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Legendary History Prior to 1st Century BC
Beli Mawr and Llyr Llediath in Welsh Pedigrees
The Bartrum "Welsh Genealogies"
Bartrum's "Pedigrees of the Welsh Tribal Patriarchs"
A study in charting medieval citations
The Evolution of the "Padriarc Brenin" Pedigree
Generational Gaps and the Welsh Laws
Minimum Age for Welsh Kingship in the Eleventh Century
The Lands of the Silures
Catel Durnluc aka Cadell Ddyrnllwg
Ancient Powys
The Royal Family of Powys
The Royal Family of Gwynedd
The 5 Plebian Tribes of Wales
Maxen Wledig of Welsh Legend
Maxen Wledig and the Welsh Genealogies
Anwn Dynod ap Maxen Wledig
Constans I and his 343 Visit to Britain
Glast and the Glastening
Composite Lives of St Beuno
Rethinking the Gwent Pedigrees
The Father of Tewdrig of Gwent
Another Look at Teithfallt of Gwent
Ynyr Gwent and Caradog Freich Fras
Llowarch ap Bran, Lord of Menai
Rulers of Brycheiniog - The Unanswered Questions
Lluan ferch Brychan
The Herbert Family Pedigree
Edwin of Tegeingl and his Family
Angharad, Heiress of Mostyn
Ithel of Bryn in Powys
Idnerth Benfras of Maesbrook
Henry, the Forgotten Son of Cadwgan ap Bleddyn
The Muddled Pedigree of Sir John Wynn of Gwydir
The Mysterious Peverel Family
The Clan of Tudor Trevor
The Other "Sir Roger of Powys"
Ancestry of Ieuaf ap Adda ap Awr of Trevor
The Retaking of Northeast Wales
Hedd Molwynog or Hedd ap Alunog of Llanfair Talhearn
"Meuter Fawr" son of Hedd ap Alunog
The Medieval "redating" of Braint Hir
Aaron Paen ap Y Paen Hen
Welsh Claims to Ceri after 1179
The Battle of Mynydd Carn
Trahaearn ap Caradog of Arwystli
Cadafael Ynfyd of Cydewain
Maredudd ap Robert, Lord of Cedewain
Cadwgan of Nannau
Maredudd ap Owain, King of Deheubarth
What Really Happened in Deheubarth in 1022?
Two Families headed by a Rhydderch ap Iestyn
The Era of Llewelyn ap Seisyll
Cynfyn ap Gwerystan, the Interim King
The Consorts and Children of Gruffudd ap Llewelyn
The 1039 Battle at Rhyd y Groes
The First Wife of Bleddyn ap Cynfyn
Hywel ap Gronwy of Deheubarth
The Brief Life of Gruffudd ap Maredudd
The Other Gwenwynwyn
Eunydd son of Gwenllian
Sandde Hardd of Mortyn
The Floruit of Einion ap Seisyllt
The Enigmatic Elystan Glodrydd
Cowryd ap Cadfan of Dyffryn Clwyd
Owain ap Cadwgan and Nest ferch Rhys - An Historic Fiction?
The "sons" of Owain ap Cadwgan ap Bleddyn
The Betrayal by Meirion Goch Revisited
Gwyn Ddistain, seneschal for Llewelyn Fawr
The Men of Lleyn - How They Got There
Trahaearn Goch of Lleyn
Einion vs Iestyn ap Gwrgan - The Conquest of Glamorgan
Dafydd Goch ap Dafydd - His Real Ancestry
Thomas ap Rhodri - Father of Owain "Lawgoch"
The "Malpas" Family in Cheshire
Einion ap Celynin of Llwydiarth
Marchweithian, Lord of Is Aled, Rhufoniog
Osbwrn Wyddel of Cors Gedol
Bradwen of Llys Bradwen in Meirionydd
Ednowain ap Bradwen
Sorting out the Gwaithfoeds
Three Men called Iorwerth Goch "ap Maredudd"
The Caradog of Gwynedd With 3 Fathers
Who Was Sir Robert Pounderling?
Eidio Wyllt - What Was His Birthname?
The Legendary Kingdom of Seisyllwg
The Royal Family of Ceredigion
Llewelyn ap Hoedliw, Lord of Is Cerdin
The Ancestry of Owain Glyndwr
Gruffudd ap Rhys, the Homeless Prince
The Children of Lord Rhys
Maredudd Gethin ap Lord Rhys
The 'Next Heir' of Morgan of Caerleon
Pedigree of the ancient Lords of Ial
The Shropshire Walcot Family
Pedigree of "Ednowain Bendew II"
Pedigree of Cynddelw Gam

                                       CADWGAN OF NANNAU 
                                           By Darrell Wolcott 
 
        Of all the same-named men in early Wales, perhaps none have been so hopelessly confused as the man called "Cadwgan ap Bleddyn, Lord of Nannau".  That he was NOT the more familiar Cadwgan ap Bleddyn ap Cynfyn can be see by the chronology.  That man was born c. 1055, one of the older sons of Bleddyn and who first occurs in the Brut in 1088.  But the Cadwgan who stands atop the Maesmawr and Nannau pedigrees must have been born near 1015, and our conclusion after years of research is that he was neither "ap Bleddyn" nor "of Nannau".  But he probably did have a great-grandson whose name was Cadwgan ap Bleddyn and who did live in Nannau.  The beginnings of this family can best be seen by its Maesmawr branch[1]:
           
                                                               Elystan  985
                                                                    l
                              1015  Cadwgan            Cadwgan  1020
                                           l                  ____l_____
                                           l        1055   l               l
                              1045   Madog*      Idnerth        Ieuaf  1055
                                           l                 l                l
                             1075  Rhiwallon====Annes 1090  Hywel  1085
                                                    l                         l
                                      1105  Dolphyn==========Sian  1120
                                                                 l
                                                    1140  Cynfelyn
                                                                 l
                                                     1170  Einion
 
         *According to the Cae Cyriog Ms, his daughter, Marged, married Heilyn ap Eunydd of Dyffryn Clwyd a man who was born c. 1075
            
 
         The Cynfelyn in this chart witnessed the foundation charter of Strata Marcella Abbey in 1170 as "Chenvellin filio Dolfinin".  If the Cadwgan from whom he descended were a son of Bleddyn ap Cynfyn, this Cynfelyn would not have been born until 1175/80, while the marriage matches cited for his father and grandfather confirm our date estimates.  Contrast this branch of the family with that in the "Nannau" pedigrees[2]:
 
                              1165   Cadwgan
                                             l
                               1195    Madog
                                             l
                                1225   Meurig
                                             l
                                 1255  Ynyr
                                             l
                             1285  Ynyr Fychan
 
          The Ynyr in this chart sent a petition to King Edward I in 1295 asking to be named Raglot of Tal y Bont, the commote in which Nannau is located.  It was not granted, but clearly dates him to c. 1250/60.  His son, Ynyr Fychan, was charged in 1322 with attacking the castle at Ruthin and killing two men...consistent with him being born c. 1285/95.  Furthermore, the cited wives of Meurig, Ynyr and Ynyr Fychan are wholly consistent with our estimated dating.[3]  The great-grandsons of Ynyr Fychan were Hywel Sele[4] and Gruffudd Derwas, men clearly born c. 1375/1380. The Cadwgan at the top of this chart must have occurred c. 1165; while the pedigrees would make Meurig ap Madog a brother of the Rhiwallon ap Madog from the first chart, that is chronologically impossible. 
 
            The pedigrees cite three different wives for Madog ap Cadwgan, ladies who could not possibly have been contemporaries:
           
            1.  Sian ferch Cynwrig ap Rhiwallon of Maelor[5].  There were at least two men of that name in the Maelor family, the first a grandson of Dyngad ap Tudor Trevor and the later Cynwrig who fathered Ninniaw, Hoedliw, Ednyfed and Hwfa.  A daughter of the first Cynwrig would occur c. 1030 while a daughter of the later Cynwrig would occur about 1100.  Neither lady could have married the Madog ap Cadwgan in either of the two charts presented above.
 
            2.  Efa ferch Einion ap Seisyllt of Mathafern[6].  This lady would occur c. 1145/50 and she also could not have married the Madog ap Cadwgan of either chart.
 
            3.  Efa ferch Madog ap Philip ap Uchdryd[7].  Our work shows this Uchdryd is likely the son of Madog Penllyn ap Uchdryd ap Edwin.  Such a lady would occur c. 1210 and probably married the Madog of c. 1195 who had the son, Meurig.
 
             We do think each of the ladies cited married a Madog ap Cadwgan, but three different men of that name.  The generations which are missing from the second chart, we believe, include another occurrence of "Madog ap Cadwgan" plus a third man to whom we trace the genealogical confusion: Bleddyn ap Madog, the brother of Rhiwallon.  Our revised family chart looks like this:
 
                                     1015  Cadwgan
                                                   l
                                      1045   Madog
               ______________________ l______________
               l                                                          l
 1075  Rhiwallon                                               Bleddyn  1075
               l                                                          l
  1105  Dolphyn                                               Cadwgan  1105
                                                                         l
   (same as first chart)                                       Madog  1135
                                                                         l
                                                                    Cadwgan  1165
                                                                         l
                                                                     Madog  1195
                                                                         l
                                                                     Meurig  1225
                                                                         l
                                                                      Ynyr  1255
                                                                         l
                                                                  Ynyr Fychan  1285
 
       The Madog of c. 1135 is probably the one who married Efa ferch Einion ap Seisyllt, she born c. 1150.  And whatever Madog ap Cadwgan married a daughter of either Cynwrig ap Rhiwallon of Maelor, it was probably not a man of this family.  There may have even been a third such lady, a daughter of Cynwrig ap Rhiwallon ap Gwyn (the first cousin of Trahaearn ap Caradog who shared rule in Gwynedd briefly but was slain in 1075).  Such a lady would occur c. 1060 and while not of Maelor, may have married the Madog ap Cadwgan of 1045[8].  
 
         More importantly, however, is the possible existence of a Cadwgan ap Bleddyn in this family whom both historians and genealogists have confused with the same-named son of Bleddyn ap Cynfyn.  We believe the earliest Madog ap Cadwgan, born c. 1045, served in the warbands of both Rhiwallon and Bleddyn ap Cynfyn and likely was present at Mechain when Rhiwallon fell in battle in 1069.  It is known that Eunydd ap Morien of Dyffryn Clwyd was among Bleddyn's men and is likely where he first became acquainted with Madog ap Cadwgan.  Later, the son of Eunydd married the daughter of Madog.  We conjecture that whoever Madog married (probably Sian ferch Cynwrig ap Rhiwallon of Arwystli), he named two of his sons Rhiwallon and Bleddyn in honor of his former leaders.
 
       We would note here that the Cadwgan ap Bleddyn born c. 1105 could possibly have been the man of that name who married a daughter of Gruffudd ap Cynan ap Iago.  Our present belief, however, is that Gwenllian ferch Gruffudd ap Cynan nephew of Iago[9] married Cadwgan ap Bleddyn ap Cynfyn.  She would have been born in Ireland and probably out of wedlock about 1070.
 
         Our next conclusion is that it was Cadwgan ap Bleddyn ap Madog of this family that first lived at Nannau, probably lands granted to him for service to King Gruffudd ap Cynan (or to Owain Gwynedd) sometime in the first half of the 12th century.[10]  So where did the earlier members of this family reside and who was father to the Cadwgan of 1015 with whom the pedigrees begin?
 
           Some might guess our c. 1015 Cadwgan was Cadwgan ap Elystan Glodrydd, a man born about the same time; the early marriages cited might have been between cousins. We would not care to defend that guess, however.  It seems unlikely any member of the Fferlys family would have served the kings of Powys and Gwynedd nor be given lands in Meirionydd.  We would look further north for his roots.  If born c. 1015 somewhere in north Wales, the first Cadwgan of this family would likely have served under King Gruffudd ap Llewelyn and would have been sent at age 14 to be trained at the household of interim king Cynfyn ap Gwerystan.  If so, he was only 4/5 years younger than Gruffudd ap Llewelyn (who also lived at Cynfyn's court) and may have held an important place in that man's household after 1039.  Unless our future studies point us in a different direction, we tend to identify Cadwgan as a brother of Llywarch Hwlbwrch who was Gruffudd's treasurer.  His family's lands would have been in Rhos where we think his descendants resided until they obtained the lands in Nannau and Arwystli by royal grant or by favorable marriages.
 
          Our identification of Cadwgan is based on the single pedigree[11] which does not mistake him for Cadwgan ap Bleddyn ap Cynfyn.  In it, he is made a descendant of Gwgan Gleddyfrudd of Tegeingl although the pedigree is deficient by several generations.  In chart form, it consists of the data in the first column; our construction is shown in the second column:
 
                          King of Man (Mon)          780  Hywel ap Caradog
                                    l                                   l
                          King of Tegeingl             815  Caradog Freich Fras
                                    l                                   l
                          Gwgan Gleddyfrudd         850  Gwgan Gleddyfrudd
                                    l                                   l
                                   xx                       885  Gwaethfoed
                                    l                                   l
                                   xx                       915  Glannog
                                    l                                   l
                                   xx                        950  Heilig
                                    l                                   l
                                   xx                      980  Gwrydr Goch
                                    l                                   l
                                   xx                     1015  Cadwgan
                                    l                                   l
                                   xx                      1045  Madog
                                    l                                   l
                                   xx                     1075  Rhiwallon
                                    l                                   l  
                                   xx                      1110  Dolphyn 
                                             l                                            l
                              Cynfelyn                 1140  Cynfelyn
                                    l                                   l
                                Einion                    1170  Einion

          We shall conclude by explaining the conflicting wives assigned by the pedigrees to both Rhiwallon and Dolphyn of the Maesmawr family.  In our first chart at the top of this paper, the marriage matches we display are cited in the Dwnn pedigree of Gwynn of Llanidlos.  But another Dwnn pedigree, the Jones family of Trewyddan in Llandinam parish of Arwystli[12], says Rhiwallon married Alison ferch Gwrgeneu ap Hywel ap Ieuaf and that Dolphyn married Alison ferch Cadwallon ap Madog of Ceri.  We chart those ladies as:
 
                           985  Elystan Glodrydd
                                           l
                             1020  Cadwgan
            ___________________l________
            l                                           l
 1050  Ieuaf                          1055  Idnerth
            l                                           l
1080  Hywel                          1085   Madog
            l                                           l
1115 Gwrgeneu                      1115  Cadwallon
            l                                           l
1150  Alison====Rhiwallon       1145  Cadwallon*
                   l         1135                    l
     1165  Dolphyn===============Alison  1180
 
         *Generation omitted from the Jones family pedigree, probably by a copyist who thought it was a duplication
 
            Thus, it appears this father/son pair immediately follows the same-named pair from the Maesmawr pedigrees; since the Jones pedigree otherwise traces its descent from Cynfelyn ap Dolphyn born c. 1140, it erred by citing the marriage matches for the later father/son pair in this chart:
 
                                    1015  Cadwgan
                                                 l
                                     1045  Madog
                                                 l
                                    1075  Rhiwallon
                                                 l
                                    1105  Dolphyn
                      _________________l___________
                      l                                             l
        1135  Rhiwallon                                 Cynfelyn  1140
                      l                                             l
         1165  Dolphyn                                    Einion  1170
 
          In Appendix 1, we present Peter Bartrum's pedigree of the Maesmawr and Nannau families together with our reasons for believing them flawed.
 
 
   

NOTES:
[1] Dwnn i, 310
[2] Dwnn ii, 226
[3] Powys Fadog, vol v, pp 55
[4] Hywel Sele, older brother of Gruffudd Derwas, was knighted in 1401 and slain shortly afterward by Owain Glendwr
[5] Montgomery Collections, vol vii, pp 38
[6] ibid, vol ix, pp 209; Harleian Ms 1969
[7] Archaeologia Cambrensis, 1891, pp 214 ends with Uchdryd ap Aleth; a number of medieval pedigrees trace Philip ap Uchdryd to Aleth, who also had a son named Uchdryd.  But Uchdryd ap Aleth had no son named Philip
[8] The "of Maelor" may have be a copyist's conjecture.  Such a marriage to an heiress from Arwystli may explain how Rhiwallon ap Madog acquired the manor of Maesmawr
[9] See the paper "Gruffudd ap Cynan - A New Perspective" elsewhere on this site for a discussion of the man we believe fathered this Gwenllian
[10] Peniarth Ms 127 of c. 1520 says Cadwgan ap Bleddyn of Nannau married a daughter of Owain Gwynedd, a lady who would not occur until c. 1130/35.  We suspect the author simply made this conjecture since his own idea of the chronology did not fit with the usual "daughter of Gruffudd ap Cynan" cited by others.
[11] Dii, 61; Peniarth Ms 61.  This pedigree is further discussed in our paper "Ynyr Gwent and Caradog Freich Fras" on this site
[12] Dwnn i, 304
 
APPENDIX 1 - Bartrum pedigree
 
         In his "Welsh Genealogies - AD 300-1400, Peter Bartrum derives this family from Cadwgan ap Bleddyn ap Cynfyn...even though his portrayal of the Maesmawr branch clearly does not fit. He does not assign estimated birthdates in his charts, opting instead to guess within a 30/40 year window.  Under "Bleddyn ap Cynfyn, 46" we find:
 
                             1051/85  Cadwgan  (1015)
                                                l
                          1086/1115   Madog  (1045)
                        _______________l____________
                        l                                           l
  1086/1115  Rhiwallon (1075)          1116/50  Cadwgan  (1165)
                        l                                           l
      1116/50  Dolffyn (1105)             1151/85  Madog  (1195)
                        l                                           l
     1151/85  Cynfelyn (1140)         1186/1215  Meurig  (1225)
                                                                   l
                   (Maesmawr)                 1216/50  Ynyr  (1255)
                                                                   l
                                              1251/85  Ynyr Fychan (1285)
      
                                                              (Nannau)
 
           The date ranges to the left of each name are those supplied by Bartrum's "generation number" dating system, while our estimate of birthdates appears in parentheses at the right.
 
          It can be seen in this construction of the Maesmawr branch, even by making Rhiwallon born in the same generation as his father, we still end up with a Cynfelyn born during the same generation in which he witnessed the Strata Marcella charter, and a full generation after our own dating. (Which also avoids the spectacle of men born in the same generation as their father)  Also in the Maesmawr branch, Bartrum identifies one wife of Dolffyn as "Jane ferch Hywel ap Ieuaf ap Owain ap Trahaearn ap Caradog" while we believe she was "ferch Hywel ap Ieuaf ap Cadwgan ap Elystan Glodrydd.  The relevant pedigree stops with "ferch Hywel ap Ieuaf", but the two ladies would appear thusly:
 
                      1035  Trahaearn              1020  Cadwgan
                                    l                                   l
                      1065    Owain                    1055  Ieuaf
                                    l                                   l
                       1095   Ieuaf                     1085  Hywel
                                    l                                   l
                        1130  Hywel                    1120  Jane
                                    l
                       1165   Jane
 
          We matched our c. 1120 lady with Dolphyn of c. 1105, producing Cynfelyn in c. 1140.  Bartrum's construction matches a c. 1170 Jane with a c. 1130 Dolffyn to produce a Cynfelyn born some years after the date he witnessed a charter.
 
         In the Nannau line, Bartrum admits the extant pedigrees jump directly from Madog ap Cadwgan ap Bleddyn to Meurig the father of Ynyr.  He inserts another pair of "Madog ap Cadwgan" (exactly as we do) but still fails to place the men he portrays as brothers (Rhiwallon and Cadwgan) in the same generation.  We believe he is correct in making Meurig "ap Madog ap Cadwgan ap Madog ap Cadwgan ap Bleddyn", but the Bleddyn in this list would occur c. 1075 whereas Bleddyn ap Cynfyn was born c. 1025....which is also Bartrum's dating of him in National Library of Wales Journal, vol xii, pp 205. 
 
         The only indication that Bartrum recognized the absurdity of the pedigree was his insertion of "?" between Cadwgan of Nannau (the one we date to c. 1165) and Madog ap Cadwgan ap Bleddyn.  He was able to gloss over the one-generation-too-late dating of Rhiwallon by pairing him with the wife we assign to Rhiwallon ap Dolphyn ap Rhiwallon ap Madog, and wholly omits Annes ferch Idnerth ap Cadwgan ap Elystan Glodrydd from his work. 
 
           Nothing in Bartrum's charts convinces us that these families descended from Cadwgan ap Bleddyn ap Cynfyn; to the contrary, we think they show why that is NOT true.