Legendary History Prior to 1st Century BC
Beli Mawr and Llyr Llediath in Welsh Pedigrees
The Bartrum "Welsh Genealogies"
Bartrum's "Pedigrees of the Welsh Tribal Patriarchs"
A study in charting medieval citations
The Evolution of the "Padriarc Brenin" Pedigree
Generational Gaps and the Welsh Laws
Minimum Age for Welsh Kingship in the Eleventh Century
The Lands of the Silures
Catel Durnluc aka Cadell Ddyrnllwg
Ancient Powys
The Royal Family of Powys
The Royal Family of Gwynedd
The 5 Plebian Tribes of Wales
Maxen Wledig of Welsh Legend
Maxen Wledig and the Welsh Genealogies
Anwn Dynod ap Maxen Wledig
Constans I and his 343 Visit to Britain
Glast and the Glastening
Composite Lives of St Beuno
Rethinking the Gwent Pedigrees
The Father of Tewdrig of Gwent
Another Look at Teithfallt of Gwent
Ynyr Gwent and Caradog Freich Fras
Llowarch ap Bran, Lord of Menai
Rulers of Brycheiniog - The Unanswered Questions
Lluan ferch Brychan
The Herbert Family Pedigree
Edwin of Tegeingl and his Family
Angharad, Heiress of Mostyn
Ithel of Bryn in Powys
Idnerth Benfras of Maesbrook
Henry, the Forgotten Son of Cadwgan ap Bleddyn
The Muddled Pedigree of Sir John Wynn of Gwydir
The Mysterious Peverel Family
The Clan of Tudor Trevor
The Other "Sir Roger of Powys"
Ancestry of Ieuaf ap Adda ap Awr of Trevor
The Retaking of Northeast Wales
Hedd Molwynog or Hedd ap Alunog of Llanfair Talhearn
"Meuter Fawr" son of Hedd ap Alunog
The Medieval "redating" of Braint Hir
Aaron Paen ap Y Paen Hen
Welsh Claims to Ceri after 1179
The Battle of Mynydd Carn
Trahaearn ap Caradog of Arwystli
Cadafael Ynfyd of Cydewain
Maredudd ap Robert, Lord of Cedewain
Cadwgan of Nannau
Maredudd ap Owain, King of Deheubarth
What Really Happened in Deheubarth in 1022?
Two Families headed by a Rhydderch ap Iestyn
The Era of Llewelyn ap Seisyll
Cynfyn ap Gwerystan, the Interim King
The Consorts and Children of Gruffudd ap Llewelyn
The 1039 Battle at Rhyd y Groes
The First Wife of Bleddyn ap Cynfyn
Hywel ap Gronwy of Deheubarth
The Brief Life of Gruffudd ap Maredudd
Owain Brogyntyn and his Family
The Other Gwenwynwyn
Eunydd son of Gwenllian
Sandde Hardd of Mortyn
The Floruit of Einion ap Seisyllt
The Enigmatic Elystan Glodrydd
The Unofficial "History" of Elystan of Powys
Cowryd ap Cadfan of Dyffryn Clwyd
Owain ap Cadwgan and Nest ferch Rhys - An Historic Fiction?
The "sons" of Owain ap Cadwgan ap Bleddyn
The Betrayal by Meirion Goch Revisited
Gwyn Ddistain, seneschal for Llewelyn Fawr
The Men of Lleyn - How They Got There
Trahaearn Goch of Lleyn
Einion vs Iestyn ap Gwrgan - The Conquest of Glamorgan
The Royal Family of Glamorgan
Dafydd Goch ap Dafydd - His Real Ancestry
Thomas ap Rhodri - Father of Owain "Lawgoch"
The "Malpas" Family in Cheshire
Einion ap Celynin of Llwydiarth
Marchweithian, Lord of Is Aled, Rhufoniog
Osbwrn Wyddel of Cors Gedol
Bradwen of Llys Bradwen in Meirionydd
Ednowain ap Bradwen
Sorting out the Gwaithfoeds
Three Men called Iorwerth Goch "ap Maredudd"
The Caradog of Gwynedd With 3 Fathers
Who Was Sir Robert Pounderling?
Eidio Wyllt - What Was His Birthname?
The Legendary Kingdom of Seisyllwg
The Royal Family of Ceredigion
Llewelyn ap Hoedliw, Lord of Is Cerdin
The Ancestry of Owain Glyndwr
Welsh Ancestry of the Tudor Dynasty
Gruffudd ap Rhys, the Homeless Prince
The Children of Lord Rhys
Maredudd Gethin ap Lord Rhys
The 'Next Heir' of Morgan of Caerleon
Pedigree of the ancient Lords of Ial
The Shropshire Walcot Family
Pedigree of "Ednowain Bendew II"
Pedigree of Cynddelw Gam
         Bartrum offers 5 pedigrees for this man:
        (1)  Llywarch howlbwrch ap Pill ap Kynan ap Einion ap Gwrydr goch ap Helic ap Glannoc
      (2)  Llywarch howlbrwch ap Gwrydr goch ap Rawt ap Gwgawn ap Kyriadawc ap Meiriawn ap Aeddan ap Maic ap Gwaithvoet ap Gwgon gleddyfrudd (hwnw oedd vn or pedwar porthor ar Berllan Bangor Vawr yMaelor) ap Kriadoc vreichvras
       (3)  Llywarch olbwrch ap Gwrydr goch ap Helic ap Glanoc ap Gwaith[v]oed ap Gwgon gleddyddrvdd ap Kyriadoc vreichvyras
       (4)  Llowarch holbwch a fv yn amser Gruffudd ap Llywelyn ap Seyssyllt ac oedd wr pena o saimbyr y twyssoc hwnw, a thressorer iddo, a Thanglwst oedd i wraig a chares i Gruffudd ap Kynan
      (5)  Llowarch holbwrch....ai wraic oedd Tangwystl.  Kares oedd honno i Ruffydd ap Kynan.  Modryb oedd Tangwystl vchod i Gruffydd ap Kynan, chwaer i dad vnvam vndad
         In his notes to these pedigree, Bartrum says:
         "born c. 1020? was ancestor of a tribe in Denbichshire.  He is presumably the Llywarch Olbwch mentioned in Hanes Gruffudd ap Cynan as chief chamberlain and treasurer to Gruffudd ap Llywelyn ap Seisyll (d. 1063).  His wife, Tangwystl, described as a prophetess, greeted Gruffudd ap Cynan, her relation, on his arrival in Wales from Ireland in 1075. (Ed. Arthur Jones, pp 113-5).  Llywarch Goch, of this tribe, appears to have been born c. 1150.  His daughter, Tangwystl, was the mistress of Llywelyn ap Iorwerth and mother of Gruffudd ap Llywelyn (b. c. 1195).  Other descendants agree with this date, but most genealogists make Llywarch Goch the son of Llywarch Howlbwrch.  This would lead one to suppose that there were two persons named Llywarch Howlbwrch.  However, a few authorities give 'Llywarch Goch ap Iorwerth ap Cynan ap Llywarch Howlbwrch'.  One more intervening generation would have been preferrable, but this version is possible."
          "The names Kryiadawc ap Meiriawn and Aeddan ap Maic appear to have been drawn from 'Gwehelyth Rhos'.  See ABT 25"
        This is the most corrupt of the five pedigrees offered.  Llywarch Hwlbwrch did have a great-grandson named Pyll ap Cynan[1], but there was no Einion within the first 6 generations.  Delete those three names and you correctly arrive at "Llywarch Hwlbwrch ap Gwrydr Goch ap Heilig ap Glannog".  Despite Bartrum's question-mark, Llywarch Hwlbwrch was born c. 1020.
         Another conglomeration of correct and incorrect names, this version inserts, out of sequence, some early ancestors of Llywarch Hwlbwrch.  Caradog ap Meirion and Aeddan (sic) ap Meig can be found in the ancestry of Heilig ap Glannog, but the latter as Cyngen ap Meig.  The line which Bartrum would delete says, speaking of Gwgan Gleddyfrudd, "that one was one of the four gates at the orchard of Bangor Fawr in Maelor".  The reference is to Triad #40 where a Gwgan Red Sword is called one of the three gate-keepers at the battle of Bangor orchard[2].  Supposedly this was the 613 battle of Chester and could not have been the c. 850 Gwgan in the pedigree of Llywarch Hwlbwrch.
         This is the correct pedigree of Llywarch Hwlbwrch.  The Caradog Freich Fras[3] with which it ends was probably the son of Hywel ap Caradog ap Meirion, the man who took Anglesey from an elderly Cynan Tindaethwy in 816 only to be expelled by Merfyn Frych.
         Here, we are told that Llywarch Hwlbwrch lived in the time of Gruffudd ap Llewelyn ap Seisyll, and served in the royal court of that prince as treasurer.  And that his wife was Tangwystl, a seeress who was kin to Gruffudd ap Cynan.  The lady would have been born c. 1035; his service at the court of Gruffudd ap Llewelyn would have been after 1039.
         This pedigree adds that Tangwystl was the aunt of Gruffudd ap Cynan, the sister of his father by the same mother and father.  Other sources identify her as a daughter of Iago ap Idwal, which makes her the aunt of the Gruffudd ap Cynan born c. 1070 who died in 1137.  The tale contained in 'Hanes Gruffudd ap Cynan' says she met a Gruffudd ap Cynan as he came from Ireland to Wales in 1075.  This would have been Gruffudd nephew of Iago[4], the first cousin of Tangwystl:
                               975  Idwal
                       l                                              l
            1005  Iago                               1014  Cynan 
               _____l________                                 l
               l                     l                                l
  1035  Cynan   1035 Tangwystl (a)        1041  Gruffudd (b)
 1070  Gruffudd (c)
           (a) Wife of Llywarch Hwlbwrch ap Gwrydr Goch, aunt of Gruffudd whose obit is recorded in 1137
             (b)  The Gruffudd ap Cynan who was born in Ireland where his father fled after Gruffudd ap Llewelyn killed his uncle Iago in 1039.  He attempted to retake the kingship of Gwynedd in 1075 and again in 1081 but thereafter disappeared from history. Tangwystl was his first-cousin
             (c)  The Gruffudd ap Cynan who became Lord of Anglesey in 1099 and later King of Gwynedd; he died in 1137.  Tangwystl was his aunt.
          Llywarch Hwlbwrch (the nickname was probably his manor in Rhos) was the Lord of Rhos, whose father had sent him at age 14, in accordance with Welsh law, to the court of interim King Cynfyn ap Gwerystan.  There, he lived and trained with future king Gruffudd ap Llewelyn who included Llywarch when assembling his cabinet of chief advisors. 
          We have previously suggested that Llywarch had a younger brother named Cadwgan who was ancestor to the Cadwgan ap Bleddyn who was later granted lands in Ardudwy and became known as Cadwgan of Nannau[5].
          Llywarch Hwlbwrch did have a son named Llywarch Goch, but it was a later man of that name who Bartrum mentions as having a daughter who was a mistress of Llewelyn Fawr.  That lady, born c. 1180, was a daughter of Llywarch Goch ap Iorwerth ap Cynan ap Llywarch Goch ap Llywarch Hwlbwrch.  The extra generation which Bartrum would have preferred is included in our construction.  It was the c. 1055 Llywarch Goch whose father was named Llywarch Hwlbwrch, not his same-named descendant.

[1] Pen. 127, 52; Pen. 128, 124 cite a "Pyll ap Cynan" in this family; he would have been born c. 1120
[2] Also see the paper "In Search of Gwgan Gleddyfrudd" elsewhere on this site
[3] Refer to the paper "Ynyr Gwent and Caradog Freich Fras" elsewhere on this site for a discussion of a Gwynedd man called Caradog Freich Fras who was not the earlier man of Gwent and son of Llyn Merini
[4] See the papers "History of Gruffudd ap Cynan - A New Perspective" and "The Unofficial History of Gruffudd nephew of Iago" elsewhere on this site
[5] Refer to the paper "Cadwgan of Nannau" elsewhere on this site