Guest-written Papers
Reference Abbreviations
Guidance Articles for Researchers
Single Family Analysis
Families of Mixed Origin
Family Pedigrees
Mis-identified Same-Named People in Wales
Battles and Historical Events
Ancient Welsh Territories
Welshmen in Llydaw, Brittany
The Men of the North
Legendary History Prior to 1st Century BC
Beli Mawr and Llyr Llediath in Welsh Pedigrees
Papers Related to Maxen Wledig
Bartrum's "Pedigrees of the Welsh Tribal Patriarchs"
Britain's Royal Roman Family
The Royal Family of Powys
2nd Powys Royal Dynasty
The Royal Family of Gwynedd
Men Descended from Tudwal Gloff
Royal Family of Gwent/ Glamorgan
Royal Family of Brycheiniog
15 Noble Tribes of Gwynedd
The 5 Plebian Tribes of Wales
Glast and the Glastening
Papers about Rhiryd Flaidd and Penllyn
The Men of Collwyn ap Tangno of Lleyn
Edwin of Tegeingl and his Family
Ednowain Bendew in Welsh pedigrees
Ithel of Bryn in Powys
Idnerth Benfras of Maesbrook
Tudor Trefor and his Family
Trahaearn ap Caradog of Arwystli
The Family of Trahaearn ap Caradog
Cadafael Ynfyd of Cydewain
Maredudd ap Owain, King of Deheubarth
Sandde Hardd of Mortyn
The Floruit of Einion ap Seisyllt
The 5 Dafydd Llwyds of Llanwrin Parish
Cowryd ap Cadfan of Dyffryn Clwyd
Osbwrn Wyddel of Cors Gedol
Bradwen of Llys Bradwen in Meirionydd
Who Was Sir Robert Pounderling?
Sir Aaron ap Rhys
Eidio Wyllt - What Was His Birthname?
Ifor Bach, Lord of Senghenydd
Ancestors and Children of the Lord Rhys
                                           By Darrell Wolcott
          We chose, for this genealogical exercise, a Bartrum chart titled "Blaen Ial" [1]  The chart begins with a man named Dafydd ap John ap Dafydd ap Ieuan ap Gruffudd ap Madog Fychan ap Rhys, whom Bartrum identifies as a man of the parish of Rhiwabon in Maelor, a commote in north Powys.  What has been charted is the pedigree of both the father and mother of this Dafydd.  At the top of the paternal pedigree is an unknown "Rhys", whom Bartrum dates to his "generation 8" or about 1270, plus or minus 15 years.  It extends down to John ap Dafydd ap Ieuan (the father of Dafydd), which Dafydd is dated by Bartrum to c. 1470.  At the top of the maternal pedigree is an unknown man named Cynwrig, who Bartrum dates to c. 1200.  It extends down to Angharad ferch Dafydd ap Madog ap Ieuan ap Madog Llwyd ap Hwfa ap Dafydd ap Cynwrig, which lady Bartrum dates c. 1430.  She was the wife of John and mother of Dafydd.


        Almost everything on Bartrum's chart is cited in Pen. 128, 156b.  The exceptions are the two siblings which have been added to the chart from other sources.  Mali ferch Madog Llwyd, and her husband, are cited in Pen. 128, 906a, while Gwen ferch Dafydd, and her husband, are cited in Pen. 176, 338.  Both of these Peniarth manuscripts are available online at the National Library of Wales website.  They are not an easy "read" since they were hand-written in cursive in the mid-16th century by men whose handwriting is not text-book neat.  Apparently, the standard cursive shape of letters has changed more than a bit in the 450 years which have since passed. 
         As we begin our analysis, we do not know the earlier ancestry of either family, and it is apparent that Bartrum never did learn this during his years of work on Welsh family pedigrees. Accepting Bartrum's dating as little more than a rough guess, our first task will be to chart all 5 spouses in the hope that we encounter some familiar families where we have already dated their members during previous research projects.

            1.  Mali ferch Madog Llwyd ap Hwfa is cited as the consort (mother of his son) of Adda Llwyd ap Adda ap Madog ap Madog ap Llewelyn ap Madog Sutton ap Elidyr ap Rhys Sais II.  We immediately recognize this as a family descended from Tudor Trefor, and specifically from Rhys Sais II.  We would chart that marriage as:
                 1124  Rhys Sais II  [2]
                    1152  Elidyr
              1182  Madog Sutton
                  1215  Llewelyn                      Cynwrig  1215
                                 l                                  l
                   1245  Madog                         Dafydd  1250
                                 l                                  l
                   1280  Madog                           Hwfa  1285
                                 l                                  l
                     1310  Adda                     Madog Llwyd  1315
                                 l                       ______l_________
                                 l                       l                           l
               1340  Adda Llwyd======Mali  1350           Ieuan  1345
            These estimated birth dates are consistent with Bartrum's generational dating system, so we can quickly move on to the next test point.

            2.  Madog ap Ieuan ap Madog Llwyd (a nephew of Mali above) is cited as the husband of Angharad ferch Ieuan ap Madog Llwyd ap Gruffudd ap Iorwerth Foel ap Iorwerth Fychan ap Iorwerth Hen ap Owain ap Bleddyn ap Tudor.  We again recognize her family, but our prior work has acquainted us with two cousin lines, in a family descended from Tudor Trefor, which duplicated that 9-name string of men, and where each of the same-named men were born two generations apart.  So this marriage match, alone, is not going to fix a birth date for either Angharad or her husband.
                                       1025  Rhys Sais I 
                                         1055  Tudor  [3]
                                        1085  Bleddyn
                      l                                       l                           l
        1123  Owain                      1120  Tudor          1124  Rhys Sais II
                      l                                       l
   1153  Iorwerth Hen                1150  Bleddyn
                      l                                       l
  1190  Iorwerth Fychan              1180  Owain
                      l                                       l
   1225  Iorwerth Foel              1210  Iorwerth Hen
                      l                                       l
       1265  Gruffudd              1240  Iorwerth Fychan     Cynwrig  1215
                      l                                       l                        l
    1300  Madog Llwyd            1270  Iorwerth Foel         Dafydd  1250
                      l                                       l                        l
         1330  Ieuan                    1300  Gruffudd              Hwfa 1285
                      l                                       l                        l
              Angharad??            1330  Madog Llwyd     Madog Llwyd 1315
                                                              l                        l
                                                 1365  Ieuan                Ieuan  1345
                                                              l                        l
                                                      Angharad??=====Madog  1380 
NOTE:  While the names in the two cousin lines remain two generations apart as they descend downward to Angharad, the family on the right appears to consist mainly of 1st-born sons, while the men in the first column include several later-born sons.  Their age gaps widen as time goes forward, so that after 7 generations, the same-named men are only 1 generation apart in birth dates.
           Depending on which of these families includes Angharad, she could be dated to either c. 1360-1370 or c. 1395-1405.  We conclude that Madog could  have married the Angharad in the right-hand column.  We also conclude that if he DID marry the Angharad in the first-column, he could not be dated as late as c. 1380.  We move on, again cursing the Welsh naming tradition responsible for our frustration.

             3.  Ieuan ap Gruffudd ap Madog Fychan is cited as the husband of Lleuci ferch Ieuan ap Iorwerth Fychan ap Iorwerth ap Awr ap Ieuaf ap Llywarch ap Ieuaf ap Nynnio ap Cynwrig ap Rhiwallon, descended from Tudor Trefor.  Her family is well-known and we have dated it as follows:
                         1065  Cynwrig ap Rhiwallon  [4]
                             1095  Rhiwallon
                             1125  Cynwrig
                             1160  Nynnio
                               1195  Ieuaf
                                1235  Awr
                              1270  Iorwerth                    Rhys  1280
                                            l                              l
                       1305  Iorwerth Fychan          Madog Fychan  1310
                                           l                               l
                              1335  Ieuan                     Gruffudd  1340
                                           l                               l
                              1370  Lleuci==========Ieuan  1370
          These dates are consistent with Bartrum's dating of the Ial family.  We take this as confirmation of our dating tests for the maternal side of the overall pedigree.
            4.  Dafydd ap Ieuan ap Gruffudd is cited as the husband of Lowri ferch Twna ap Ieuan ap Dafydd Fychan ap Iorwerth ap Dafydd ap Cowryd ap Cadfan.  While her citation in Pen. 128, 156b turns corrupt after Dafydd Fychan, Bartrum has noted that fact and led us to the correct ancestry cited in several sources, including Pen. 131, 88; Pen. 129, 42; Pen. 128, 282a; and Pen. 176, 118.  These pedigrees, however, are 2 generations too short to connect back to Cowryd ap Cadfan, and Bartrum's chart for that man shows 2 omitted generations.  We suggest these were a consecutive pair of the names "Iorwerth ap Dafydd", and we chart this marriage as:
                      1140  Cadfan  [5]
                      1175  Cowryd
                      1205  Dafydd
                     1240  Iorwerth
                      1270  Dafydd
                    1305  Iorwerth                         Rhys  1280
                                    l                                 l
                 1335  Dafydd Fychan            Madog Fychan  1310
                                    l                                 l
                       1365  Ieuan                       Gruffudd  1340
                                    l                                 l
                        1395  Twna                         Ieuan  1370
                                    l                                 l
                       1420  Lowri===========Dafydd  1405
           Again, these dates are consistent with both Bartrum's dating and with our current tests, so our confidence in them is growing.
             5.  Gwen ferch Dafydd ap Ieuan ap Gruffudd is cited as the consort (mother of his son) of Dafydd ap Hywel Fychan ap Hywel ap Maredudd ap Gruffudd ap Tudor ap Madog ap Einion ap Madog ap Gwallog ap Eginyr ap Lles ap Idnerth Benfras.  The citation then corruptly calls this Idnerth Benfras "ap Uchdryd ap Edwin of Tegeingl". That Uchdryd DID have a son named Idnerth Benfras, but that man had no son named Lles.  This pedigree speaks of a much earlier man, the Idnerth Benfras of Maesbrook, whom we identify as a base son of Gwrydr Hir and half-brother of Gwaithfoed of Tegeingl.  We chart this marriage as:
                         960  Idnerth Benfras  [6]
                               995  Lles
                            1025  Eginyr
                            1055  Urien**
                            1085  Eginyr**
                           1120  Gwallog
                            1150  Madog
                           1180  Einion
                            1215  Madog
                            1250  Tudor
                          1280  Gruffudd
                         1310  Maredudd                       Gruffudd  1340
                                         l                                    l
                            1340  Hywel                            Ieuan  1370
                                         l                                    l
                     1375  Hywel Fychan                       Dafydd  1405
                                         l                        _______l_________
                                         l                        l                             l
                          1415  Dafydd=======Gwen 1430      1435 John
   **These names are omitted in the citation.  When the author reached the name "Eginyr", he skipped directly to "Eginyr ap Lles", a common error found in medieval Welsh pedigrees.
          Our dating of the folks found on the "Blaen Ial" chart has been confirmed in 4 of 5 tests, and the other result was "maybe" which we will now promote to "probably".  But before leaving the subject of dating, we must take note of another pedigree on the same page of Peniarth Ms 128 (156b) which DOES NOT appear on Bartrum's chart.
We quote:
         "Dafydd Llwyd ap Ieuan Fychan ap Ieuan ap Madog ap Ieuan.  Mam Ieuan Fychan oedd Angharad vz Hwfa ap Dafydd ap Cynwrig of Stansty Ucha.  Mam Angharad oedd Erddylad vz Gruffudd Fychan ap Gruffudd ap Ieuan of Maeslewis, Overton"
         Bartrum DOES include this Angharad in his charts, but she appears only on his chart "Ednowain Bendew 8" as the wife of a man descended from Gwyn ap Ednowain Bendew.  There, she is treated as "ancestry unknown" and not referenced to a chart of her birth family.  Bartrum has decided that her father "Hwfa ap Dafydd ap Cynwrig" is not the same man shown on the "Blaen Ial" chart....even though both sets of men are mentioned on the same page of Peniarth Ms 128.
          His reason becomes clear when we notice that a daughter of the Hwfa on the "Blaen Ial" chart would occur in Bartrum's "generation 9", while the husband cited for her is dated by Bartrum as "generation 12".
         It would require a complete dating analysis of the family shown on the "Ednowain Bendew 8" chart to resolve the issue, a task we shall save for a later paper to explore. [7] For now, we offer only our belief that Angharad was born c. 1315 and WAS a sister of Madog Llwyd ap Hwfa, and belongs on the "Blaen Ial" chart with her birth family. 
          We shall begin this part of our investigation with the paternal pedigree of the Ial family.  While "Blaen Ial" was the name of a manor (residence of only one nuclear family), "Bryneglwys" was a parish in the commote of Ial.  In 1315, a survey of land ownership, and its annual value for taxation, was taken for the "Lordship of Yale and Bromfield". [8]
          A group of 67 men, 31 of which are identified by name, were found to jointly own a large swath of Ial, which is described as "the whole ville of Llys-y-cil, the whole of Banhadlen, the whole of Bodanwydog, half of Bryn Eglwys, half of Cymau and the whole of Coedrug."  These lands extend the length of Ial (roughly 6 miles) from north to south, along its western border.  It was still held as a "gwely" under ancient Welsh laws, by a tribe of men descended from a common ancestor.  We can quickly identify that ancestor as Hwfa ap Ithel Felyn, a man born c. 1095 as the eldest son of the eldest son, and holder of the honor "Lord of Ial" which had first been bestowed on Llewelyn Aurdorchog by King Gruffudd ap Llewelyn of Powys.
           While each male member of the "tribe" was allotted specific lands on which he could build his residence and outbuildings, plant a vegetable garden, grow grains for milling into flour, and pasture his livestock, his only "ownership" was an undivided interest in all the land owned by his tribe. That allocation, however, was deemed hereditary.  This system allowed for a vast amount of "common" tribal land where any member could hunt game or enjoy other outdoor activities.  Hwfa ap Ithel Felyn had not only such a personal allocation of land, but the right to spend as much of his time as he wished in the manor reserved for the Lord of the commote.  His personal manor had been in the ville of Llys-y-cil, which translates roughly as "the court of refuge".  We do not know whether or not the Lord's manor was also in that ville.
          Among the men named as co-holders of the "gwely" in 1315, was Gronwy ap Cynwrig, whose ancestry we chart as:
                           1005  Llewelyn Aurdorchog, Lord of Ial  [9]
                             1035  Llewelyn Fychan, Lord of Ial
                               1065  Ithel Felyn, Lord of Ial
                                   1095  Hwfa, Lord of Ial
                     l                                                  l
   1125  Ithel y wyrion, Lord of Ial       1130  Caswallon 
                                                        1160  Iorwerth, lv 1202  [10]   
                                                        1190  Caswallon
                                                         1220  Iorwerth
                                                        1250  Cynwrig, ob <1315 [11]
                                               l                                       l
                                1285  Gronwy, lv 1315                  Rhys  1280
                                                                               obit <1315 [12]
           The pedigree of Gronwy ap Cynwrig is cited in Pen. 131, 52; Pen. 127, 136; and Pen. 129, 84, each of which omits one pair of "Iorwerth ap Caswallon".  Bartrum's chart for the family shows two omitted generations in the link from Hwfa down to Cynwrig. Our making Rhys (from the "Blaen Ial" chart) a brother of this Gronwy is not found in any citations, but represents where we believe he fits in the family pedigree.  We considered, and rejected, various other possible ancestries for him.
              We now turn to probable ancestries for the Maelor family on the "Blaen Ial" chart.  We reviewed the pedigrees of families in the general area, including those of Tudor Trefor, Edwin and Ednowain Bendew of Tegeingl and even other Ial families. We looked for families that made similar male name choices as well as compatible birth dates.  Our choice is charted below:
                                        1020  Edwin of Tegeingl
                                        1055  Uchdryd
                                  1085  Uchdryd Cyfeiliog
                                       1120  Maredudd
                                        1150  Gronwy
                                    1180  Hen Cynwrig Sais
                        l                                                   l
         1210  Dafydd                                 1215  Cynwrig (Sais?)
                                                             1250  Dafydd
                                                              1285  Hwfa       
          The pedigree of Dafydd ap Hen Cynwrig Sals is cited in Pen. 129, 115; Pen. 127, 130; and Pen. 128, 603a.  We suggest the Cynwrig at the top of the maternal pedigree on the chart "Blaen Ial" was another son of Hen Cynwrig Sais.  We believe the reason that antiquarians called him "Hen" was to distinguish him from a later "Dafydd ap Cynwrig" in this family line.  Bartrum charts this family on page "Edwin 10" and shows NO men at all named Cynwrig which follow Hen Cynwrig Sais.  Our choice remedies that omission by attaching a second Dafydd ap Cynwrig (whether or not also called "Sais") to the family. 

[1] Peter C. Bartrum "Welsh Genealogies AD300-1400", vol 1
[2] The dating of this man is shown in our paper at the link below:
[3] An analysis of the dating of the same-named families who descended from Tudor Trefor can be seen at the link below:
[4] The dating in this family can be found in the paper at the link below:
[5] See our paper on Cowryd ap Cadfan at the link below:
[6] See our paper on Idnerth Benfras at the link below:
[7] See the subsequent paper "Gwyn ap Ednowain Bendew" at the link below:
[8] T.P. Ellis, "The First Extent of Yale and Bromfield, AD 1315", page 79
[9] This man is #9 in our full pedigree of Cynddelw Gam.  His descendants can be traced down to Gronwy ap Cynwrig ap Iorwerth at #130, at the link below:
The pedigree has now been emended to make Rhys a brother of this Gronwy
[10] A 1202 land grant by King Madog ap Gruffudd Maelor of Powys to the monks at Valle Crucis, was witnessed by this Iorwerth ap Caswallon, per History of Powys Fadog, vol 1, page 159/160
[11] Had he still been alive in 1315, he would have been named as a joint holder of the gwely described, not his son.
[12] As the eldest brother, he would have been named in the 1315 Extent had he still been alive