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Legendary History Prior to 1st Century BC
Beli Mawr and Llyr Llediath in Welsh Pedigrees
The Bartrum "Welsh Genealogies"
Bartrum's "Pedigrees of the Welsh Tribal Patriarchs"
A study in charting medieval citations
The Evolution of the "Padriarc Brenin" Pedigree
Generational Gaps and the Welsh Laws
Minimum Age for Welsh Kingship in the Eleventh Century
The Lands of the Silures
Catel Durnluc aka Cadell Ddyrnllwg
Ancient Powys
The Royal Family of Powys
The Royal Family of Gwynedd
The 5 Plebian Tribes of Wales
Maxen Wledig of Welsh Legend
Maxen Wledig and the Welsh Genealogies
Anwn Dynod ap Maxen Wledig
Constans I and his 343 Visit to Britain
Glast and the Glastening
Composite Lives of St Beuno
Rethinking the Gwent Pedigrees
The Father of Tewdrig of Gwent
Another Look at Teithfallt of Gwent
Ynyr Gwent and Caradog Freich Fras
Llowarch ap Bran, Lord of Menai
Rulers of Brycheiniog - The Unanswered Questions
Lluan ferch Brychan
The Herbert Family Pedigree
Edwin of Tegeingl and his Family
Angharad, Heiress of Mostyn
Ithel of Bryn in Powys
Idnerth Benfras of Maesbrook
Henry, the Forgotten Son of Cadwgan ap Bleddyn
The Muddled Pedigree of Sir John Wynn of Gwydir
The Mysterious Peverel Family
The Clan of Tudor Trevor
The Other "Sir Roger of Powys"
Ancestry of Ieuaf ap Adda ap Awr of Trevor
The Retaking of Northeast Wales
Hedd Molwynog or Hedd ap Alunog of Llanfair Talhearn
"Meuter Fawr" son of Hedd ap Alunog
The Medieval "redating" of Braint Hir
Aaron Paen ap Y Paen Hen
Welsh Claims to Ceri after 1179
The Battle of Mynydd Carn
Trahaearn ap Caradog of Arwystli
Cadafael Ynfyd of Cydewain
Maredudd ap Robert, Lord of Cedewain
Cadwgan of Nannau
Maredudd ap Owain, King of Deheubarth
What Really Happened in Deheubarth in 1022?
Two Families headed by a Rhydderch ap Iestyn
The Era of Llewelyn ap Seisyll
Cynfyn ap Gwerystan, the Interim King
The Consorts and Children of Gruffudd ap Llewelyn
The 1039 Battle at Rhyd y Groes
The First Wife of Bleddyn ap Cynfyn
Hywel ap Gronwy of Deheubarth
The Brief Life of Gruffudd ap Maredudd
The Other Gwenwynwyn
Eunydd son of Gwenllian
Sandde Hardd of Mortyn
The Floruit of Einion ap Seisyllt
The Enigmatic Elystan Glodrydd
Cowryd ap Cadfan of Dyffryn Clwyd
Owain ap Cadwgan and Nest ferch Rhys - An Historic Fiction?
The "sons" of Owain ap Cadwgan ap Bleddyn
The Betrayal by Meirion Goch Revisited
Gwyn Ddistain, seneschal for Llewelyn Fawr
The Men of Lleyn - How They Got There
Trahaearn Goch of Lleyn
Einion vs Iestyn ap Gwrgan - The Conquest of Glamorgan
Dafydd Goch ap Dafydd - His Real Ancestry
Thomas ap Rhodri - Father of Owain "Lawgoch"
The "Malpas" Family in Cheshire
Einion ap Celynin of Llwydiarth
Marchweithian, Lord of Is Aled, Rhufoniog
Osbwrn Wyddel of Cors Gedol
Bradwen of Llys Bradwen in Meirionydd
Ednowain ap Bradwen
Sorting out the Gwaithfoeds
Three Men called Iorwerth Goch "ap Maredudd"
The Caradog of Gwynedd With 3 Fathers
Who Was Sir Robert Pounderling?
Eidio Wyllt - What Was His Birthname?
The Legendary Kingdom of Seisyllwg
The Royal Family of Ceredigion
Llewelyn ap Hoedliw, Lord of Is Cerdin
The Ancestry of Owain Glyndwr
Welsh Ancestry of the Tudor Dynasty
Gruffudd ap Rhys, the Homeless Prince
The Children of Lord Rhys
Maredudd Gethin ap Lord Rhys
The 'Next Heir' of Morgan of Caerleon
Pedigree of the ancient Lords of Ial
The Shropshire Walcot Family
Pedigree of "Ednowain Bendew II"
Pedigree of Cynddelw Gam
                              UCHDRYD AP EDWIN - THE YOUNGER SON
                                          By Darrell Wolcott
 
         History has shed little light on this son of Edwin of Tegeingl since his older brother, Owain, continued the family's rule in north Wales and then over all Gwynedd following the death of the Norman Robert of Rhuddlan near 1093.  Personal appearances of Uchdryd in the Brut are but few and include:
 
        1096 - "Uchdryd ap Edwin and Hywel ap Gronwy[1] and many other leaders and the war-band of Cadwgan ap Bleddyn went to the castle of Pembroke and despoiled it completely, and ravaged the land; and they returned home with vast spoil".
 
       1109 - A long entry can be summarized as follows:  When Owain ap Cadwgan kidnapped Nest ferch Rhys ap Tewdwr from the castle of her husband Gerald of Windsor, the agent of King Henry I at Shrewsbury decided to avenge the injury done to Gerald. He sent for the brothers Madog and Ithel, sons of Rhiryd ap Bleddyn, and told them they'd earn great favor from the king if they would seize Owain, or failing that, drive him and his father from their lands.  This agent, Richard bishop of London, told the young men he would give them the aid of Llywarch ap Trahaearn and Uchdryd ap Edwin whom he described as "the truest and most faithful companions".  In fact, Uchdryd was loyal to Cadwgan and his son Owain.  When the brothers gathered a warband and headed for Owain's lands, Uchdryd advised the residents of those lands to flee to his manor for protection and they escaped unharmed during the subsequent ravaging of their lands.  Cadwgan and Owain slipped away to Ireland by sea.  Uchdryd had managed to stall the advance of Madog and Ithel by convincing them not to travel by night, but wait until morning so their army would meet Owain in broad daylight as befitting a man of his noble status and not seek to ambush him at night.  When the army arrived and found Owain's lands deserted, they accused Uchdryd of deliberately allowing the inhabitants to escape and realized they'd been "had" by Richard the bishop.
 
         1116 - After Owain ap Cadwgan had been slain by the Flemings, Einion ap Cadwgan and his cousin, Gruffudd ap Maredudd ap Bleddyn, attacked the castle which Uchdryd had built at Cymer in Meirionydd.  Nothing in the Brut account says Uchdryd was still alive at this time, but those two men seized all the lands in Meirionydd and Cyfeiliog and Penllyn which Cadwgan ap Bleddyn had bestowed on Uchdryd.  They claimed Uchdryd had promised Cadwgan he would be a true and loyal friend to Cadwgan and his sons, but after the death of Owain he had "thought nothing of Cadwgan's other sons".
 
          With nothing more to guide our inquiry into the life of Uchdryd than these events recorded in the Brut and the old pedigree manuscripts which cite his ancestry and marraiges, we must begin with those customs of the era which we would assume guided his early life.  Born somewhere between 1050 and 1055, Uchdryd would have entered the service of his "lord" at age 14.  We suspect this was after 1063 and it was at the court of Bleddyn ap Cynfyn that he first began his training. His mother, Iwerydd, was either the full or half-sister of Bleddyn so the sons of Bleddyn were his first-cousins.[2]  Those nearest his own age were Madog, Cadwgan and Rhiryd; Iorwerth and Maredudd were yet toddlers.  When Bleddyn was slain in 1075, none of his sons were yet old enough to become king so that role was divided between sons of his first cousins Caradog and Rhiwallon ap Gwyn in Arwystli. 
 
         When Cadwgan ap Bleddyn came of "full age" about the year 1083, he and his brothers Madog and Rhiryd began to make a name for themselves as warriors entitled to rule lands of their own.  Their first recorded action was in 1088 against Rhys ap Tewdwr in Deheubarth, forcing that king to flee to Ireland.  But he returned with an army of mercenaries and battled the brothers at Llech-y-crau where Madog and Rhiryd were slain.[3]  Cadwgan escaped back to north Wales where he now assumed individual "kingship" of his father's old realm of Powys.  In establishing his court, we think he selected Uchdryd as his penteulu or leader of his warband[4].  About 1080, Uchdryd had taken as his wife Nest ferch Llewelyn Fychan ap Llewelyn Aurdorchog of Ial[5].  Both her grandfather and an uncle had served kings as their penteulu.[6]  Then, when Robert of Rhuddlan the Norman ruler of all north Wales died, Cadwgan set up shop in Anglesey and began to nurture a young man bearing the blood of the Gwynedd royal dynasty named Gruffudd ap Cynan ap Iago...a youngster about 18 in 1088[7]. 
 
       Over the next few years, the Normans sent armies to dislodge Cadwgan but his warband repelled them.  Owain ap Edwin in Tegeingl stayed out of the conflict as his brother led Cadwgan's men in the battles with Earl Hugh's army from Chester. It appears that after a failed attack in 1094, the Normans quit trying to take Anglesey.  That Cadwgan felt secure at home can be seen by him sending his warband to Dyfed in 1096 to attack Pembroke Castle.  But in 1098, young Gruffudd ap Cynan claimed his birthright and Cadwgan allowed him to be invested as "king".  This brought a quick response from England; an army was dispatched by the Earl of Shrewsbury to join that of the Earl of Chester and the large force marched to Anglesey.  Rightfully suspecting the leading men of Anglesey would elect to appease the powerful Normans rather than side with Gruffudd and Cadwgan in battle, those two men fled for safety to Ireland. 
 
         We suspect it was Cadwgan's man, Uchdryd ap Edwin, who then entered into negotiations with the Normans.  While he had twice led men to oppose their entry into Anglesey, it had been as a professional soldier; he made no pretensions of being a potential "king" himself.  His brother was a trusted ally of the Normans who, with their retaking of Anglesey, immediately installed Owain as their sub-king for Gwynedd.[8]  Owain likely introduced Uchdryd to Earl Hugh to negotiate on behalf of Cadwgan and Gruffudd.  Accepting the showing that both Cadwgan and Gruffudd were proud men of noble birth who were willing to accept Norman oversight if permitted to enjoy lordships of their own, Earl Hugh proposed a peace agreement for Uchdryd to carry back to his superiors in Ireland. The deal was accepted, and the two fugitives returned to Wales the following year.  Gruffudd ap Cynan was allowed to govern Anglesey, while Cadwgan was given lordships in Ceredigion, Meirionydd, Cyfeiliog and Penllyn to oversee.
 
        At some point before his death in 1111, Cadwgan rewarded Uchdryd for his loyal services by giving him rule over his lands in three of those cantrefs...lands he would not have held except for the deal which Uchdryd had brokered for him.  And Uchdryd had himself given his fealty to the crown of England and was accepted as an honorable man and their friend, so he lived out the remainder of his life at peace both in Wales and with his powerful neighbors to the east.
 
         The incident which followed Owain ap Cadwgan's raid on the castle of Gerald of Windsor requires some conjecture.  We don't think Owain's main purpose was to take Nest as his lover, but the attack was most likely the opening stages of a compaign to expel the Normans from south Wales.  He may have simply taken Gerald's family as "prisioners of war" since Gerald himself had slipped safely from his grasp.  Knowing the reputation of Nest, one might even posit that it was she that later offered sex to Owain to ensure the safety and comfort of herself and her children.  So how did this sit with King Henry I?  Obviously, the king had to show outrage at Owain for violating the honor of his man Gerald, but perhaps he knew the mission had been primarily military in nature and also personally knew what a temptress Nest could be...she had once been his mistress and had borne him a son.[9]  Did Henry then order his man in Shrewsbury to make a pretense at attacking Owain but to make sure it didn't succeed?  We do know that some years later, he showed great admiration for Owain and conferred knighthood on him.[10]
 
         By giving his blessings for an attack on Owain's lands, the king showed Gerald that swift action would be taken to avenge the dishonor he had suffered.  And by giving the attackers Uchdryd ap Edwin as their "faithful companion" in the enterprise, the king took steps to protect Owain and his men.  Why Madog and Ithel ap Rhiryd ap Bleddyn accepted the assurance that Uchdryd would be a faithful ally is puzzling.  He owed his lordships to their uncle Cadwgan, and while that man had not condoned his son's actions in sleeping with Nest, neither had he turned against him.  It is likely the raid on Gerald's castle had even been ordered by Cadwgan.  In any event, when they entered Owain's lands and found them uninhabited, they immediately realized it had been Uchdryd who gave the warning and sheltered many inhabitants as he stalled their march toward Owain's manor with his talk of "doing the honorable thing by facing Owain in broad daylight for battle" and not coming like a thief in the night.
 
         We also suspect that Uchdryd had either died by 1116[11] or retired back to his paternal lands in Tegeingl when the grandsons of Bleddyn destroyed his castle in Meirionydd and seized all of the lands he had received from Cadwgan.  He would have still owned half of his father's estate in Tegeingl to pass on to his sons.  These were named Owain[12], Iorwerth, Idnerth and perhaps 3 others we shall meet in future papers on this site[13]  The pedigrees also give him a second wife, Angharad ferch Rhys Sais ap Ednyfed[14].  This lady of Whittington would be near his own age and we suspect both were widowed, middle-aged and the marriage was for companionship only.
 
        Many of the medieval pedigree manuscripts cite a Uchdryd ap Edwin as the father of Maredudd whose son, Ithel Gam, founded the family seated at Mostyn until an heiress carried those lands to Hywel ap Ieuan Fychan of the clan of Tudor Trevor.  But the Uchdryd in those citations was born c. 1085 and must have been a grandson of Edwin.  We shall discuss that family in another paper when our research is complete.
 
         Yet another man often called a son of Uchdryd ap Edwin was Philip ap Uchdryd.  The earliest man of that name was born c. 1120 and while his descendants are found in Cyfeiliog, the Uchdryd at the top of his pedigree occurred a full generation too late to be identified as the son of Edwin. While our research is yet ongoining, Philip may well have been a brother of the Maredudd ap Uchdryd mentioned in the preceeding paragraph.
 
         In considering the timeline for the floruit of Uchdryd, some might be misled by the notice found under the year 1118 in the Brut.  In preparing for a battle against Hywel ap Ithel of Rhos, the sons of Owain ap Edwin are reported as "And they gathered together their men, along with Uchdryd their uncle...".  Even if still living in 1118, Uchdryd would have been a man in his late 60's and well past his active warrior days.  We think the Welsh phrase "y gwyr y gyt ac Uchdryd" should be read as the assembling of "their men along with the men of Uchdryd". 
 
NOTES:
[1] A grandson of Edwin ap Einion of the Deheubarth royal family and no relationship to Uchdryd whom, we believe, was present as the leader of Cadwgan's war band
[2] ABT 2e
[3] ByT entry for 1088
[4] The traditional story is that Cadwgan gave his cousin Uchdryd the lands in Cyfeiliog, Meirionydd and Penllyn simply to insure his loyalty and friendship.  In that era, such grants were made only to reward military services. 
[5] 17th century pedigrees say Nest was a daughter of Llewelyn Aurdorchog and a sister of Ithel Felyn.  In fact, both those were children of Llewelyn Fychan ap Llewelyn Aurdorchog, the latter born c. 1005.  Nest shoud occur c. 1065/70
[6] Llewelyn Aurdorchog was the penteulu for Gruffudd ap Llewelyn and his son Ednowain Aurdorchog, we believe, was the penteulu for Bleddyn ap Cynfyn
[7] See our paper "Gruffudd ap Cynan - A New Prospective" elsewhere on this site for a discussion of the timeline suggested here. Cadwgan had married a daughter of the earlier Gruffudd ap Cynan (the first cousin of the father of this later Gruffudd ap Cynan) so the men were in-laws of a fashion
[8] This appointment led the medieval champions of Gruffudd ap Cynan to label Owain a "traitor".
[9] Dictionary of Welsh Biography, 1959, pp 683
[10] ByT entry for 1114
[11] Uchdryd may have turned 65 years old in 1116 at which time the few men who lived that long retired into a monastary so their sons could inheirit his lands.
[12] The grandfather of Rhael, wife of Llywarch ap Bran.  HLG 4b says she was "ferch Gronwy ap Owain ap Edwin" but she could not have been born earlier than c. 1130.  That Gronwy was killed in 1125. Our reasons for making her father Growny ap Owain ap Uchdryd ap Edwin are discussed in our paper on Llywarch ap Bran elsewhere on this site.
[13] These include a possibly illegitimate son called Maredudd; Madog Penllyn; and probably Uchdryd ap Uchdryd. 
[14] 1623 Visitation of Shropshire, pp 384; Harleian Ms 1971, pp 161