in honor of his former leaders.
       We would note here that the Cadwgan ap Bleddyn born c. 1110 could possibly have been the man of that name who married a daughter of Gruffudd ap Cynan ap Iago.  Our present belief, however, is that Gwenllian ferch Gruffudd ap Cynan nephew of Iago[9] married Cadwgan ap Bleddyn ap Cynfyn.  She would have been born in Ireland and probably out of wedlock about 1070.
         Our next conclusion is that it was Cadwgan ap Bleddyn ap Madog of this family that first lived at Nannau (and whom we would identify as "Cadwgan of Nannau"), probably lands granted to him for service to King Gruffudd ap Cynan (or to Owain Gwynedd) sometime in the first half of the 12th century.[10]  So where did the earlier members of this family reside and who was father to the Cadwgan of 1015 with whom the pedigrees begin?
           Some might guess our c. 1015 Cadwgan was Cadwgan ap Elystan Glodrydd, a man born about the same time; the early marriages cited might have been between cousins. We would not care to defend that guess, however.  It seems unlikely any member of the Fferlys family would have served the kings of Powys and Gwynedd nor be given lands in Meirionydd.  We would look further north for his roots.  If born c. 1015 somewhere in north Wales, the first Cadwgan of this family would likely have served under King Gruffudd ap Llewelyn and would have been sent at age 14 to be trained at the household of interim king Cynfyn ap Gwerystan.  If so, he was only 4/5 years younger than Gruffudd ap Llewelyn (who also lived at Cynfyn's court) and may have held an important place in that man's household after 1039.  Unless our future studies point us in a different direction, we tend to identify Cadwgan as a brother of Llywarch Hwlbwrch who was Gruffudd's treasurer.  His family's lands would have been in Rhos where we think his descendants resided until they obtained the lands in Nannau and Arwystli by royal grant or by favorable marriages.
          Our identification of Cadwgan is based on the single pedigree[11] which does not mistake him for Cadwgan ap Bleddyn ap Cynfyn.  In it, he is made a descendant of Gwgan Gleddyfrudd of Tegeingl although the pedigree is deficient by several generations.  In chart form, it consists of the data in the first column; our construction is shown in the second column:
                          King of Man (Mon)        780  Hywel ap Caradog
                                    l                                   l
                          King of Tegeingl          815  Caradog Freich Fras
                                    l                                   l
                          Gwgan Gleddyfrudd     850  Gwgan Gleddyfrudd
                                    l                                   l
                                   xx                   885  Gwaethfoed
                                    l                                   l
                                   xx                     915  Glannog
                                    l                                   l
                                   xx                       950  Heilig
                                    l                                   l
                                   xx                    980  Gwrydr Goch
                                    l                                   l
                                   xx                   1015  Cadwgan
                                    l                                   l
                                   xx                    1045  Madog
                                    l                                   l
                                   xx                  1075  Rhiwallon
                                    l                                   l  
                                   xx                  1110  Dolphyn 
                                     l                                    l
                              Cynfelyn             1140  Cynfelyn
                                    l                                   l
                                Einion                  1170  Einion

          We shall conclude by explaining the conflicting wives assigned by the pedigrees to both Rhiwallon and Dolphyn of the Maesmawr family.  In our first chart at the top of this paper, the marriage matches we display are cited in the Dwnn pedigree of Gwynn of Llanidlos.  But another Dwnn pedigree, the Jones family of Trewyddan in Llandinam parish of Arwystli[12], says Rhiwallon married Alison ferch Gwrgeneu ap Hywel ap Ieuaf and that Dolphyn married Alison ferch Cadwallon ap Madog of Ceri.  We chart those ladies as:
                           990  Elystan Glodrydd
                             1020  Cadwgan
              l                                                l
 1050  Ieuaf                               1050  Idnerth
              l                                                l
 1080  Hywel                             1080   Madog
              l                                                l
1115 Gwrgeneu                        1113  Cadwallon
             l                                                l
1150  Alison====Rhiwallon     1145  Cadwallon*
                   l         1135                          l
     1165  Dolphyn===========-==Alison  1180
         *Generation omitted from the Jones family pedigree, probably by a copyist who thought it was a duplication
            Thus, it appears a same-named cousin line begins with a son of Rhiwallon named Madog.  Since the Jones pedigree otherwise traces its descent from Cynfelyn ap Dolphyn born c. 1140, it erred by citing the marriage matches for the later father/son pair in this chart:
                                   1015  Cadwgan
                                    1045  Madog
                                  1075  Rhiwallon
                      l                                                  l
        1105  Madog                                        Dolphyn  1110
                      l                                                  l
        1135  Rhiwallon                                   Cynfelyn  1140
                      l                                                  l
         1165  Dolphyn                                      Einion  1170
         1200 Cynfelyn
         1230  Einion
         "COPY-CAT" LINE                            MAESMAWR LINE
          In Appendix 1, we present Peter Bartrum's pedigree of the Maesmawr and Nannau families together with our reasons for believing them flawed.

[1] Dwnn i, 310
[2] Dwnn ii, 226
[3] Powys Fadog, vol v, pp 55
[4] Hywel Sele, older brother of Gruffudd Derwas, was knighted in 1401 and slain shortly afterward by Owain Glendwr
[5] Montgomery Collections, vol vii, pp 38
[6] ibid, vol ix, pp 209; Harleian Ms 1969
[7] Archaeologia Cambrensis, 1891, pp 214 ends with Uchdryd ap Aleth; a number of medieval pedigrees trace Philip ap Uchdryd to Aleth, who also had a son named Uchdryd.  But Uchdryd ap Aleth had no son named Philip
[8] The "of Maelor" may have be a copyist's conjecture.  Such a marriage to an heiress from Arwystli may explain how Rhiwallon ap Madog acquired the manor of Maesmawr
[9] See the paper "Gruffudd ap Cynan - A New Perspective" for a discussion of the man we believe fathered this Gwenllian, at the link below:
[10] Peniarth Ms 127 of c. 1520 says Cadwgan ap Bleddyn of Nannau married a daughter of Owain Gwynedd, a lady who would not occur until c. 1130/35.  We suspect the author simply made this conjecture since his own idea of the chronology did not fit with the usual "daughter of Gruffudd ap Cynan" cited by others.
[11] Dii, 61; Peniarth Ms 61.  This pedigree is further discussed in our paper "Ynyr Gwent and Caradog Freich Fras" at the link below:
[12] Dwnn i, 304
APPENDIX 1 - Bartrum pedigree
         In his "Welsh Genealogies - AD 300-1400, Peter Bartrum derives this family from Cadwgan ap Bleddyn ap Cynfyn...even though his portrayal of the Maesmawr branch clearly does not fit. He does not assign estimated birthdates in his charts, opting instead to guess within a 30/40 year window.  Under "Bleddyn ap Cynfyn, 46" we find:
                            1051/1085  Cadwgan  (1015)
                            1086/1115   Madog  (1045)
                        l                                                l
1086/1115  Rhiwallon (1075)          1116/50  Cadwgan  (1170)
                        l                                                l
      1116/50  Dolffyn (1110)             1151/85  Madog  (1200)
                        l                                                l
     1151/85  Cynfelyn (1140)         1186/1215  Meurig  (1230)
                   (Maesmawr)                 1216/50  Ynyr  (1255)
                                                 1251/85  Ynyr Fychan (1285)
           The date ranges to the left of each name are those supplied by Bartrum's "generation number" dating system, while our estimate of birthdates appears in parentheses at the right.
          It can be seen in this construction of the Maesmawr branch, even by making Rhiwallon born in the same generation as his father, we still end up with a Cynfelyn born during the same generation in which he witnessed the Strata Marcella charter, and a full generation after our own dating. (Which also avoids the spectacle of men born in the same generation as their father)  Also in the Maesmawr branch, Bartrum identifies one wife of Dolffyn as "Jane ferch Hywel ap Ieuaf ap Owain ap Trahaearn ap Caradog" while we believe she was "ferch Hywel ap Ieuaf ap Cadwgan ap Elystan Glodrydd.  The relevant pedigree stops with "ferch Hywel ap Ieuaf", but the two ladies would appear thusly:
                      1035  Trahaearn              1020  Cadwgan
                                    l                                   l
                    1065    Owain                    1055  Ieuaf
                                    l                                   l
                      1095   Ieuaf                    1085  Hywel
                                    l                                   l
                       1130  Hywel                   1120  Jane
                       1165   Jane
          We matched our c. 1120 lady with Dolphyn of c. 1110, producing Cynfelyn in c. 1140.  Bartrum's construction matches a c. 1170 Jane with a c. 1130 Dolffyn to produce a Cynfelyn born some years after the date he witnessed a charter.
         In the Nannau line, Bartrum admits the extant pedigrees jump directly from Madog ap Cadwgan ap Bleddyn to Meurig the father of Ynyr.  He inserts another pair of "Madog ap Cadwgan" (exactly as we do) but still fails to place the men he portrays as brothers (Rhiwallon and Cadwgan) in the same generation.  We believe he is correct in making Meurig "ap Madog ap Cadwgan ap Madog ap Cadwgan ap Bleddyn", but the Bleddyn in this list would occur c. 1075 whereas Bleddyn ap Cynfyn was born c. 1025....which is also Bartrum's dating of him in National Library of Wales Journal, vol xii, pp 205. 
         The only indication that Bartrum recognized the absurdity of the pedigree was his insertion of "?" between Cadwgan of Nannau (the one we date to c. 1170) and Madog ap Cadwgan ap Bleddyn.  He was able to gloss over the one-generation-too-late dating of Rhiwallon by pairing him with the wife we assign to Rhiwallon ap Madog ap Rhiwallon ap Madog, and wholly omits Annes ferch Idnerth ap Cadwgan ap Elystan Glodrydd from his work. 
           Nothing in Bartrum's charts convinces us that these families descended from Cadwgan ap Bleddyn ap Cynfyn; to the contrary, we think they show why that is NOT true.